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Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker, 1847
BLACKVEIN PARROTFISH
Black-veined Parrotfish; Ember Parrotfish; Half & Half Parrotfish

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Scaridae   Scarus

Scarus rubroviolaceus
© Copyright Roger Steene, 2006 · 0
Scarus rubroviolaceus

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Scarus rubroviolaceus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Scarus rubroviolaceus
Scarus rubroviolaceus
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Scarus rubroviolaceus
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Overview
Main identification features
  • blunt head
  • initial phase : brown front, pale rear
  • terminal phase : blue-green, darker front 1/2
Dorsal rays IX, 10; anal rays III, 9; pectoral rays 14-16; median predorsal scales 6; three rows of scales on cheek, 2 scales in ventral row; body moderately elongate, its depth 2.7-3.1 in standard length; snout profile steep and blunt; tail fin of initial phase adults slightly concave, that of terminal males strongly so.

Initial phase grey on anterior half and whitish posteriorly with small black spots and dark lines on sides and red fins; terminal males mainly green to bluish green, sometimes purplish on anterior half giving strong bicolor effect; a pair of blue bands on chin and beak blue green. Juvenile: less than ~15mm - body whitish, with 3 dashed thin brown stripes, lowermost line widest and has pale dots along its length, fins clear; larger individuals (15-25mm)- body whitish with 3 brown to olive stripes (lower one widest) with white spots, a large white blotch on base of tail fin; a dark bar extending down from base of spines 3-8 of dorsal fin; above 25 mm - 3 stripes well developed, dark bar fades, scales develop dark edges, body with scattered white spots, white blotch on tail fin base.

Size: to 71 cm.

Habitat: it occurs on shallow reefs and around their fringes.

Depth: 1-35 m.

Widespread in the tropical Indo-Pacific from East Africa to the Americas; the central Gulf of California to Ecuador, as well as the Revillagigedos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo and the Galapagos.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 35 m.
Depth Range Min: 1 m.
Diet: benthic microalgae; hard corals; detritus.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=27; Southern limit=-3; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=30; Longitudinal range=37.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Herbivore; Omnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: All Pacific (West + Central + East); Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Corals; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 71 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Aburto-Oropeza , O. and Balart, E. F., 2001., Community structure of reef fish in several habitats of a rocky reef in the Gulf of California., Marine Ecology, 22:283-305.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1997., An Annotated Checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, Tropical Eastern Pacific., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 45:813-843.
  • Bellwood , D. R. and Choat, J. H., 1989., A description of the juvenile phase colour patterns of 24 parrotfish species (Family Scarida) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia., Records of the Australian Museum, 41:1-41.
  • Bellwood, D. R., 1991., A phylogenetic study of the parrotfishes family Scaridae (Pisces: Labroidei), with a revision of genera., Records of the Australian Museum, 20:1-86.
  • Bleeker,., 1847., Pharyngognathorum Siluroideorumque species novae Javanenses., Natuur. Geneesk. Arch. Neerl.-Ind., 4:155-169.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre , J. L. , Balart , E. F. and Arvizu-Martínez, J., 1995., Contribución al conocimiento del origen y distribución de la ictiofauna del Golfo de California, México., Hidrobiologica, 5:57-78.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Edgar, G.J. Banks, S., Fariña, J.M., Calvopiña, M. and Martínez, C., 2004., Regional biogeography of shallow reef fish and macro-invertebrate communities in the Galapagos archipelago., Journal of Biogeography, 31:1107-1124.
  • Elorduy Garay , J. F. and Jiménez Gutiérrez, S. V., 2000., Metodologías para el estudio de los peces de arrecife. En Aburto Oropeza, O. y C. A. Sánchez Ortiz (Eds.). Recursos arrecifales del Golfo de California, estrategias de manejo para las especies marinas de ornato., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:72-82.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • McCosker , J.E. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 1975., Fishes collected at Malpelo Island. In Graham, J.B. (ed.) The Biological Investigation of Malpelo Island, Colombia., Smithsonian Contrib. Zool., 176:91-93.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Robertson , D.R. and Allen, G.A., 1996., Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll., Coral Reefs, 15:121-131.
  • Rosenblatt , R.H. , McCosker , J.E. and Rubinoff, I., 1972., Indo-west Pacific fishes from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama., Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 234:18pp.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1990., Ictiofauna Indopacifica asociada a los corales de la Isla de Gorgona., Revista de Ciencias, 2:97-105.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Vega, A.J., Villareal, N., 2003., Peces asociados a arrecifes y manglares en el Parque Nacional Coiba., Tecnociencia, 5:65-76.
  • Villareal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O., 2000., Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía., Rev. Biol. Trop., 48:413-424.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/61f29055-4bf0-4573-b382-1284058563d2 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/61f29055-4bf0-4573-b382-1284058563d2
https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/61f29055-4bf0-4573-b382-1284058563d2 ---> http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/03b0fa1e-3788-4017-b499-0b2084069674;jsessionid=21848C9BA4A6C3DAA9D41711C8BD3941
http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/03b0fa1e-3788-4017-b499-0b2084069674;jsessionid=21848C9BA4A6C3DAA9D41711C8BD3941 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/03b0fa1e-3788-4017-b499-0b2084069674;jsessionid=21848C9BA4A6C3DAA9D41711C8BD3941
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
   Top | See original

