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Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitch.
KARIBA-WEED
Giant Salvinia; Aquarium Water-Moss

Life   Plantae   Pteridophyta   Salviniaceae   Salvinia

Salvinia molesta
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 4
Salvinia molesta

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Salvinia molesta
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 2
Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 2
Salvinia molesta

Salvinia molesta, hairs
© George Yatskievych, 2006-2011 · 1
Salvinia molesta, hairs
Salvinia molesta, leaf
© George Yatskievych, 2006-2011 · 1
Salvinia molesta, leaf

Salvinia molesta, sporangia
© George Yatskievych, 2006-2011 · 1
Salvinia molesta, sporangia
Salvinia molesta, sporocarps
© George Yatskievych, 2006-2011 · 1
Salvinia molesta, sporocarps

Salvinia molesta, srep
© George Yatskievych, 2006-2011 · 1
Salvinia molesta, srep
Salvinia molesta, uppersurf
© George Yatskievych, 2006-2011 · 1
Salvinia molesta, uppersurf
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/pubs/midatlantic/samo.htm

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Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Salvinia molesta
D.S.Mitchell, Salviniaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?   yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?   no

Risk assessment results:  

Reject, score: 19 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia) )
High risk, score: 29 (Go to the risk assessment ( Pacific ))

Other Latin names:   Salvinia auriculata Aubl.

Common name(s): [ more details ]

English : African payal, aquarium water-moss, giant salvinia, kariba weed, salvinia, water fern

French : salvinia

Habit:   aquatic fern

Description:   "A free-floating, rapid-growing, mat-forming, branched, gregarious, annual or perennial fern ; individual plants up to 30 cm long with numerous leaves which usually form a mat to 2.5 cm thick, although they can form very dense mats also; slender horizontal floating rhizome producing at each node two short petioled or sessile fronds on the upper side and a long filiform feathered rootlike frond downward; leaves ( fronds ) produced in groups of three, from the delicate stem, each group with two broadly ovate, entire, undivided, green, aerial leaves up to 25 mm long situated on the upper side of the stem, with a distinct midrib from the base to the apex, the upper surface covered with close parallel rows of numerous long hairs that terminate in a cagelike, club-shaped tip and that prevent the leaves from getting wet, lower leaf surfaces smooth except for simple hairs (rootlets?) near the midrib; the leaves of young plants on open water float flat on the surface, later with age and crowding they fold against one another with the hairy upper surfaces  facing each other; the third, the submerged, rootlike "water" leaf, situated ventrally, is much divided, feathery, brown, up to 25 cm long, resembles and functions as a true root, and bears the sporocarp or spore-forming structures; sporocarps globose 2 to 3 mm in diameter, on a short stalk 1 mm long, densely hairy, indehiscent, monoecious, seated in clusters on the stem at the base of the rootlike, submerged leaves; megaspores and microspores about 2 mm long, numerous, globular, covered with minute hairs.  The presence of numerous, cagelike, clubshaped hairs on the upper surfaces of the aerial leaves is very distinctive.  This feature imparts an additional buoyancy to the plant and serves to distinguish S . [ molesta ] from any other species of the genus" (Holm et al ., 1977; p. 409).

"Perennial, free-floating, aquatic fern , forming dense mats with plagiotropic shoots and tightly overlapping leaves.  Leaves :  Floating leaves of different sizes, elliptic, entire, folded, light or brownish-green, becoming somewhat darker near the entire margins, densely covered on upper surface by hydrophobic papillae bearing groups of 2 or 4 uniseriate hairs united at their distal ends; papillae to 3 mm long; submerged leaf greatly dissected, hanging into the water, functioning as a root.  Sporocarps in long straight secund chains, hairy, about 1 mm in diameter, containing mostly empty sporangia"  (Cronk and Fuller, 1995; pp. 119-122).

See also Salvinia cucullata and Salvinia natans .

Habitat/ecology:   "This species grows best in stagnant or slow-flowing water and prefers the small bays of dissected shorelines and the estuaries of small streams.  Growing around emergent brush and trees on flooded shorelines it is protected from wave action and multiplies rapidly.  The optimum range of temperature for good growth is 25 to 28 C.  The plant can tolerate a wide pH range; the optimum is thought to be pH 6 to 7.5" (Holm et al ., 1977; p. 411).

"Still or slowly moving fresh to slightly brackish waters in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions.  A serious weed of waterways and other wet areas" (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; pp. 18-22). In New Caledonia, "cette fougère flottante est devenue depuis une vingtaine d'années abondante dans la Rivière de Koumac et dans certains se ses affluents. Plus récemment elle devient gênante dans le secteur Boulouparis-La Foa où elle couvre d'une couche dense, compacte et continue des retenues d'eau artificielles" (MacKee, 1994; p. 126); "Fougère flottante, devenue abondante depuis une vingtaine d'années dans la rivière de Koumac et dans certains de ses affluents. Plus récemment, elle devient gênante dans le secteur Boulouparis-La Foa où elle couvre d'une couche dense, compacte et continue des retenues d'eau artificielles (Gargominy et al. , 1996; p. 383).

Propagation:   Reproduces vegetatively; dispersed by wind and water. "Reproduces only by vegetative pieces which are spread by floodwaters, boats, vehicles and animals.  Many infestations have arisen from discarded aquarium material." (Smith, 2002; p. 83).

