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Trillium recurvatum Beck
BLOODY BUTCHER
Prairie Trillium

Life   Plantae   Monocotyledoneae   Liliaceae   Trillium

Trillium recurvatum, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium recurvatum, inflorescence - whole - unspecified

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Trillium recurvatum, stem - showing leaf bases
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium recurvatum, stem - showing leaf bases
Trillium recurvatum, leaf - on upper stem
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium recurvatum, leaf - on upper stem

Trillium recurvatum, inflorescence - lateral view of flower
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium recurvatum, inflorescence - lateral view of flower
Trillium recurvatum, whole plant - in flower - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium recurvatum, whole plant - in flower - general view

Trillium recurvatum, whole plant - in flower - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium recurvatum, whole plant - in flower - general view
Trillium recurvatum, leaf - on upper stem
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium recurvatum, leaf - on upper stem

Trillium recurvatum, inflorescence - lateral view of flower
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium recurvatum, inflorescence - lateral view of flower
Trillium recurvatum, whole plant - in flower - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium recurvatum, whole plant - in flower - general view

Trillium recurvatum, inflorescence - closeup of flower interior
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Trillium recurvatum, inflorescence - closeup of flower interior
Trillium recurvatum, leaf and flower
© Kay Yatskievych, 2003 · 1
Trillium recurvatum, leaf and flower

Trillium recurvatum, leaf and flower
© Kay Yatskievych, 2003 · 1
Trillium recurvatum, leaf and flower

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Glomerellaceae  Colletotrichum peckii @ BPI (2)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Septoria trillii @ BPI (9)
Pucciniaceae  Uromyces halstedii @ BPI (1)

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Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
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Trillium recurvatum L.C. Beck

Purple Trillium, Bloody Butcher, Purple Wake Robin

Trillium recurvatum plant

Family - Liliaceae

Stems - To +30cm tall, erect, glabrous, herbaceous, greenish above, purplish near base, simple, from short rhizomes.

Leaves - In a single whorl of 3(rarely 4) at the apex of the stem, with a short but distinct petiole. Petiole to 1cm long, glabrous. Blade elliptic-ovate, glabrous, entire, acute, mottled above, light green below, to +12cm long.

Trillium recurvatum leaf

Inflorescence - Single terminal sessile flower.

Flowers - Petals 3, erect and converging over the stamens, maroon (rarely yellowish), glabrous, tapering to a claw at base, acute, 2.7-3cm long, 9-10mm broad. Stamens 6, adnate at base of petals and sepals, erect, converging over the pistil. Filaments maroon, 3mm long, glabrous. Anthers dark purple, 7-8mm long, falcate. Ovary superior, 3-sided but each side parted so appearing 6-angled, 4mm long(tall), glabrous, green, 3-locular. Styles 3, purple, slightly spreading, 3.5mm long. Placentation axile. Seeds (ovules) many. Sepals 3, recurved, lanceolate, glabrous, entire, 2-3cm long, 7-10mm broad, green.

Trillium recurvatum flower

Trillium recurvatum stamens Stamens close-up.

Flowering - April - May.

Habitat - Mesic bottoms, slopes, ravines, mesic forests.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Other info. - T. recurvatum is common in the most southern and eastern counties of Missouri but is infrequent elsewhere in the state. The plants prefer shaded areas and moist soils. A similar species, T. sessile  L. has leaves which are sessile and sepals which are spreading to erect at anthesis. T. sessile is much more common in Missouri.

Photographs taken at Big Spring State Park, Carter County, MO., 4-15-01, and at Prairie Fork Conservation Area, Callaway County, MO., 4-22-04.


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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA Vol. 26 Page 91, 94, 114 , 115 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 26 | Liliaceae | Trillium

32. Trillium recurvatum L. C. Beck, Amer. J. Sci. Arts. 11: 178. 1826.

Prairie trillium, toadshade, bloody noses

Rhizomes horizontal, white, slender, elongated, brittle. Scapes typically 1(—3), round in cross section, 1.5—4.8 dm, slender to robust, glabrous. Bracts held well above ground, strongly petiolate; blade at first strongly mottled in darker green or bronze, mottling fading with seasonal expansion after anthesis, rarely all green, ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, 6—18 × 2.5—6.5 cm, not glossy, apex acuminate; petiole ca. 1/5 bract length. Flower erect, fragrance not reported; sepals strongly recurved basally and held against scape by turgor pressure, green, sometimes purple-streaked, ovate-lanceolate, 18—35 × 6—18 mm, margins entire, apex acute; petals long-lasting, erect, ± connivent, ± concealing stamens and ovary, dark maroon purple to clear yellow, occasionally 2-colored with purple and yellow, not spirally twisted, lanceolate to ovate, 1.8—4.8 × 0.9—2 cm, thick-textured, base attenuate to weakly clawed, margins entire, apex acute; stamens incurved, 10—15 mm; filaments erect, dark purple, 4—6 mm, ± slender; anthers strongly incurved above filaments, dark purple, 5—16 mm, ± thick, dehiscence introrse; connectives strongly incurved inward, dark purple, projecting about 1 mm beyond anther sacs; ovary greenish with ± purple stains distally, transversely rhombic to angular-ovate, somewhat 6-angled or -winged, 7—10 mm, ± equaling filament height; stigmas erect, divergent-recurved, distinct, ± linear, 4—6 mm, slightly thickened basally. Fruits green to white- and purple-streaked, odorless, rhomboid-ovoid, 6-angled, almost winged, ca. 1 cm diam., pulpy. 2n = 10.

Flowering spring (late Mar--late May). Rich clayey floodplain soils, plants often temporarily inundated while in flower; rich moist woods and bluffs, limestone-derived soils; 100--200 m; Ala., Ark., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., La., Mich., Miss., Mo., Ohio, Tenn., Tex., Wis.

Trillium recurvatum has several named color forms, most notably forma shayi E. J. Palmer & Steyermark with clear yellow petals, and one foliose anomaly (possibly caused by mycoplasma).

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Trillium+recurvatum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Trillium+recurvatum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 7
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Trillium recurvatum%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Trillium recurvatum
Trillium recurvatum
ID: 0000 0000 0409 1684 [detail]
© 2009 Jason E. Willand

Trillium recurvatum
Trillium recurvatum
ID: 0000 0000 0409 1685 [detail]
© 2009 Jason E. Willand

Trillium recurvatum
Trillium recurvatum
ID: 0000 0000 0409 1686 [detail]
© 2009 Jason E. Willand

Trillium recurvatum
Trillium recurvatum
Bloody Butcher
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5192 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Trillium recurvatum
Trillium recurvatum
Bloody Butcher
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5193 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Trillium recurvatum
Trillium recurvatum
Bloody Butcher
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5194 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Trillium recurvatum
Trillium recurvatum
Bloody Butcher
ID: 0000 1111 1234 5195 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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