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Pistia stratiotes Linnaeus
WATER LETTUCE
Water-lettuce

Life   Plantae   Monocotyledoneae   Araceae   Pistia

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Pistia stratiotes

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Cicadellidae  Draeculacephala inscripta @ UKYL_TCN (31)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Cercospora pistiae @ BPI (1)
Typhulaceae  Sclerotium rolfsii @ BPI (1)

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Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pistia stratiotes
L., Araceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?   yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?   no

Risk assessment results:   Reject, score: 18 ( Go to the risk assessment )

Common name(s): [ more details ]

Chinese : da piao

English : Nile cabbage, tropical duckweed, water cabbage, water lettuce, water lily

French : laitue d'eau, pistie

Spanish : flor de tetumo, lechuga de agua, lechuguilla, lechuguita de agua, repollito de agua, repollo de sapo, verdolago de agua

Habit:   aquatic herb

Description:   " Aquatic , floating, rosette-forming stemless stoloniferous herbs , with sessile, obovate or obcuneate glaucous (water-shedding) leaves Spathe small, the limb ovate, enclosing one gynoecium; anthers 4, sessile, connate, in a spathe.  Fruits membranous, few-seeded, the seeds obovoid-oblong" (Stone, 1970). "[A] free-floating but soon stoloniferous, small, aquatic, perennial plant, with a tuft of long, very fibrous roots beneath, primary roots 2 to 7 mm in diameter and 1 m long, very fine, plumosely spreading root hairs; leaves obovate-cuneat, erect, few to many, 2.5 to 15 cm long, the basal part somewhat velvety-hairy, becoming thickened by the production of very porous tissue except when stranded on banks; flowers bisexual; bracts (spathes) subtending flowers; spathes white, densely dotted when dry, finely hairy (pilose) outside, smooth inside, 7 to 12 mm long, 5 mm wide, short-penduncled in the center of the rosette of leaves; spadix bearing the individual flowers is shorter than the spathe, flowering parts minute; fruit berrylike (baccate), rupturing irregularly, seeds usually numerous, oblong, tapering toward the base, the apex appearing as if cut off at the end, about 2 mm long.  The light yellow-green leaves in the form of a rosette (cabbage-like) which are velvety-hairy and prominently veined below are characteristic of this species" (Holm et al ., 1977; p. 379).

Habitat/ecology:   "The free-floating plants are found in reservoirs, ponds, and marshes along the edges of large tropical lakes where they are able to thrive amidst the offshore vegetation and debris; in slow-moving or stagnant waters; and in old wells" (Holm et al ., 1977; p. 379).  "It is a common floating plant in dams, lagoons, lakes and also grows in wetland rice. It is also found floating on stagnant water and sometimes rooting on muddy banks.  Like Water hyacinth this plant also blocks irrigation canals and provides a breeding ground for mosquitoes and choking fishery waters" (Ecoport).  In Hawai‘i, "occurs in open ditches, ponds, and other watercourses, generally at low elevations"  (Wagner et al ., 1999; p. 1359). In New Caledonia, "pante aquatique cultivée dans des bassins artificiels et parfois spontanée" (MacKee, 1994; p. 18).

Propagation:   "This aquatic plant usually propagates by means of stolons which break easily from the plant accounts. Reproduction also takes place by seeds" (Ecoport).

Native range:   Unknown, now pan-tropical. A common aquatic weed in hot climatic countries.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St.  &
Island group
Location Cited status  &
Cited as invasive  &
Cited as cultivated  &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference  &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 93)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 6)
"Potentially invasive"
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 10)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4621 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 554434)
Taxon name on voucher: Pistia stratiotes L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 123-124)
Voucher cited: Stone & Cushing-Falanruw 8234 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 93)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1359)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1359)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1359)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1359)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 18)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 40825, Suprin in MacKee 45680, Jérémie & Tirel 1654
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 5)
Seen in cultivation, source unknown.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 23)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 64)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 189)
Floating in shallow water of lakes and slow streamsat low altitudes; often abundant.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 100)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 179)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St.  &
Island group
Location Cited status  &
Cited as invasive  &
Cited as cultivated  &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference  &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 381)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 381)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
El Salvador (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 381-384)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 381-384)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 381-384)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Li-ying, Li/Ren, Wang/Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 174)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 300)
Prefer hot, humid environment, in ponds and ditches.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Japan
Japan
Japan introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 193)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 379-384)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 70)
Naturalised
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 381)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Li-ying, Li/Ren, Wang/Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 174)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California)   U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St.  &
Island group
Location Cited status  &
Cited as invasive  &
Cited as cultivated  &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference  &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/±envahissant"
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 332)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
Invasive Species Specialist Group (2017)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St.  &
Island group
Location Cited status  &
Cited as invasive  &
Cited as cultivated  &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference  &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states)   U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida)   U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:   A Class A (eradicate) noxious weed in New Zealand.

