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Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. ) Sarg.
WESTERN HEMLOCK-SPRUCE
Abies heterophylla Raf; Tsuga albertiana (A Murray bis) Sénéclauze; Tsuga mertensiana auct, non Carrière; Western hemlock

Life   Plantae   Gymnospermae   Pinaceae   Tsuga

Tsuga heterophylla, whole tree - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga heterophylla, whole tree - view up trunk

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Tsuga heterophylla, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga heterophylla, cone - female - mature open
Tsuga heterophylla, whole tree - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga heterophylla, whole tree - view up trunk

Tsuga heterophylla, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga heterophylla, bark - of a large tree
Tsuga heterophylla, whole tree - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga heterophylla, whole tree - view up trunk

Tsuga heterophylla, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga heterophylla, leaf - showing orientation on twig
Tsuga heterophylla, leaf - entire needle
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga heterophylla, leaf - entire needle

Tsuga heterophylla, twig - showing attachment of needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga heterophylla, twig - showing attachment of needles
Tsuga heterophylla, twig - after fallen needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Tsuga heterophylla, twig - after fallen needles

Tsuga heterophylla
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tsuga heterophylla
Tsuga heterophylla
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tsuga heterophylla

Tsuga heterophylla
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tsuga heterophylla
Tsuga heterophylla
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tsuga heterophylla

Tsuga heterophylla
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tsuga heterophylla
Tsuga heterophylla
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Tsuga heterophylla

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Annulatascaceae  Ceratostomella @ BPI (1)
Aphididae  Cinara ( @ AMNH_PBI (2)
Auriculariaceae  Auricularia auricula @ BPI (3)
Bolbitiaceae  Naucoria bellula @ BPI (1)
Botryobasidiaceae  Botryobasidium danicum @ BPI (1)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Botryosphaeria tsugae @ BPI (1)
Chionosphaeraceae  Stilbum resinarium @ BPI (1)
Coniophoraceae  Coniophora corrugis @ BPI (1)

Coniophora puteana @ BPI (1)
Corticiaceae  Corticium arachnoideum @ BPI (1)

Corticium berkeleyi @ BPI (1)

Corticium byssinum @ BPI (1)

Corticium corruge @ BPI (1)

Corticium giganteum @ BPI (4)

Corticium hariotii @ BPI (2)

Corticium lembosporum @ BPI (1)

Corticium ochraceum @ BPI (1)

Corticium pelliculare @ BPI (1)

Corticium subseriale @ BPI (1)

Corticium tessulatum @ BPI (1)

Corticium vagum @ BPI (1)

Corticium @ BPI (1)
Corynidae  Coryne sarcoides @ BPI (3)
Dacrymycetaceae  Dacrymyces aurantia @ BPI (11)

Dacrymyces palmatus @ BPI (2)
Dermateaceae  Atropellis treleasei @ BPI (1)

Chlorosplenium aeruginascens @ BPI (1)

Chlorosplenium @ BPI (1)

Mollisia pinastri @ BPI (1)
Echinodontiaceae  Echinodontium tinctorium @ BPI (9)
Elaphomycetaceae  Elaphomyces granulatus @ BPI (1)
Entolomataceae  Claudopus nidulans @ BPI (1)
Eriococcidae  Keithia @ BPI (1)
Exidiaceae  Exidia recisa @ BPI (1)
Ganodermataceae  Ganoderma lucidum @ BPI (1)

Ganoderma oregonense @ BPI (2)

Ganoderma tsugae @ BPI (2)
Glomerellaceae  Colletotrichum acutatum @ BPI (1)
Helotiaceae  Godronia treleasei @ BPI (1)
Hemiphacidiaceae  Fabrella tsugae @ BPI (1)
Hericiaceae  Hericium abietis @ BPI (5)

Hericium ramosum @ BPI (1)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Cistella parksii @ BPI (1)

Dasyscyphus agassizii @ BPI (1)

Dasyscyphus arida @ BPI (1)

Dasyscyphus calyciformis @ BPI (1)

Dasyscyphus @ BPI (3)

Lachnellula chrysophthalma @ BPI (4)

Lachnellula @ BPI (1)
Hydnaceae  Hydnum @ BPI (1)
Hymenochaetaceae  Hymenochaete fimbriata @ BPI (1)

Hymenochaete spreta @ BPI (1)

Hymenochaete tabacina @ BPI (8)

