D I S C O V E R    L I F E   
Bee Hunt! Odonata Lepidoptera 
  HomeAll Living ThingsIDnature guidesGlobal mapperAlbumsLabelsSearch
  AboutNewsEventsResearchEducationProjectsStudy sitesHelp


Tsuga canadensis (L. ) Carrière
EASTERN HEMLOCK-SPRUCE
Eastern hemlock

Life   Plantae   Gymnospermae   Pinaceae   Tsuga

Tsuga canadensis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Tsuga canadensis

Click on map for details about points.

Links
80x5 - 240x3 - 240x4 - 320x1 - 320x2 - 320x3 - 640x1 - 640x2
Set display option above.
Click on images to enlarge.
Tsuga canadensis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Tsuga canadensis
Tsuga canadensis, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga canadensis, inflorescence - whole - unspecified

Tsuga canadensis, cone - female - receptive
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga canadensis, cone - female - receptive
Tsuga canadensis, cone - female - receptive
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga canadensis, cone - female - receptive

Tsuga canadensis, cone - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga canadensis, cone - male
Tsuga canadensis, cone - female - closed
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga canadensis, cone - female - closed

Tsuga canadensis, whole tree - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga canadensis, whole tree - general
Tsuga canadensis, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga canadensis, leaf - showing orientation on twig

Tsuga canadensis, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga canadensis, bark - of a large tree
Tsuga canadensis, whole tree - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga canadensis, whole tree - general

Tsuga canadensis, whole tree - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga canadensis, whole tree - general
Tsuga canadensis, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga canadensis, bark - of a large tree

Tsuga canadensis, whole tree - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga canadensis, whole tree - view up trunk
Tsuga canadensis, whole tree - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga canadensis, whole tree - view up trunk

Adelges tsugae:_on_Tsuga_canadensis_branch_bottom.JP80233_02.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
Adelges tsugae: on Tsuga canadensis branch bottom
JP80233_02
Adelges tsugae:_on_Tsuga_canadensis_branch_bottom.JP80233_03.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
Adelges tsugae: on Tsuga canadensis branch bottom
JP80233_03

Adelges tsugae:_on_Tsuga_canadensis_branch_top.JP80233_04.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
Adelges tsugae: on Tsuga canadensis branch top
JP80233_04
Tsuga canadensis:_branch_bottom.JP80233_00.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
Tsuga canadensis: branch bottom
JP80233_00

Tsuga canadensis:_branch_top.JP80233_01.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
Tsuga canadensis: branch top
JP80233_01
Identification
Several characters are used to tell T. canadensis and T. caroliniana apart:
  • Leaf tips
    • caroliniana = notched to rounded
    • canadensis = rounded to acute
  • Leaf length
    • caroliniana = lateral and dorsal leaves approx same length
    • canadensis = lateral and dorsal leaves dimorphic with the dorsal (along the upper surface of the stem) being generally less than half the length and *turned over* exposing the undersurface

Names
Scientific source:

Supported by

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Pinaceae  Tsuga canadensis @ I_JP (2)

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Adelgidae  Adelges tsugae @ I_JP (3)
Annulatascaceae  Ceratostomella pilifera @ BPI (1)
Atheliaceae  Athelia tessulata @ BPI (1)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Dothiorella @ BPI (1)
Capnodiaceae  Scorias spongiosa @ 699422A (1); BPI (1)
Ceratobasidiaceae  Ceratobasidium atratum @ BPI (1)
Chlamydomonadaceae  Sphaerella conicola @ BPI (1)

Sphaerella conigena @ BPI (1)
Clavariaceae  Clavaria botrytis @ BPI (1)

Clavaria subdecurrens @ BPI (2)
Coniophoraceae  Coniophora arida @ BPI (1)

Coniophora byssoidea @ BPI (1)

Coniophora cerebella @ BPI (5)

Coniophora olivacea @ BPI (1)

Coniophora olivascens @ BPI (1)

Coniophora polyporoidea @ BPI (1)

Coniophora puteana @ BPI (1)

Coniophora sistotremoides @ BPI (4)

Coniophora suffocata @ BPI (1)
Corticiaceae  Corticium abeuns @ BPI (2)

Corticium alboflavescens @ BPI (2)