Planting of this species in the State of Florida (U.S.) is prohibited by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (Hunsberger, 2001).

Control:  

Biological: "The curculionid weevil Neohydronomous pulchellus [ affinis ], which was collected in South America substantially reduced growth of Pistia stratiotes in Australia and Zimbabwe. This is the most sustainable method to control this free floating weed" (GPPIS). 

"The host specific South American weevil, Neohydronomus affinis , has been established readily in six countries and, in all, has produced substantial to excellent control.  The moth, Samea multiplicalis , which attacks P. stratiotes and Salvinia spp., has been established in Australia but its impact has not been evaluated.  In Thailand, classical biological control has not been attempted, but mass rearing and release of the native noctuid moth Spodoptera pectinicornis has replaced the use of herbicides.  The prospects are excellent for classical biological control of P. stratiotes in countries where it is still regarded as an important weed." (Waterhouse, 1994; pp. 196-207).

Waterhouse (1994, pp. 199-207) lists natural enemies and summarizes attempts at biological control.

Biological control information from the publication " Biological control of invasive plants in the eastern United States ".


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 12 APR 2013.

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You have requested an unaccepted/invalid name entry, the corresponding accepted/valid name is presented here as the result.
 
Kingdom Plantae  
 Phylum Tracheophyta  
 Class Magnoliopsida  
 Order Alismatales  
 Family Araceae  
 Genus Pistia  
  Pistia stratiotes    L. 
Provider: Ching-I Peng 
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Synonyms: Apiospermum obcordatum Limnonesis commutata Limnonesis friedrichsthaliana Pistia aegyptiaca Pistia aethiopica Pistia africana Pistia amazonica Pistia brasiliensis Pistia commutata Pistia crispata Pistia cumingii details
Citation: Flora of Taiwan 2nd ed. 5: 682, 2000; Hwang et al.(2004)
Name Code: 201157
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Pistia stratiotes L.
water lettuce

Image of Pistia stratiotes

General Information
Symbol: PIST2
Group: Monocot
Family: Araceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Forb/herb
Native Status : HI   I
L48   N
PR   N
VI   N
Data Source and Documentation
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green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Pistia thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

©Richard A. Howard. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Richard A. Howard Photograph Collection . Trinidad and Tobago, Trinidad. Usage Requirements .

©Richard A. Howard. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Richard A. Howard Photograph Collection . United States, HI, Oahu. Usage Requirements .

©Richard A. Howard. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Richard A. Howard Photograph Collection . Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Komarov. Usage Requirements .

©Robin R. Buckallew. United States, KS, Wichita. Usage Requirements .

©Robin R. Buckallew. United States, KS, Wichita. Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Liliopsida – Monocotyledons
Subclass Arecidae
Order Arales
Family Araceae – Arum family
Genus Pistia L. – pistia
Species Pistia stratiotes L. – water lettuce

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Noxious Weed Information
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete noxious weed list for that location, or click here for a composite list of all Federal and State Noxious Weeds .
Alabama water-lettuce Class C noxious weed
California water lettuce B list (noxious weeds)
Connecticut water lettuce Potentially invasive, banned
Florida water lettuce Prohibited aquatic plant, Class 2
South Carolina water lettuce Invasive aquatic plant water lettuce Plant pest
Texas waterlettuce Noxious plant
U.S. Weed Information
Pistia stratiotes apon-apon laitue d'eau lechuguita de qgua pistie tropical duckweed water lettuce This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S.
STATE Assorted authors. State noxious weed lists for 46 states . State agriculture or natural resource departments.
FLEPPC Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1999. Invasive plant list . Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. Florida.

