: Nile cabbage, tropical duckweed, water cabbage, water lettuce, water lily
: laitue d'eau, pistie
: flor de tetumo, lechuga de agua, lechuguilla, lechuguita de agua, repollito de agua, repollo de sapo, verdolago de agua
, floating, rosette-forming stemless stoloniferous
, with sessile, obovate or obcuneate glaucous (water-shedding)
small, the limb ovate, enclosing one gynoecium; anthers 4, sessile, connate, in a spathe.
membranous, few-seeded, the
obovoid-oblong" (Stone, 1970).
"[A] free-floating but soon stoloniferous, small, aquatic, perennial plant, with a tuft of long, very fibrous roots beneath, primary
2 to 7 mm in diameter and 1 m long, very fine, plumosely spreading root hairs;
obovate-cuneat, erect, few to many, 2.5 to 15 cm long, the basal part somewhat velvety-hairy, becoming thickened by the production of very porous tissue except when stranded on banks;
bisexual; bracts (spathes) subtending flowers; spathes white, densely dotted when dry, finely hairy (pilose) outside, smooth inside, 7 to 12 mm long, 5 mm wide, short-penduncled in the center of the rosette of leaves; spadix bearing the individual flowers is shorter than the spathe, flowering parts minute; fruit berrylike (baccate), rupturing irregularly,
usually numerous, oblong, tapering toward the base, the apex appearing as if cut off at the end, about 2 mm long. The light yellow-green leaves in the form of a rosette (cabbage-like) which are velvety-hairy and prominently veined below are characteristic of this species" (Holm
., 1977; p. 379).
"The free-floating plants are found in reservoirs, ponds, and marshes along the edges of large tropical lakes where they are able to thrive amidst the offshore vegetation and debris; in slow-moving or stagnant waters; and in old wells" (Holm
., 1977; p. 379). "It is a common floating plant in dams, lagoons, lakes and also grows in wetland rice. It is also found floating on stagnant water and sometimes rooting on muddy banks. Like Water hyacinth this plant also blocks irrigation canals and provides a breeding ground for mosquitoes and choking fishery waters" (Ecoport). In Hawaii, "occurs in open ditches, ponds, and other watercourses, generally at low elevations" (Wagner
., 1999; p. 1359). In New Caledonia, "pante aquatique cultivée dans des bassins artificiels et parfois spontanée" (MacKee, 1994; p. 18).
"This aquatic plant usually propagates by means of stolons which break easily from the plant accounts. Reproduction also takes place by seeds" (Ecoport).
Unknown, now pan-tropical. A common aquatic weed in hot climatic countries.
Cited as invasive
Cited as cultivated
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
A Class A (eradicate) noxious weed in New Zealand.
Planting of this species in the State of Florida (U.S.) is prohibited by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (Hunsberger, 2001).
"The curculionid weevil
], which was collected in South America substantially reduced growth of
in Australia and Zimbabwe. This is the most sustainable method to control this free floating weed" (GPPIS).
"The host specific South American weevil,
, has been established readily in six countries and, in all, has produced substantial to excellent control. The moth,
, which attacks
spp., has been established in Australia but its impact has not been evaluated. In Thailand, classical biological control has not been attempted, but mass rearing and release of the native noctuid moth
has replaced the use of herbicides. The prospects are excellent for classical biological control of
in countries where it is still regarded as an important weed." (Waterhouse, 1994; pp. 196-207).
Waterhouse (1994, pp. 199-207) lists natural enemies and summarizes attempts at biological control.
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete noxious weed list for that location, or click here for a composite list of all
Federal and State Noxious Weeds
lechuguita de qgua
This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of
Weeds of the U.S.
Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 963. 1753.
Pistia spathulata Michaux
Roots to 50 cm, with short branches. Leaves light green to grayish green, 2--15(--20) cm, spongy, pubescence dense, white; major veins 5--13(--15), nearly parallel, abaxially prominent. Inflorescences: spathe white to pale green, convolute basally, slightly constricted above middle, spreading apically, pwhite to pale green, pubescent outside, glabrous inside; spadix adnate to spathe more than 1/2 its length, shorter than spathe; axis naked at base of staminate part and sometimes extending beyond staminate flowers. Flowers: staminate flowers (2--)6--8, in single whorl around central stalk, stamens 2, connate; pistillate flower solitary; ovariesy 1-locular, 4--5 mm; ovules 4--15(--20), orthotropous; styles ca. 3 mm; stigmas obtuse, with small hairs. ; staminate flowers (2--)6--8, in single whorl around central stalk; stamens 2, connate. Fruits with thin pericarp. Seeds light brown, cylindric, 2 ´ 1 mm. 2n = 28 (India, Borneo).