Native range:   South America (southern Brazil).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St.  &
Island group
Location Cited status  &
Cited as invasive  &
Cited as cultivated  &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference  &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 320)
French Polynesia
French Polynesia Islands
French Polynesia Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 65)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wilson, Kenneth A. (2003) (pp. 6-7)
Vouchers cited: Shishido s.n. (BISH 657222), C. Hirayama & L. Nakahara s.n. (BISH 657220, LAM), C. Hirayama & L. Nakahara s.n. (BISH 657221, LAM)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wilson, Kenneth A. (2003) (pp. 6-7)
Vouchers cited: K. Wilson & G. Staples s.n. (BISH 606163), W. Hoe 5351 (BISH), G. Staples 1137 (BISH), J. Cook s.n. (BISH 655219), Nakahara, Heu & Matayoshi 99-01 (BISH, LAM), C. Imada 99-12 (BISH, LAM), D.D. Palmer 3123 (BISH, LAM), M. Buck s.n. (BISH 655286, LAM), Staples & Ahsing 1185 (BISH 658380, LAM), Higashi s.n. (BISH 655127), F. Kraus s.n. (BISH 655218), G. Higashi et al . s.n. (BISH 657219, LAM)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
"Rivers and wetlands"
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 383)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 126)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 4202, MacKee 14783, MacKee 24630, MacKee 25983, MacKee 45767, Suprin in MacKee 46013
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 65)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 106)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St.  &
Island group
Location Cited status  &
Cited as invasive  &
Cited as cultivated  &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference  &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 412)
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 83)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 83)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 181)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 37)
"Lakes, ponds and dams with still or slow-moving water, swamps".
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. (2001) (p. 120)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 77)
Naturalised
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 320)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St.  &
Island group
Location Cited status  &
Cited as invasive  &
Cited as cultivated  &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference  &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)

Comments:   Two other species of Salvinia , S. cucullata Roxb.and S. natans (L.) All., are also pest species and are present in southeast Asia, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea (Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998; pp. 91-94).

A "weed of national significance in Australia; a declared noxious weed in Western Australia, the Northern Territory and Queensland" (Smith, 2002; p. 83).

Control:   See " Biology and control of aquatic plants: A best management practices handbook "  for control information (large file, PDF format).

Physical:   Large infestations may be mechanically harvested but this may cause fragmentation and further spread.

Chemical: "Herbicides used are diquat formulated for use in running waters, hexazinone, chlosulfuron, or fluridone"  (Weber, 2003; p. 384).  Also see Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992; pp. 18-22).

Biological: "Biological control is the most effective method of removing salvinia.  Spectacular results have been obtained in parts of Australia and it seems likely that they will be repeated elsewhere.  The initial control obtained in Lake Moondarra, following the release of the weevil, Cyrtobagous salviniae , in 1981, was so successful that it became counterproductive when the weevil died out after destroying the weed, allowing re-infestation to occur.  Further releases of the insect, however, quickly brought the weed under control once again.  Similar results have followed the release of the weevil in Papua New Guinea, India and Namibia but not in Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory.  It has since been suggested that there is a critical population density of the weed, associated with high water temperatures, below which the weevil cannot survive.

"A pyralid moth, Samea multiplicalis , released at Lake Julius, Queensland, was not as effective as the weevil and did not control the weed.  Because of this, although both species are active in the temperature range of 16° to 30° C, causing more damage at the higher temperature, it is concluded that the weevil alone, or in combination with the moth, will readily control salvinia north of Brisbane but that the moth alone will not"  (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; pp. 18-22).

Biological control information from the publication " Biological control of invasive plants in the eastern United States ".

For a summary of other efforts, see Julien (1992; pp. 84-87, 136-137).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 7 MAY 2017.

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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Salvinia+molesta+left+and+salvinia+minima+right&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Salvinia+molesta+left+and+salvinia+minima+right&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 0

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Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Salvinia molesta left and salvinia minima right%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Salvinia+molesta&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Salvinia+molesta&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 17
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Salvinia molesta%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
Kariba-weed
ID: 0177 3303 3353 0089 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
Kariba-weed
ID: 0175 3301 2364 0013 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
Kariba-weed
ID: 0175 3301 2364 0010 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
Kariba-weed
ID: 0175 3301 2364 0012 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
Kariba-weed
ID: 0175 3301 2364 0014 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
Kariba-weed
ID: 0175 3301 2364 0015 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
Kariba-weed
ID: 0177 3303 3353 0088 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
Kariba-weed
ID: 0177 3303 3353 0086 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
Kariba-weed
ID: 0175 3301 2364 0011 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
Kariba-weed
ID: 0177 3303 3353 0085 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
Kariba-weed
ID: 0177 3303 3353 0087 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
ID: 0000 0000 0509 1724 [detail]
© 2009 Barry Rice

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
ID: 0000 0000 0509 1725 [detail]
© 2009 Barry Rice

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
ID: 0000 0000 0509 1726 [detail]
© 2009 Barry Rice

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
ID: 0000 0000 1210 1216 [detail]
© 2010 Barry Rice

Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
ID: 0000 0000 1210 1217 [detail]
© 2010 Barry Rice

Salvinia molesta (left) and salvinia minima (right)
Salvinia molesta (left) and salvinia minima (right)
ID: 0175 3301 2364 0016 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

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