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Sarda chilensis G. Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1832
EAST-PACIFIC BONITO
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Scombridae   Sarda

Sarda chilensis
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Sarda chilensis

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Overview
Main identification features
  • ~6 oblique lines on back
  • gill rakers: 23-27
Eastern-Pacific bonito

Tail base with 2 keels separated by third, larger keel; no adipose eyelids; top of tongue without cartilagenous crests; jaw teeth conical large, prominent, 10-30 on each side of each jaw; well defined corselet of large scales on front of body; 23-27 rakers on first gill arch; pectorals 22-26 rays; first dorsal XVII-XIX spines; usually 8 dorsal finlets; anal 12-15 rays, 6-7 finlets.

Top blue-grey, darker on head; belly silver; ~5-6 slightly oblique stripes running along upper back; dorsals dusky, second dorsal white tip; tail dark grey; anal and pelvic white; pectoral grey.

Size: 122 cm.

Habitat: coastal surface pelagic.

Depth: 0-110 m.

Two subspecies are recognized: S. c. lineolata occurs from Alaska to the tip of Baja California and the SW Gulf of California. and the Revillagigedo Islands.

S. c. chiliensis occurs from Ecuador to Chile.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ); Antitropical (North and South temperate).
Depth Range Max: 110 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: bony fishes; octopus/squid/cuttlefish; Pelagic crustacea.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-33; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-70; Latitudinal range=66; Longitudinal range=48.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: TEP non-endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Offshore; Offshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 122 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; California + Peruvian provinces, primarily; All species.
Residency: Vagrant.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Surface; Surface; Water column only;


Links to other sites

References
  • Abbott, J.F., 1899., The marine fishes of Peru., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51:324-364.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Collette , B. B. and Chao, L. N., 1975., Systematics and morphology of the bonitos (Sarda) and their relatives (Scombridae, Sardini)., United States National Marine Fisheries Service Fisheries Bulletin, 73:516-625.
  • Collette , B. B. and Nauen, C. E., 1983., Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. FAO species catalogue Vol. 2., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 125.
  • Collette, B.B., Reeb, C. and Block, B.A., 2001., Systematics of the tunas and mackerels (Scombridae)., Fish Physiology, 19:1-33.
  • Cuvier , G. and Valenciennes, A., 1832., Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome huitième. Livre neuvième. Des Scombéroïdes., Histoire Naturelle Des Poissons, 8:1-509.
  • De la Cruz , J. , Galvan , F. , Abitia , L. A. , Rodriguez , J. and Gutierrez, F. J., 1994., Lista sistematica de los peces marinos de Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico). Systematic List of marine fishes from Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico)., Ciencias Marinas, 20:17-31.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Gilbert, C.H., 1880., Notes on a collection of fishes from San Diego, California., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 3:23-34.
  • Joseph , J. , Klawe , W. and Murphy, P., 1988., Tuna and Billfish - fish without a country., Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission:69.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Fishes collected from the Revillagigedo Islands during the 1954-1958 cruises of the "Marijean."., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 4:10pp.
  • Starks, E. C., 1906., On a Collection of fishes made by P. O. Simons in Ecuador and Peru., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 30:761-800.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Sarda&speciesname=chilensis ---> http://www.fishbase.se/summary/Sarda-chilensis.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Sarda chiliensis   (Cuvier, 1832)

Eastern Pacific bonito Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Sarda chiliensis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Sarda chiliensis (Eastern Pacific bonito) Sarda chiliensis
Picture by Béarez, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Scombridae (Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Sarda: Latin and Greek, sarda = sardine; name related to the island of Sardinia (Ref. 45335 ) ;   chiliensis: Named after Chile, South America (Ref. 6885 ) .

Issue
Issue on validity of subspecies: subspecies considered as valid in FB, elevated to species rank as Sarda chiliensis (Cuvier, 1832) in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. May 2011: Ref. 86870 ).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 100 m.   Subtropical; 60°N - 37°S, 149°W - 70°W (Ref. 168 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Southeast Pacific: northern Peru to Talcahuano, Chile (Ref. 9340 ). The northern subspecies Sarda chiliensis lineolata occurs from off the coast of Alaska, southward to Cabo San Lucas at the tip of Baja California, and in the Revillagigedo Islands.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 47.0   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 102 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9015 ); max. published weight: 11.3 kg (Ref. 168 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 17 - 19; Anal soft rays : 12 - 15; Vertebrae : 42 - 46. Mouth moderately large. Laminae of olfactory rosette 21 to 39. Interpelvic process small and bifid. Swim bladder absent. Spleen large and prominent in ventral view. Liver with elongate left and right lobes and a short middle lobe. Body completely covered with very small scales posterior to the corselet.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A coastal species that reaches sexual maturity at two years of age (Ref. 9340 ). Older individuals are encountered farther from the coast as compared to the juveniles (Ref. 9340 ). Spawning is discontinuous and a female of 3 kg may produce millions of eggs per season (Ref. 9340 ). Forms schools by size. Feeds on a variety of small schooling fishes, squids and shrimps. This species is important to the recreational hook and line fishery operating from private and party boats, piers and jetties, and from the shore. Also caught with encircling nets (Ref. 9340 ). Utilized fresh, canned and frozen; eaten broiled and baked (Ref. 9988 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Collette, Bruce B. | Collaborators

Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen , 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Least Concern (LC)  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(fisheries: production , species profile ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

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FAO areas
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Common names
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Length-weight
Length-length
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Morphometrics
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Tools

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Special reports

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Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | RFE Identification | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 14.6 - 23.1, mean 18.5 (based on 30 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00831 - 0.01098), b=3.05 (3.01 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.5   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.15; tm=2). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Low .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Bailly, Nicolas Fish Forum
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