Corticium bicolor @ BPI (2)

Corticium centrifugum @ BPI (1)

Corticium confluens @ BPI (1)

Corticium coronilla @ BPI (1)

Corticium fumosum @ BPI (1)

Corticium galactinum @ BPI (10)

Corticium lactescens @ BPI (1)

Corticium lacteum @ BPI (1)

Corticium macounii @ BPI (1)

Corticium mellinum @ BPI (1)

Corticium ochraceum @ BPI (2)

Corticium petersii @ BPI (3)

Corticium pilosum @ BPI (1)

Corticium pseudotsugae @ BPI (1)

Corticium radiosum @ BPI (6)

Corticium sphaerosporum @ BPI (1)

Corticium subpallidulum @ BPI (1)

Corticium sulphureum @ BPI (1)

Corticium tessulatum @ BPI (1)

Corticium tsugae @ BPI (1)

Corticium vagum @ BPI (3)

Corticium @ BPI (1)

Laeticorticium minnsiae @ BPI (44)
Coryneliaceae  Caliciopsis pinea @ BPI (3)
Corynidae  Coryne sarcoides @ BPI (1)
Cronartiaceae  Peridermium hydrangeae @ BPI (1)

Peridermium peckii @ BPI (4)

Peridermium @ BPI (2)
Cudoniaceae  Spathularia clavata @ BPI (1)
Dacrymycetaceae  Dacrymyces aurantia @ BPI (4)

Dacrymyces corticioides @ BPI (2)

Dacrymyces palmatus @ BPI (4)

Dacrymyces stillatus @ BPI (1)
Davidiellaceae  Cladosporium herbarum @ BPI (1)
Delphacidae  Stobaera tricarinata @ UDCC_NRI (1)
Dermateaceae  Chlorosplenium aeruginosum @ BPI (1)

Dermea balsamea @ 663975B (1); 663974A (1); 663975A (1); 663974B (1); BPI (47)
Diaporthaceae  Phomopsis juniperovora @ BPI (1)

Phomopsis occulta @ BPI (2)

Phomopsis @ BPI (2)
Diaspididae  Aspidiotus cryptomeriae @ CSCA_TCN (2)
Dothioraceae  Dothichiza @ BPI (1)
Eriococcidae  Keithia tsugae @ BPI (89)
Erysiphaceae  Oidium ramosissimum @ BPI (1)
Exidiaceae  Guepinia spathularia @ BPI (1)

Pseudohydnum gelatinosum @ BPI (9)
Fomitopsidaceae  Daedalea confragosa @ BPI (4)
Ganodermataceae  Ganoderma lucidum @ BPI (17)

Ganoderma oregonense @ BPI (1)

Ganoderma tsugae @ 236982A (1); BPI (61)
Helotiaceae  Cenangium balsameum @ 875906C (1); 875906A (1)

Cenangium farinaceum @ BPI (1)

Tympanis tsugae @ BPI (10)
Hemiphacidiaceae  Didymascella tsugae @ BPI (1)

Fabrella tsugae @ BPI (3)
Hericiaceae  Hericium coralloides @ BPI (1)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Dasyscyphus agassizii @ BPI (6)

Dasyscyphus ellisiana @ BPI (1)
Hydnaceae  Hydnum alboviride @ BPI (2)

Hydnum velatum @ BPI (2)
Hymenochaetaceae  Hymenochaete tabacina @ BPI (1)

Hymenochaete tenuis @ BPI (4)

Phellinus robustus @ BPI (1)
Hypocreaceae  Hypomyces apiculatus @ BPI (1)
Lachnocladiaceae  Vararia effuscata @ BPI (1)

Vararia investiens @ BPI (1)
Lygaeidae  Kleidocerys resedae @ NCSU (1)
Marasmiaceae  Armillaria mellea @ BPI (2)

Marasmius @ BPI (1)
Melampsoraceae  Melampsora abietis-canadensis @ BPI (217)

Melampsora farlowii @ BPI (19)
Melanconidaceae  Coryneum cupulatum @ BPI (2)
Meruliaceae  Merulius aureus @ BPI (4)

Merulius fugax @ BPI (1)

Merulius molluscus @ BPI (3)

Merulius tremellosus @ BPI (2)
Miridae  Atractotomus magnicornis @ AMNH_PBI (7)

