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Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb.
Large-Flowered Trillium

Life   Plantae   Monocotyledoneae   Liliaceae   Trillium

Trillium grandiflorum, Large- flowered Trilllium
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 5
Trillium grandiflorum, Large- flowered Trilllium

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Trillium grandiflorum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trillium grandiflorum
Trillium grandiflorum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trillium grandiflorum

Trillium grandiflorum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trillium grandiflorum
Trillium grandiflorum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trillium grandiflorum

Trillium grandiflorum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trillium grandiflorum
Trillium grandiflorum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trillium grandiflorum

Trillium grandiflorum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trillium grandiflorum
Trillium grandiflorum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trillium grandiflorum

Trillium grandiflorum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trillium grandiflorum
Trillium grandiflorum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Trillium grandiflorum

Trillium grandiflorum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 3
Trillium grandiflorum
Trillium grandiflorum
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 3
Trillium grandiflorum

Trillium grandiflorum, pollen
© Copyright UDEL Pollen 2014 · 1
Trillium grandiflorum, pollen
Trillium grandiflorum
© John Pickering, 2004-2019 · 1
Trillium grandiflorum

Trillium grandiflorum.JP80179_20.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
Trillium grandiflorum

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Andrenidae  Andrena arabis @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Andrena erythronii @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Andrena regularis @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Apidae  Bombus bimaculatus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Ceratina calcarata @ AMNH_BEE (3)
Dermateaceae  Gloeosporium brunneomaculatum @ BPI (1)
Halictidae  Augochlora pura @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Augochlorella aurata @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Lasioglossum coeruleum @ CUIC_ENT (3)

Lasioglossum foxii @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Septoria trillii @ BPI (17)
Pucciniaceae  Uromyces halstedii @ BPI (5)
Turritellidae  Vermicularia peckii @ BPI (1)
Urocystaceae  Urocystis trillii @ BPI (2)

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Following modified from Delaware Wildflowers
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Delaware Wildflowers  •  Scientific names

Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salis. Great White Trillium
Trilliaceae — Trillium family
Trillium grandiflorum
Trillium grandiflorum was planted at Brandywine Creek State Park by the former owner. Brandywine Creek State Park
April 2002 Trillium grandiflorum
The flowers turn pink as they age. Brandywine Creek State Park
April 2004 Trillium grandiflorum
Brandywine Creek State Park
April 2012

Search Google Delaware USDA

Photos copyright David G. Smith

Delaware Wildflowers main page

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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRGR4 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRGR4
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRGR4 ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=TRGR4
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=TRGR4 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=TRGR4
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Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb.
white trillium

Image of Trillium grandiflorum

General Information
Symbol: TRGR4
Group: Monocot
Family: Liliaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Forb/herb
Native Status : CAN   N
L48   N
Other Common Names: great white trillium
white wakerobin
Data Source and Documentation
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Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   


click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Trillium thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

©Thomas G. Barnes. Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Barnes, T.G., and S.W. Francis. 2004. Wildflowers and ferns of Kentucky . University Press of Kentucky. Usage Requirements .

©Jim Stasz. Usage Requirements .

©Jim Stasz. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 525. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .




Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Liliopsida – Monocotyledons
Subclass Liliidae
Order Liliales
Family Liliaceae – Lily family
Genus Trillium L. – trillium
Species Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb. – white trillium

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
Maine large white-trillium Endangered
New York white trillium Exploitably Vulnerable

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (TRGR4)
CalPhotos (TRGR4)
Flora of North America (TRGR4)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (TRGR4)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (TRGR4)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (TRGR4)
Native Plants Network (TRGR4)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (TRGR4)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (TRGR4)
Related Websites
Canada-Official Plants of Ontario (TRGR4)



Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds


Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

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Following modified from Flora of North America
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Link to Flora of North America home
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FNA Vol. 26 Page 99 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 26 | Liliaceae | Trillium

5. Trillium grandiflorum (Michaux) Salisbury, Parad. Lond. 1: plate 1. 1805.

White trillium, great white trillium, white wake-robin, trille grandiflore

Trillium rhomboideum Michaux var. grandiflorum Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 216. 1803; T. erythrocarpum Curtis 1805, not Michaux 1803

Rhizomes short, thick, praemorse. Scapes (1—)2—3(—many), round in cross section, 1.5—3+ dm, thick, glabrous. Bracts sessile or subsessile (occasionally weakly cuneate basally); blade dark green with maroon overtones early, ovate-rhombic, 12—20 × 8—15 cm, apex acuminate. Flower outfacing, erect, odorless; sepals spreading, flat, green, very rarely streaked with maroon-purple, lanceolate, 20—55 × 12—23 mm, margins entire, apex acuminate or acute; petals erect basally, recurving somewhat above middle to produce strongly funnelform corolla, obscuring ovary and base of style, white or rarely pink, without V-shaped or other markings, fading to dull pinkish purple, veins of adaxial surface conspicuous but not appearing engraved, shape variable, lanceolate to oblong, obovate, or, rarely, suborbicular, sides often parallel, 4—7.5 × 2—4 cm, thin-textured, base abruptly attenuate, margins overlapping basally, rolled, undulate-wavy in distal 1/2, apex ± acuminate; stamens straight or barely recurved, 9—27 mm; filaments white, much shorter than anthers, relatively thin; anthers recurving slightly, pale yellow, strongly yellow when pollen exposed, long, 5—16 mm, slender, dehiscence introrse; ovary inconspicuous, pale green or white, ovoid, 6-angled, 8—18 mm, basal attachment narrower than ovary width; style barely united for 0.5—2 mm or merely closely grouped and separate; stigmas erect, becoming spreading, weakly connate basally, pale green-white, uniformly linear, 3—18 mm, equaling or exceeding ovary, slender; pedicel erect-ascending to strongly erect, 2—8+ cm. Fruits pale green, odorless, ± globose, obscurely 6-angled, 1.2—1.6 × 0.8—1.4 cm, mealy, moist (not juicy). 2n = 10.

Late spring--early summer (Apr--Jun). Rich deciduous or mixed coniferous-deciduous upland woods, floodplains, roadsides; 20--700 m; N.S., Ont., Que.; Conn., Del., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Most variants of Trillium grandiflorum have green stripes or markings on the petals, many with numerous (4—30+) extra petals and/or bracts, and, often, much-deformed, monstrous characteristics. G. R. Hooper et al. (1971) showed that mycoplasmic organisms were present in all such forms examined, and were absent from normal plants. Most such forms should not be named taxonomically but, unfortunately, many have been. Nearly all of those that I examined represented stages in the development of the mycoplasma infection. Trillium grandiflorum, unlike most trilliums, produces many-petaled "double" forms. Forma roseum Farwell, opening a striking clear salmon-pink, occurs very rarely throughout the range, but is frequent in mixed or pure colonies along the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia.


Patrick, T. S. 1973. Observations on the Life History of Trillium grandiflorum (Michaux) Salisbury. M.A. thesis. Cornell University.

Following modified from CalPhotos
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