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Strongylura scapularis (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)
SHOULDERSPOT NEEDLEFISH
Yellowfin needlefish

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Belonidae   Strongylura

Strongylura scapularis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Strongylura scapularis

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Strongylura scapularis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Strongylura scapularis
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • slender, elongate; beak relatively long
  • scales before dorsal fin has 172-243 rays
  • c: base no keel, fin slightly concave
  • pectoral: 9-10

Dorsal rays 13-15; anal rays 15-17; pectoral rays 9-11 (usually 10); about 172-242 scales before dorsal fin; body relatively elongate and slender, rounded in cross section; upper and lower jaws greatly elongated, with sharp teeth; no gill rakers; tail base without lateral keels and not strongly depressed; tail slightly concave.

Brownish or olive on back, silvery on sides; wide grey stripe along flank; black color at junction of cheek and operculum extends down to lower edge of eye; bone before eye intensely pigmented.

Size: grows to at least 40 cm.

Habitat: coastal seas, entering estuaries and river mouths.

Depth: 0-10 m?.

El Salvador to Peru.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 10 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: bony fishes; Pelagic crustacea.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=14; Southern limit=-12; Western limit=-89; Eastern limit=-76; Latitudinal range=26; Longitudinal range=13.
Egg Type: Benthic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Estuary; Water column; Freshwater.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 40 cm.
Regional Endemism: Continent; Continent only; TEP endemic; Continental TEP endemic; Panamic province endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Freshwater; Marine.
Water Column Position: Surface; Water column only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Banford, H.M., Bermingham, E. and Collette, B.B., 2004., Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of transisthmian and amphi-Atlantic needlefishes (Belonidae: Strongylura and Tylosurus): perspectives on new world marine speciation., Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 31:833-851.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1916., Cold-Blooded Vertebrates from Costa Rica and the Canal Zone., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 68:389-414.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Gilbert, C.H., 1882., Descriptions of nineteen new species of fishes from the Bay of Panama., Bull. U.S. Fish Comm., 1:306-335.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Lovejoy , N. R. and Collette, B. B., 2001., Phylogenetic relationships of new world needlefishes (Teleostei: Belonidae) and the biogeography of transitions between marine and freshwater habitats., Copeia, 2001:324-338.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Phillips, P. C., 1981., Annotated Checklist of Fishes at Jiquilisco Bay, El Salvador., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 29:45-58.
  • Rubio , R. E. A. and Estupiñan, F., 1990., Ictiofauna del Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga, un Analisis de su Estructura y Perspectivas para su Manejo., Memorias del VII Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias y Tecnologías del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :660-670.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Starks, E. C., 1906., On a Collection of fishes made by P. O. Simons in Ecuador and Peru., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 30:761-800.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Strongylura scapularis (Jordan & Gilbert , 1882)

Shoulderspot needlefish Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Strongylura scapularis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Strongylura scapularis (Shoulderspot needlefish) Strongylura scapularis
Picture by Robertson, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes (Needle fishes) > Belonidae (Needlefishes)
Etymology: Strongylura: Greek, strongylos = round + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 0 - ? m.   Tropical; 13°N -

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: El Salvador to Peru.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9279 ); common length : 33.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9279 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12-15; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 14 - 18; Vertebrae : 61 - 66. Caudal fin emarginate (Ref. 9279 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Common in coastal waters and lagoons with mangroves (Ref. 9279 ). Also found near the surface of offshore waters (Ref. 11035 ). Feeds mainly on small fishes (Ref. 9279 ). Oviparous (Ref. 205 ). Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface (Ref. 205 ). Usually caught with the help of artificial lights (Ref. 9279 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Collette, Bruce B. | Collaborators

Collette, B.B. , 1995. Belonidae. Agujones, maraos. p. 919-926. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9279 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 21 May 2007

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00123 (0.00053 - 0.00284), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.2   ±0.73 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   High .

Entered by Garilao, Cristina V. Modified by Reyes, Rodolfo B. Fish Forum
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