Deraeocoris nubilus @ NCSU (1)

Dichrooscytus latifrons @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp10 sp_001 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp13 sp_001 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp7 sp_007 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Goodeniaphila cassisi @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Myrtlemiris yalgoo @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Parthenicus juniperi @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Phytocoris americanus @ AMNH_ENT (1); NCSU_ENT (17)

Pinalitus approximatus @ AMNH_ENT (22)

Plagiognathus tsugae @ AMNH_PBI (6); NCSU_ENT (98)

Psallovius piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Tupiocoris rhododendri @ NCSU (2)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Mycosphaerella conicola @ BPI (1)

Mycosphaerella conigena @ BPI (1)

Mycosphaerella tsugae @ BPI (2)

Rhabdospora pini @ BPI (1)
Mytilinidiaceae  Mytilinidion decipiens @ BPI (6)
Nectriaceae  Nectria episphaeria @ BPI (1)

Nectria @ BPI (2)
Nitschkiaceae  Coronophora abieticola @ BPI (1)
Odontasteridae  Asterodon ferruginosus @ BPI (8)
Papilionidae  Graphium smaragdinum @ BPI (1)
Parmeliaceae  Canoparmelia caroliniana @ GAL (1)

Parmotrema mellissii @ GAL (1)
Parodiopsidaceae  Dimeriella balsamicola @ BPI (30)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora anomala @ BPI (1)

Peniophora byssoides @ BPI (1)

Peniophora carnosa @ BPI (3)

Peniophora laxa @ BPI (3)

Peniophora piceina @ BPI (2)

Peniophora pusilla @ BPI (2)

Peniophora romellii @ BPI (1)

Peniophora sanguinea @ BPI (1)

Peniophora @ BPI (2)
Phacidiaceae  Phacidium tsugae @ 669551A (1); 669551B (1)
Pilocarpaceae  Byssoloma meadii @ I_JP (3)
Pinaceae  Tsuga canadensis @ I_JP (2)
Pleomassariaceae  Helminthosporium stromatoideum @ BPI (3)
Polyporaceae  Coriolus abietinus @ BPI (2)

Fomes annosus @ BPI (1)

Fomes applanatus @ BPI (3)

Fomes hartigii @ BPI (4)

Fomes palliseri @ BPI (1)

Fomes pini @ BPI (7)

Fomes pinicola @ BPI (23)

Fomes robustus @ BPI (8)

Fomes roseus @ BPI (6)

Fomes subroseus @ BPI (2)

Fomes tenuis @ BPI (1)

Fomes tsugae @ BPI (2)

Fomes ungulatus @ BPI (2)

Hirschioporus abietinus @ BPI (1)

Hirschioporus fuscoviolaceus @ BPI (1)

Lenzites abietina @ BPI (1)

Lenzites betulina @ BPI (5)

Lenzites saepiaria @ BPI (33)

Lenzites sepiaria @ BPI (1)

Lenzites trabea @ BPI (3)

Panus stipticus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus abietinus @ BPI (26)

Polyporus albellus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus anceps @ BPI (5)

Polyporus arcularius @ BPI (1)

Polyporus aurantiacus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus balsameus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus benzoinus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus borealis @ BPI (18)

Polyporus brumalis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus caesius @ BPI (6)

Polyporus cinnabarinus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus crispellus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus dichrous @ BPI (5)

Polyporus epileucus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fibrillosus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fissus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fragilis @ BPI (4)

Polyporus frondosus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus guttulatus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus immitis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus lapponicus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus lucidus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus mollis @ BPI (2)

Polyporus pargamenus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus picipes @ BPI (1)

Polyporus resinosus @ BPI (8)

Polyporus schweinitzii @ BPI (5)

Polyporus sulphureus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus tomentosus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus tsugae @ BPI (6)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (7)

Poria albolutea @ BPI (1)

Poria alutacea @ BPI (1)

Poria chromatica @ BPI (1)

Poria cinerascens @ BPI (3)

Poria conwayana @ BPI (1)

Poria ferruginosa @ BPI (1)

Poria illudens @ BPI (3)

Poria lenis @ BPI (2)

Poria lenta @ BPI (4)

Poria luteofimbriata @ BPI (1)

Poria macounii @ BPI (1)

Poria mollusca @ BPI (1)