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

Top Level Regions
Caribbean OBL
Hawaii OBL
North America
Arid West OBL
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain OBL
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont OBL
Great Plains OBL
Midwest OBL
Northcentral & Northeast OBL
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast OBL

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (PIST2)
CalPhotos (PIST2)
Flora of North America (PIST2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (PIST2)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (PIST2)
Kemper Center for Home Gardening (PIST2)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (PIST2)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (PIST2)
Related Websites
GU-Plant Threats to Pacific Ecosystems (PIST2)
Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (PIST2)
TX-Aquaplant-Floating Plants (TAES) (PIST2)
TX-Biological Control of Weeds in Texas (TAMU) (PIST2)
University of Hawaii Campus Plants: images (PIST2)
Wetlands Not Weedlands (PIST2)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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1. Pistia stratiotes Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 963. 1753.

Water-lettuce

Pistia spathulata Michaux

Roots to 50 cm, with short branches. Leaves light green to grayish green, 2--15(--20) cm, spongy, pubescence dense, white; major veins 5--13(--15), nearly parallel, abaxially prominent. Inflorescences: spathe white to pale green, convolute basally, slightly constricted above middle, spreading apically, pwhite to pale green, pubescent outside, glabrous inside; spadix adnate to spathe more than 1/2 its length, shorter than spathe; axis naked at base of staminate part and sometimes extending beyond staminate flowers. Flowers: staminate flowers (2--)6--8, in single whorl around central stalk, stamens 2, connate; pistillate flower solitary; ovariesy 1-locular, 4--5 mm; ovules 4--15(--20), orthotropous; styles ca. 3 mm; stigmas obtuse, with small hairs. ; staminate flowers (2--)6--8, in single whorl around central stalk; stamens 2, connate. Fruits with thin pericarp. Seeds light brown, cylindric, 2 ´ 1 mm. 2n = 28 (India, Borneo).

Flowering mainly late summer--early winter (although; plants have been collected in flower in almost all months). Slow-moving streams, canals, drainage ditches, ponds, lakes, and springs; 0--10 m; Fla., La., Tex.; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America; Asia; Africa; Pacific Islands; Australia.

Pistia stratiotes has been collected north and west of its U.S. range in Arizona, California, Georgia, Missouri, New Jersey, Ohio, and South Carolina. These are probably populations that do not persist. Although P. stratiotes is often reported as occurring from Florida to Texas, I saw no verifying herbarium specimens from Alabama or Mississippi, nor were any populations located during my fieldwork in those states.