Flowering mainly late summer--early winter (although; plants have been collected in flower in almost all months). Slow-moving streams, canals, drainage ditches, ponds, lakes, and springs; 0--10 m; Fla., La., Tex.; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America; Asia; Africa; Pacific Islands; Australia.
Pistia stratiotes has been collected north and west of its U.S. range in Arizona, California, Georgia, Missouri, New Jersey, Ohio, and South Carolina. These are probably populations that do not persist. Although P. stratiotes is often reported as occurring from Florida to Texas, I saw no verifying herbarium specimens from Alabama or Mississippi, nor were any populations located during my fieldwork in those states.
Other References Arditti, J. and E. Rodriguez. 1982. Dieffenbachia: Uses, abuses and toxic constituents: A review. J. Ethnopharmacol. 5: 293--302. Barrett, O. W. and O. F. Cook. 1910. Promising root crops for the South. U.S.D.A. Bur. Pl. Industr. Bull. 164: 1--43. Bartram, W. 1791. Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges, or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws.... Philadelphia. Bierzychudek, P. 1982. The demography of Jack-in-the-pulpit, a forest perennial that changes sex. Ecol. Monogr. 52: 335--351. Blackwell, W. H. and K. P. Blackwell. 1974. The taxonomy of Peltandra (Araceae). J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 90: 137--140. Blair, A. 1975. Karyotypes of five plant species with disjunct distributions in Virginia and the Carolinas. Amer. J. Bot. 62: 833--837. Boivin, B. 1967--1979. Flora of the prairie provinces. Part I (--IV). Phytologia 15--18, 22--23, 42--43; passim. [Reprinted as Provancheria 2--5 with auxiliary pagination.] Bowden, W. M. 1940. Diploidy, polyploidy, and winter hardiness relationships in the flowering plants. Amer. J. Bot. 27: 357--370. Bruner, M. C. 1982. Water-lettuce, Pistia stratiotes L. Aquatics 4(3): 4--5. Camazine, S. and K. J. Niklas. 1984. Aerobiology of Symplocarpus foetidus: Interactions between spathe and spadix. Amer. J. Bot. 71: 843--850. Case, F. W. , Jr. 1992. Plants for the bog garden. Bull. of the Amer. Rock Garden Soc. 50: 129--144. Clay, K. 1993. Size-dependent gender change in green dragon (Arisaema dracontium; Araceae). Amer. J. Bot. 80: 769--777. Coates, D. J., D. E. Yen, and P. M. Gaffey. 1988. Chromosome variation in taro, Colocasia esculenta: Implications for origin in the Pacific. Cytologia 53: 551--560. Croat, T. B. 1994. The use of the New World Araceae as drug plants. J. Jap. Bot. 69: 185--203. Dorn, R. D. 1977. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Wyoming. 2 vols. New York. Dray, F. A. Jr. and T. D. Center. 1989. Seed production by Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) in the United States. Aquatic Bot. 33: 155--160. Duncan, W. H. and J. T. Kartesz. 1981. Vascular Flora of Georgia: An Annotated Checklist. Athens, Ga. Eastwood, A. 1900. Some plants of Mendocino County new to the flora of California. Zoëe 5: 58--60. Fernald, M. L., and A. C. Kinsey, and (revised by R. C. Rollins). 1958. Edible Wild Plants of Eastern North America, revised ed. New York. Greenwell, A. B. 1947. Taro---with special reference to its culture and uses in Hawaii. Econ. Bot. 1: 276--289. Grayum, M. H. 1987. A summary of the evidence and arguments supporting the removal of Acorus from the Araceae. Taxon 36: 723--729. Harley, K. L., R. C. Kassulke, D. P. Sands, and M. D. Day. 1990. Biological control of water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) by Neohydronomus affinis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Entomophaga 35: 363--374. Henkel, A. 1907. American root drugs. U.S.D.A. Bur. Pl. Industr. Bull. 107: 1--80. Huttleston, D. G. 1949. The three subspecies of Arisaema triphyllum. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 76: 407--413. Huttleston, D. G. 1981. The four subspecies of Arisaema triphyllum. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 108: 479--481. Judd, W. W. 1961. Insects and other invertebrates associated with flowering skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Nutt., at Fanshawe Lake, Ontario. Canad. Entomol. 93: 241--249. Kalm, P. 1770--1771. Travels into North America.... 3 vols. Warrington and London. Kartesz, J. T. and K. N. Gandhi. 1992. Nomenclatural notes for the North American flora, X. Phytologia 72: 80--92. Kinoshita, E. 1986. Size-sex relationship and sexual dimorphism in Japanese Arisaema (Araceae). Ecol. Res. (Tokyo) 1: 157--171. Knutson, R. M. 1972. Temperature measurements of the spadix of Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Nutt. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 88: 251--254. Lammers, T. G. and A. G. van der Valk. 1979. A checklist of the aquatic and wetland vascular plants of Iowa: II. Monocotyledons, plus a summary of the geographic and habitat distribution of all aquatic and wetland species in Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 85: 121--163. Lampe, K. F. and M. A. McCann. 1985. AMA Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants. Chicago, Illinois. Löve, Á. and S. Kawano. 1961. A note on amphi-pacific Lysichitum. J. Jap. Bot. 36: 359--361. Löve, Á. and J. C. Ritchie. 1966. Chromosome numbers from central northern Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 44: 429--439. Marchant, C. J. 1971. Chromosome variation in Araceae: 2. Richardieae to Colocasieae. Kew Bull. 25: 47--56. Marchant, C. J. 1973. Chromosome variation in Araceae: 5. Acoreae to Lasieae. Kew Bull. 28: 199--210. Mason, H. L. 1957. A Flora of the Marshes of California. Berkeley, California. Matuda, E. 1954. Las Araceas mexicanas. Anales Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. México 32: 147--155. Moerman, D. E. 1986. Medicinal Plants of Native America. 2 vols. Ann Arbor. [Univ. of Michigan, Mus. of Anthropol. Techn. Reports. 19:.] 1--910 (Research Reports in Ethnobotany, Contrib. 2). Mulligan, G. A. and D. B. Munro. 1990. Poisonous Plants of Canada. Ottawa, Canada. O'Hair, S. K. and M. P. Asokan. 1986. Edible aroids: Botany and horticulture. Hort. Rev. 8: 43--99. Perkins, K. D. and W. W. Payne. 1978. Guide to the Poisonous and Irritant Plants of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. Petersen, G. 1989. Cytology and systematics of Araceae. Nordic J. Bot. 9: 119--166. Ray, T. S. 1988. Survey of shoot organization in the Araceae. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 56--84. Sanders, L. L. and C. J. Burk. 1992. A naturally-occurring population of putative Arisaema triphyllum subsp. stewardsonii × A. dracontium hybrids in Massachusetts. Rhodora 94: 340--347. Scoggan, H. J. 1957. Flora of Manitoba. Bull. Natl. Mus. Canada 140: 1--619. Small, J. A. 1959. Skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 86: 413--416. Taylor, R. L. and G. A. Mulligan. 1968. Flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Part 2. Cytological Aspects of the Vascular Plants. Ottawa. Uemura, S., K. Ohkawara, G. Kudo, N. Wada, and S. Higashi. 1993. Heat-production and cross-pollination of the Asian skunk cabbage Symplocarpus renifolius (Araceae). Amer. J. Bot. 80: 635--640. Young, R. A. 1936. The dasheen: A southern root crop for home use and market. U.S.D.A. Farmers Bull. 1396: 1--38. TABLE 203.1. Cultivated Araceae which that occasionally naturalize or persist from cultivation. Taxon Will Key To Distinguishing CharacterISTICs Comments Aglaonema commutatum Schott Peltandra Leaves oblanceolate to oblong with thick midveins and parallel venation; creeping or erect above-ground stem; spathe not differentiated into tube and blade Dade Co., Florida; persisting after cultivation, rarerarely found Alocasia macrorrhizos (Linnaeus) Schott Peltandra Leaves net-veined between primary lateral veins; aboveground stem; spadix with sterile appendage Dade Co., Florida; persisting for short periods, rarerarely found Arum italicum Linnaeus Peltandra Leaves net-veined between primary lateral veins; long sterile appendage California, Louisiana, North Carolina, Oregon; escaping locally and forming colonies Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Ventenat Colocasia Leaves usually variegated with pink, red, or white; spadix without sterile appendage Florida, Louisiana; rarerarely found Dracunculus vulgaris Schott Arisaema dracontium Spadix about as long as spathe; spathe with large distinct blade California, Oregon; rarerarely found Epipremnum pinnatum (Linnaeus) Engler cv. 'Aureum' Will not key well to any genus Stem scandent; juvenile leaves entire, adult leaves irregularly pinnatifid, leaves variegated with yellow; rarely flowering Florida; escaping and persisting in shady hammocks and on roadside trees Pinellia ternata (Thunberg) Makino Arisaema triphyllum Petiole with bulbils basally and at apex; base of spadix adnate to spathe on one side California, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia; very local, forming colonies usually in gardens and nurseries Syngonium podophyllum Schott Arisaema Stems scandent; milky sap; juvenile leaves entire, adult leaves pedatisect Florida; established on roadside trees and hammocks, local; other species of Syngonium may persist, but are rarerarely found Xanthosoma spp. Peltandra Leaves not peltate, net-veined between primary lateral veins; may have aboveground stem; spadix without sterile appendage Southern Florida, Louisiana, and Texas; persisting from cultivation, rarely spreading Zantedeschia aethiopica (Linnaeus) Sprengel Peltandra Spathe funnel-shaped, not constricted, white California; uncommon
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