Poria myceliosa @ BPI (2)

Poria nigrescens @ BPI (2)

Poria sericeo-mollis @ BPI (2)

Poria subacida @ BPI (35)

Poria subincarnata @ BPI (4)

Poria subtilis @ BPI (1)

Poria tsugina @ BPI (29)

Poria vitellina @ BPI (1)

Poria vulgaris @ BPI (2)

Poria xantha @ BPI (1)

Poria zonata @ BPI (1)

Poria @ BPI (2)

Trametes heteromorpha @ BPI (5)

Trametes isabellina @ BPI (1)

Trametes odorata @ BPI (1)

Trametes subrosea @ BPI (3)

Trametes variiformis @ BPI (2)

Trichaptum biforme @ BPI (1)
Pseudoperisporiaceae  Eudimeriolum tsugae @ BPI (1)
Pucciniastraceae  Pucciniastrum hydrangeae @ BPI (50)

Pucciniastrum minimum @ BPI (2)

Pucciniastrum myrtilli @ BPI (78)

Pucciniastrum vaccinii @ BPI (11)
Pyronemataceae  Otidea onotica @ BPI (1)
Reticulariaceae  Lycogala epidendrum @ BPI (1)
Rhytismataceae  Lophodermium @ BPI (1)

Propolis faginea @ BPI (1)

Propolis leonis @ BPI (1)

Propolis versicolor @ BPI (1)

Tryblidiopsis pinastri @ BPI (2)
Schizophyllaceae  Schizophyllum commune @ BPI (3)
Sclerotiniaceae  Botrytis cinerea @ BPI (1)
Sebacinaceae  Cristella sulphurea @ BPI (1)

Sebacina calcea @ BPI (1)

Sebacina @ BPI (1)
Serpulidae  Serpula americana @ BPI (1)

Serpula silvestris @ BPI (1)
Steccherinaceae  Irpex mollis @ BPI (1)

Odontia abietina @ BPI (1)

Odontia ambigua @ BPI (1)

Odontia aspera @ BPI (3)

Odontia farinacea @ BPI (3)

Odontia hydnoides @ BPI (1)

Odontia papillosa @ BPI (1)

Odontia spathulata @ BPI (1)

Odontia stipata @ BPI (1)

Odontia subcrinale @ BPI (1)

Steccherinum ochraceum @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Aleurodiscus amorphus @ BPI (1)

Aleurodiscus carnea @ BPI (5)

Aleurodiscus farlowii @ BPI (66)

Aleurodiscus minnsiae @ BPI (3)

Aleurodiscus penicillatus @ BPI (1)

Stereum abietinum @ BPI (1)

Stereum chailletii @ BPI (1)

Stereum fasciatum @ BPI (1)

Stereum leveilleanum @ BPI (2)

Stereum radiatum @ BPI (7)

Stereum rugosum @ BPI (1)

Stereum sanguinolentum @ BPI (19)

Stereum sulcatum @ BPI (4)

Stereum @ BPI (1)
Stictidaceae  Stictis tsugae @ BPI (1)
Strophariaceae  Pholiota squarrosa @ BPI (3)

Pholiota squarrosoides @ BPI (1)
Thelotremataceae  Thelotrema lepadinum @ BPI (1)
Thysanophoridae  Thysanophora canadensis @ BPI (1)

Thysanophora longispora @ BPI (1)
Tricholomataceae  Collybia borealis @ BPI (1)

Omphalia campanella @ BPI (4)

Trogia crispa @ BPI (2)

Xeromphalina campanella @ BPI (1)
Trichosphaeriaceae  Trichosphaeria @ BPI (1)
Turritellidae  Vermicularia @ BPI (1)
Ulvaceae  Solenia candida @ BPI (1)

Solenia fasciculata @ BPI (1)

Solenia polyporoidea @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora curreyi @ BPI (2)

Leucostoma kunzei @ BPI (1)

Radulum orbiculare @ BPI (3)

Valsa abietis @ BPI (6)

Valsa kunzei @ BPI (1)
Xylariaceae  Hypoxylon fuscum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon @ BPI (1)

Rosellinia herpotrichioides @ BPI (2)

Rosellinia @ BPI (2)

Xylaria cornu-damae @ BPI (1)
_  Adelopus balsamicola @ BPI (1)