Other References Arditti, J. and E. Rodriguez. 1982. Dieffenbachia: Uses, abuses and toxic constituents: A review. J. Ethnopharmacol. 5: 293--302. Barrett, O. W. and O. F. Cook. 1910. Promising root crops for the South. U.S.D.A. Bur. Pl. Industr. Bull. 164: 1--43. Bartram, W. 1791. Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges, or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws.... Philadelphia. Bierzychudek, P. 1982. The demography of Jack-in-the-pulpit, a forest perennial that changes sex. Ecol. Monogr. 52: 335--351. Blackwell, W. H. and K. P. Blackwell. 1974. The taxonomy of Peltandra (Araceae). J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 90: 137--140. Blair, A. 1975. Karyotypes of five plant species with disjunct distributions in Virginia and the Carolinas. Amer. J. Bot. 62: 833--837. Boivin, B. 1967--1979. Flora of the prairie provinces. Part I (--IV). Phytologia 15--18, 22--23, 42--43; passim. [Reprinted as Provancheria 2--5 with auxiliary pagination.] Bowden, W. M. 1940. Diploidy, polyploidy, and winter hardiness relationships in the flowering plants. Amer. J. Bot. 27: 357--370. Bruner, M. C. 1982. Water-lettuce, Pistia stratiotes L. Aquatics 4(3): 4--5. Camazine, S. and K. J. Niklas. 1984. Aerobiology of Symplocarpus foetidus: Interactions between spathe and spadix. Amer. J. Bot. 71: 843--850. Case, F. W. , Jr. 1992. Plants for the bog garden. Bull. of the Amer. Rock Garden Soc. 50: 129--144. Clay, K. 1993. Size-dependent gender change in green dragon (Arisaema dracontium; Araceae). Amer. J. Bot. 80: 769--777. Coates, D. J., D. E. Yen, and P. M. Gaffey. 1988. Chromosome variation in taro, Colocasia esculenta: Implications for origin in the Pacific. Cytologia 53: 551--560. Croat, T. B. 1994. The use of the New World Araceae as drug plants. J. Jap. Bot. 69: 185--203. Dorn, R. D. 1977. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Wyoming. 2 vols. New York. Dray, F. A. Jr. and T. D. Center. 1989. Seed production by Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) in the United States. Aquatic Bot. 33: 155--160. Duncan, W. H. and J. T. Kartesz. 1981. Vascular Flora of Georgia: An Annotated Checklist. Athens, Ga. Eastwood, A. 1900. Some plants of Mendocino County new to the flora of California. Zoëe 5: 58--60. Fernald, M. L., and A. C. Kinsey, and (revised by R. C. Rollins). 1958. Edible Wild Plants of Eastern North America, revised ed. New York. Greenwell, A. B. 1947. Taro---with special reference to its culture and uses in Hawaii. Econ. Bot. 1: 276--289. Grayum, M. H. 1987. A summary of the evidence and arguments supporting the removal of Acorus from the Araceae. Taxon 36: 723--729. Harley, K. L., R. C. Kassulke, D. P. Sands, and M. D. Day. 1990. Biological control of water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) by Neohydronomus affinis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Entomophaga 35: 363--374. Henkel, A. 1907. American root drugs. U.S.D.A. Bur. Pl. Industr. Bull. 107: 1--80. Huttleston, D. G. 1949. The three subspecies of Arisaema triphyllum. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 76: 407--413. Huttleston, D. G. 1981. The four subspecies of Arisaema triphyllum. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 108: 479--481. Judd, W. W. 1961. Insects and other invertebrates associated with flowering skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Nutt., at Fanshawe Lake, Ontario. Canad. Entomol. 93: 241--249. Kalm, P. 1770--1771. Travels into North America.... 3 vols. Warrington and London. Kartesz, J. T. and K. N. Gandhi. 1992. Nomenclatural notes for the North American flora, X. Phytologia 72: 80--92. Kinoshita, E. 1986. Size-sex relationship and sexual dimorphism in Japanese Arisaema (Araceae). Ecol. Res. (Tokyo) 1: 157--171. Knutson, R. M. 1972. Temperature measurements of the spadix of Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Nutt. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 88: 251--254. Lammers, T. G. and A. G. van der Valk. 1979. A checklist of the aquatic and wetland vascular plants of Iowa: II. Monocotyledons, plus a summary of the geographic and habitat distribution of all aquatic and wetland species in Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 85: 121--163. Lampe, K. F. and M. A. McCann. 1985. AMA Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants. Chicago, Illinois. Löve, Á. and S. Kawano. 1961. A note on amphi-pacific Lysichitum. J. Jap. Bot. 36: 359--361. Löve, Á. and J. C. Ritchie. 1966. Chromosome numbers from central northern Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 44: 429--439. Marchant, C. J. 1971. Chromosome variation in Araceae: 2. Richardieae to Colocasieae. Kew Bull. 25: 47--56. Marchant, C. J. 1973. Chromosome variation in Araceae: 5. Acoreae to Lasieae. Kew Bull. 28: 199--210. Mason, H. L. 1957. A Flora of the Marshes of California. Berkeley, California. Matuda, E. 1954. Las Araceas mexicanas. Anales Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. México 32: 147--155. Moerman, D. E. 1986. Medicinal Plants of Native America. 2 vols. Ann Arbor. [Univ. of Michigan, Mus. of Anthropol. Techn. Reports. 19:.] 1--910 (Research Reports in Ethnobotany, Contrib. 2). Mulligan, G. A. and D. B. Munro. 1990. Poisonous Plants of Canada. Ottawa, Canada. O'Hair, S. K. and M. P. Asokan. 1986. Edible aroids: Botany and horticulture. Hort. Rev. 8: 43--99. Perkins, K. D. and W. W. Payne. 1978. Guide to the Poisonous and Irritant Plants of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. Petersen, G. 1989. Cytology and systematics of Araceae. Nordic J. Bot. 9: 119--166. Ray, T. S. 1988. Survey of shoot organization in the Araceae. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 56--84. Sanders, L. L. and C. J. Burk. 1992. A naturally-occurring population of putative Arisaema triphyllum subsp. stewardsonii × A. dracontium hybrids in Massachusetts. Rhodora 94: 340--347. Scoggan, H. J. 1957. Flora of Manitoba. Bull. Natl. Mus. Canada 140: 1--619. Small, J. A. 1959. Skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 86: 413--416. Taylor, R. L. and G. A. Mulligan. 1968. Flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Part 2. Cytological Aspects of the Vascular Plants. Ottawa. Uemura, S., K. Ohkawara, G. Kudo, N. Wada, and S. Higashi. 1993. Heat-production and cross-pollination of the Asian skunk cabbage Symplocarpus renifolius (Araceae). Amer. J. Bot. 80: 635--640. Young, R. A. 1936. The dasheen: A southern root crop for home use and market. U.S.D.A. Farmers Bull. 1396: 1--38. TABLE 203.1. Cultivated Araceae which that occasionally naturalize or persist from cultivation. Taxon Will Key To Distinguishing CharacterISTICs Comments Aglaonema commutatum Schott Peltandra Leaves oblanceolate to oblong with thick midveins and parallel venation; creeping or erect above-ground stem; spathe not differentiated into tube and blade Dade Co., Florida; persisting after cultivation, rarerarely found Alocasia macrorrhizos (Linnaeus) Schott Peltandra Leaves net-veined between primary lateral veins; aboveground stem; spadix with sterile appendage Dade Co., Florida; persisting for short periods, rarerarely found Arum italicum Linnaeus Peltandra Leaves net-veined between primary lateral veins; long sterile appendage California, Louisiana, North Carolina, Oregon; escaping locally and forming colonies Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Ventenat Colocasia Leaves usually variegated with pink, red, or white; spadix without sterile appendage Florida, Louisiana; rarerarely found Dracunculus vulgaris Schott Arisaema dracontium Spadix about as long as spathe; spathe with large distinct blade California, Oregon; rarerarely found Epipremnum pinnatum (Linnaeus) Engler cv. 'Aureum' Will not key well to any genus Stem scandent; juvenile leaves entire, adult leaves irregularly pinnatifid, leaves variegated with yellow; rarely flowering Florida; escaping and persisting in shady hammocks and on roadside trees Pinellia ternata (Thunberg) Makino Arisaema triphyllum Petiole with bulbils basally and at apex; base of spadix adnate to spathe on one side California, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia; very local, forming colonies usually in gardens and nurseries Syngonium podophyllum Schott Arisaema Stems scandent; milky sap; juvenile leaves entire, adult leaves pedatisect Florida; established on roadside trees and hammocks, local; other species of Syngonium may persist, but are rarerarely found Xanthosoma spp. Peltandra Leaves not peltate, net-veined between primary lateral veins; may have aboveground stem; spadix without sterile appendage Southern Florida, Louisiana, and Texas; persisting from cultivation, rarely spreading Zantedeschia aethiopica (Linnaeus) Sprengel Peltandra Spathe funnel-shaped, not constricted, white California; uncommon

