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Tipula oleracea
MARSH CRANE FLY
Leatherjackets-larvae

Life   Insecta   Diptera   Tipulidae   Tipula

Tipula oleracea
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tipula oleracea

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Tipula oleracea
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tipula oleracea
Tipula oleracea
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tipula oleracea

Tipula oleracea
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tipula oleracea
Tipula oleracea
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tipula oleracea

Tipula oleracea
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tipula oleracea
Tipula oleracea
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tipula oleracea

Tipula oleracea
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tipula oleracea
Tipula oleracea
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tipula oleracea

Tipula oleracea
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tipula oleracea
Tipula oleracea
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tipula oleracea

Tipula oleracea
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tipula oleracea
Tipula oleracea
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tipula oleracea

Tipula oleracea
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tipula oleracea
Tipula oleracea
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tipula oleracea
Names
Marsh Crane Fly

Geographic distribution
Canada, USA (in the west from BC south to Calif, in the east from Mich to NY);; Austria, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Rep., Denmark, France (incl. Corsica), Germany, Great Britain, Greece (mainland and Karpathos and Kriti only), Hungary, Ireland, Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily), Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (incl. Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza, Canary Is), Sweden (south), Switzerland; Lithuania, Ukraine; Russia: CET (Kalingradskaya obl., south), SET (west); Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia;; Ecuador.

Natural history
Size (wing length): 17-24mm, 11-15/16 in.

How to encounter
Adult active period: April, May, June, July, September

Habitat
gardens, pastures, or meadows, usually beneath turf

Economic impact
destroying grasses in Germany (Ewert 1899), serious injury to pastures and meadows in England (Ormerod 1885, 1886, 1900), serious pest of grainfields and meadows in Ireland (Anonymous reference 1904b) serious injury to meadows, pastures, cereals, young cabbage plants of Norway (Schoyen 1903), Injury to Italian rice fields (Del Guercio 1914), injury to canes (raspberry, strawberry, and others) in France (Barthou 1913), injury to meadows in France (Désoil 1914) and Holland (Ritzema Bos 1915),

damage or destruction of:
barley (Goriatchkovsky 1915)
onions and garlic, Russia (Vassiliev 1915)
cabbage (Schoyen (Norway) 1903, Averin (Russia) 1913, Goriatchkovsky (Russia) 1915)
buckwheat, Russia (Goriatchkovsky 1915)
raspberry and strawberry, France (Barthou 1913)
clover, Italy (Del Guercio 1914)
potatoes, Germany (Beling 1887)

from The Crane Flies of New York, Alexander 1919


Links to other sites
Crane Fly Identification
http://whatcom.wsu.edu/cranefly/CFid2.htm


Catalogue of the Craneflies of the World
http://ip30.eti.uva.nl/ccw/index.php


entry at The Crane Flies of Pennsylvania website
http://iz.carnegiemnh.org/cranefly/tipulinae.htm#Tipula_(Tipula)

References

The Crane Flies of New York, Alexander 1919

Peck, D.C., E.R. Hoebeke & C. Klass. 2006. Detection and establishment of the European crane flies Tipula paludosa Meigen and Tipula oleracea L. (Diptera: Tipulidae) in New York: a review of their distribution, invasion history, and recognition. Proceeding of the Entomological Society of Washington 108(4): 985-994.

Invasive Crane Fly Fact Sheet
http://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/factsheets/turfgrass/ecf.pdf


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Tipula oleracea
Tipula oleracea
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© 2008 Luigi Rignanese

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