Adelopus nudus @ BPI (1)

Bactridium flavum @ BPI (1)

Caeoma abietis-canadensis @ BPI (5)

Caeoma @ BPI (1)

Caldesiella ferruginosa @ BPI (1)

Clithris @ BPI (1)

Coccospora aurantiaca @ BPI (1)

Coriolellus heteromorphus @ BPI (1)

Cryptosporium pini @ BPI (2)

Dimerosporium tsugae @ BPI (2)

Gelatinosporium abietinum @ BPI (19)

Grandinia granulosa @ BPI (1)

Heterothecium pezizoideum @ BPI (1)

Hypochnus botryoides @ BPI (1)

Hypochnus flavovirens @ BPI (1)

Hypochnus fumosus @ BPI (1)

Hypochnus olivascens @ BPI (1)

Hypochnus spongiosus @ BPI (1)

Karschia lignyota @ BPI (1)

Lopodium disciformis @ I_GBP (1)

Metarhiziopsis microspora @ BPI (1)

Microcera erumpens @ BPI (6)

Microxyphium footii @ 699422B (1)

Mycothyridium lividum @ BPI (2)

Necium farlowii @ 147209A (1); BPI (8); 147209B (1)

Pellicularia cystidiata @ BPI (1)

Pellicularia subcoronata @ BPI (1)

Pellicularia vaga @ BPI (5)

Sirococcus conigenus @ BPI (1)

Sporidesmium caespitosum @ BPI (2)

Thekopsora vaccinii @ BPI (1)

Thekopsora vacciniorum @ BPI (13)

fallventures 077 @ I_EHJP (1)

go to Discover Life's Facebook group

Following modified from The Gymnosperm Database
   Top | See original

&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://conifers.org/pi/ts/canadensis.php

Following modified from US Forest Service
   Top | See original

&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/tsuga/canadensis.htm

Following modified from Virginia Tech Dendrology
   Top | See original

&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 500 Can't connect to www.cnr.vt.edu:80 (Name or service not known) http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/tcanadensis.htm

Following served from American Museum of Natural History, Plant Bug AMNH_PBI00002856 nsw%201995%20l12%20h017
   
Top | See original context

Following served from American Museum of Natural History, Plant Bug AMNH_PBI00003315 wa%201996%20l11%20h025b
   
Top | See original context

Following served from American Museum of Natural History, Plant Bug AMNH_PBI00003315 wa%201996%20l11%20h025
   
Top | See original context

Following served from American Museum of Natural History, Plant Bug AMNH_PBI00007470 wa%201997%20l46%20h078
   
Top | See original context

Following served from American Museum of Natural History, Plant Bug AMNH_PBI00001087 wa%201996%20l26%20h088
   
Top | See original context

Following modified from Flora of North America
   
Top | See original

Link to Flora of North America home
 
All Floras       Advanced Search
FNA Vol. 2 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 2 | Pinaceae | Tsuga

3. Tsuga canadensis (Linnaeus) Carrière, 189. 1855.

Eastern hemlock, pruche du Canada

Pinus canadensis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 2: 1471. 1763

Trees to 30m; trunk to 1.5m diam.; crown broadly conic. Bark brownish, scaly and fissured. Twigs yellow-brown, densely pubescent. Buds ovoid, 1.5--2.5mm. Leaves (5--)15--20(--25)mm, mostly appearing 2-ranked, flattened; abaxial surface glaucous, with 2 broad, conspicuous stomatal bands, adaxial surface shiny green (yellow-green); margins minutely dentate, especially toward apex. Seed cones ovoid, 1.5--2.5 ´ 1--1.5cm; scales ovate to cuneate, 8--12 ´ 7--10mm, apex ± round, often projected outward. 2 n =24.

Moist rocky ridges, ravines, and hillsides; 600--1800m; N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Ala., Conn., Del., Ga., Ind., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Numerous cultivars of Tsuga canadensis have been developed, including compact shrubs, dwarfs, and graceful trees. Wood of the species tends to be brittle and inferior to that of the other North American hemlocks.

Eastern hemlock ( Tsuga canadensis ) is the state tree of Pennsylvania.

Updated: 2021-05-09 20:41:54 gmt
Discover Life | Top
© Designed by The Polistes Corporation