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Number of matches : 9
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Pistia stratiotes%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

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Pistia stratiotes
Pistia stratiotes
ID: 0000 0000 0506 2622 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Pistia stratiotes
Pistia stratiotes
Water Lettuce
ID: 0000 0000 0716 3548 [detail]
© 2016 Ron Vanderhoff

Pistia stratiotes
Pistia stratiotes
Water Lettuce
ID: 0000 0000 0716 3550 [detail]
© 2016 Ron Vanderhoff

Pistia stratiotes
Pistia stratiotes
ID: 0000 0000 0918 0224 [detail]
© 2018 Ron Vanderhoff

Pistia stratiotes
Pistia stratiotes
ID: 0000 0000 0918 0225 [detail]
© 2018 Ron Vanderhoff

Pistia stratiotes
Pistia stratiotes
ID: 0000 0000 0918 0226 [detail]
© 2018 Ron Vanderhoff

Pistia stratiotes
Pistia stratiotes
ID: 0000 0000 0320 0440 [detail]
© 2020 Ron Vanderhoff

Pistia stratiotes
Pistia stratiotes
Water-lettuce
ID: 0177 3303 3353 0061 [detail]
© CDFA

Pistia stratiotes
Pistia stratiotes
Water-lettuce
ID: 0177 3303 3353 0060 [detail]
© CDFA

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