 
Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Scaridae  
 Genus Scarus  
  Scarus rubroviolaceus    Bleeker, 1847 
Provider: Chen, Li-Shu 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Callyodon africanus Callyodon jordani Callyodon ruberrimus Callyodon rubrovidaceus Callyodon rubroviolaceus Margaritodon africanus Pseudoscarus jordani Scarops rubroviolaceus Scarus jordani   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); Fishbase(2006); Fishes of Japan(Nakabo, 2002); Review and doubtful species of Scaridae of Taiwan(Liao et al., 2004)
Name Code: 382458
  IUCN Red List:LC      
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan    FishBase    Discover Life    World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)  
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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Scarus+rubroviolaceus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Scarus+rubroviolaceus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Scarus rubroviolaceus%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

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Scarus rubroviolaceus
Scarus rubroviolaceus
ID: 4444 4444 1106 0322 [detail]
© 2006 Moorea Biocode

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Scarus&speciesname=rubroviolaceus ---> http://www.fishbase.se/summary/Scarus-rubroviolaceus.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Scarus rubroviolaceus   Bleeker , 1847

Ember parrotfish Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Scarus rubroviolaceus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Videos     Google image Image of Scarus rubroviolaceus (Ember parrotfish) Scarus rubroviolaceus
Male picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Scaridae (Parrotfishes) > Scarinae
Etymology: Scarus: Greek, skaros = a fish described by anciente writers as a parrot fish; 1601 (Ref. 45335 ) .   More on author: Bleeker .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 36 m (Ref. 5227 ).   Tropical; 30°N - 27°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: East Africa south to Durban, South Africa (Ref. 5490 ) and east to the Tuamoto Islands, north to the Ryukyu and Hawaiian islands, south to Shark Bay, Western Australia and the southern Great Barrier Reef. Excluding Rapa and Austral Islands (Ref. 86689 ). Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 5227 ).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334 ); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 42001 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 9. Some geographical variations. Indonesia adults usually have darker front half that is defined into a broad pale band at night (Ref. 48636 ). Males develop a gibbus forehead.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs solitary or in pairs in seaward reefs (Ref. 90102 ). Usually over rocky or coral substrates, at boulder-strewn slopes at the base of high-island cliffs where it may occur in large schools. Large adult usually on upper parts of deep slopes, but seen to about 35 m depth (Ref. 48636 ). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302 ). Feeds on benthic algae (Ref. 30573 ). A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367 ). An uncommon species (Ref. 9338 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205 ). Sex change occurs at 37.4 cm TL and 13 years of age (Ref. 55367 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Westneat, Mark | Collaborators

Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene , 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Least Concern (LC)  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.3 (based on 3457 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00820 - 0.02023), b=3.09 (2.96 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  2.0   ±0.00 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=20; K >0.30). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   High .

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