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Populus heterophylla L.
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Salicaceae   Populus

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Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aphididae  Chaitophorus viminalis @ NCSU_ENT (1)
Erysiphaceae  Uncinula salicis @ BPI (6)
Exidiaceae  Eichleriella spinulosa @ BPI (1)
Melampsoraceae  Melampsora abietis-canadensis @ BPI (7)

Melampsora medusae @ BPI (2)

Melampsora populina @ BPI (1)
Meruliaceae  Phlebia strigosozonata @ BPI (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Cercospora @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Polyporus biennis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus spumeus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus zonatus @ BPI (1)

Trametes hispida @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora chrysosperma @ BPI (1)
_  Stigmina @ BPI (1)

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Populus heterophylla L.
swamp cottonwood

Image of Populus heterophylla

General Information
Symbol: POHE4
Group: Dicot
Family: Salicaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Tree
Native Status : CAN   N
L48   N
Data Source and Documentation
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Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   


click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Populus thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species . Northeast National Technical Center, Chester. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species . Northeast National Technical Center, Chester. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, NC. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 589. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .



Symbol Scientific Name
POAR15 Populus argentea Michx. f.


Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Dilleniidae
Order Salicales
Family Salicaceae – Willow family
Genus Populus L. – cottonwood
Species Populus heterophylla L. – swamp cottonwood

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
Connecticut swamp cottonwood Endangered
Massachusetts swamp cottonwood Endangered
Michigan swamp or black cottonwood Endangered
New York swamp cottonwood Threatened
Pennsylvania swamp cottonwood Extirpated
Rhode Island swamp cottonwood Threatened

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain OBL
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont OBL
Midwest OBL
Northcentral & Northeast OBL

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (POHE4)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (POAR15)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (POHE4)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (POHE4)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (POHE4)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (POHE4)
Related Websites
USDA Forest Service-Silvics of North America (POHE4)



Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds


Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover

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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 7 | Salicaceae | Populus

1. Populus heterophylla Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1034. 1753.

Swamp or downy poplar

Plants to 28 m, 12 dm diam.; not obviously heterophyllous. Bark reddish brown to brownish gray, deeply furrowed. Branchlets reddish brown, becoming grayish by third year, round to 5-angled, 3-6 mm diam., very coarse, thinly tomentose to glabrate. Winter buds reddish brown, pubescent, slightly resinous; terminal buds 4-7 mm; flowering buds separated on branchlets, 4-7 mm. Leaves: petiole round distally, (1-) 4-8(-12) cm, 1/2 blade length, (tomentose to glabrate); blade ovate, (3.5-)9-20(-24) × (3.5-)7.5-12.5(-19) cm, w/l = 2/3-3/4, base deeply cordate to subsagittate, basilaminar glands 0 or 2, round, margins not translucent, not ciliate, apex obtuse to apiculate, abaxial surface pale green, pubescent to partly glabrate, retaining tomentum at least basally and on midvein, adaxial dark green, glabrous; preformed and neoformed blade margins finely and unevenly crenate-serrate throughout, teeth 30-60 on each side, sinuses 0.3-1 mm deep. Catkins sparsely 10-15(-45)-flowered, 4.5-8(-18 in fruit) cm; floral bract apex deeply cut, not ciliate (pubescent abaxially). Pedicels (1-)5-10(-18 in fruit) mm. Flowers: discs (caducous), cup-shaped, not obviously oblique, toothed, 1.5-2.5(-4) mm diam.; stamens 15-35; anthers apiculate; ovary 3-carpelled, ovoid to spherical; stigmas 2-4, convoluted, expanded, erect. Capsules ovoid, 8-14 mm, glabrous, 3-valved. Seeds 6-9 per placenta.

Flowering Apr; fruiting May-Jun. Nyssa - Taxodium swamps, drainage ditches, natural and artificial wet depressions, coastal plains, central lowlands, piedmont along major streams; 0-200(-400) m; Ont.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., La., Md., Mich., Miss., Mo., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, S.C., Tenn., Va.

Populus heterophylla is widespread and uncommon in most of its range, which is entirely included within that of P. deltoides . Reports of swamp poplars from upland habitats are based on misidentified sucker shoots of P. grandidentata . Hybrids of P. heterophylla and P. deltoides are found in disturbed habitats, such as drainage ditches. Hybrids have glabrous leaves more elongate than those of P. deltoides .

Updated: 2020-04-02 15:56:20 gmt
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