Hymenochaete tenuis @ BPI (3)
Lachnocladiaceae  Scytinostroma arachnoideum @ BPI (1)
Lophiostomataceae  Herpotrichia nigra @ BPI (2)
Lygaeidae  Kleidocerys @ AMNH_PBI (33)
Marasmiaceae  Armillaria mellea @ BPI (3)
Melampsoraceae  Melampsora epitea @ BPI (1)
Meruliaceae  Merulius tremellosus @ BPI (1)

Phlebia albida @ BPI (3)
Microascaceae  Graphium rigidum @ BPI (1)
Microthyriaceae  Microthyrium harrimani @ BPI (1)
Miridae  Atractotomus cooperi @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Deraeocoris piceicola @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Dichaetocoris gillespiei @ AMNH_ENT (2)

Lygocoris pabulinus @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Phytocoris neglectus @ AMNH_PBI (9); AMNH_ENT (2)

Pinalitus approximatus @ AMNH_ENT (6)

Psallovius piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Mytilinidiaceae  Lophium mytilinum @ BPI (1)
Nectriaceae  Nectria cinnabarina @ 551358B (1); 551358A (1)

Nectria episphaeria @ BPI (1)

Nectria neomacrospora @ BPI (2)
Odontasteridae  Asterodon ferruginosus @ BPI (2)
Parodiellaceae  Parodiella @ BPI (1)
Parodiopsidaceae  Dimeriella balsamicola @ BPI (23)

Dimeriella tsugae @ BPI (5)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora carnosa @ BPI (8)

Peniophora crassa @ BPI (2)

Peniophora gigantea @ BPI (2)

Peniophora glebulosa @ 286276B (1); 286276A (1)

Peniophora globifera @ BPI (4)

Peniophora nivea @ BPI (1)

Peniophora @ BPI (1)
Pezizaceae  Peziza @ BPI (1)
Pleosporaceae  Epicoccum atropunctum @ BPI (2)
Pleurotaceae  Pleurotus ostreatus @ BPI (1)

Pleurotus pulmonarius @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Fomes annosus @ BPI (27)

Fomes applanatus @ BPI (8)

Fomes carneus @ BPI (1)

Fomes hartigii @ BPI (2)

Fomes laricis @ BPI (1)

Fomes nigrolimitatus @ BPI (3)

Fomes nobilissimus @ BPI (1)

Fomes officinalis @ BPI (1)

Fomes pini @ BPI (16)

Fomes pinicola @ BPI (17)

Fomes putearius @ BPI (1)

Fomes repandus @ BPI (2)

Fomes robustus @ BPI (7)

Fomes roseus @ BPI (2)

Fomes subroseus @ BPI (2)

Lenzites saepiaria @ BPI (13)

Panus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus abietinus @ BPI (16)

Polyporus adustus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus alboluteus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus alutaceus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus amorphus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus aurantiacus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus balsameus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus benzoinus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus borealis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus caesius @ BPI (1)

Polyporus cuneatus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus dichrous @ BPI (5)

Polyporus dryadeus @ BPI (9)

Polyporus fibrillosus @ BPI (9)

Polyporus fragilis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus guttulatus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus hirsutus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus lapponicus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus melanopus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus mollis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus osseus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus perdelicatus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus picipes @ BPI (2)

Polyporus radiatus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus resinosus @ BPI (5)

Polyporus schweinitzii @ BPI (6)

Polyporus sulphureus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (5)

Polyporus @ BPI (2)

Poria alutacea @ BPI (1)

Poria calcea @ BPI (1)

Poria callosa @ BPI (3)

Poria carbonica @ BPI (1)

Poria cinerascens @ BPI (4)

Poria colorea @ BPI (6)

Poria crustulina @ BPI (3)

Poria dichroa @ BPI (1)

Poria ferrea @ BPI (1)

Poria nigrescens @ BPI (1)

Poria punctata @ BPI (1)

Poria rixosa @ BPI (2)

Poria serialis @ BPI (1)

Poria sericeo-mollis @ BPI (2)

Poria sinuosa @ BPI (1)

Poria stellae @ BPI (1)

Poria subacida @ BPI (26)

Poria subtilis @ BPI (1)

Poria tsugina @ BPI (9)

Poria versipora @ BPI (1)

Poria weirii @ BPI (1)

Poria xantha @ BPI (1)

Poria zonata @ BPI (1)

Poria @ BPI (4)

Trametes americana @ BPI (1)

Trametes heteromorpha @ BPI (8)

Trametes isabellina @ BPI (3)

Trametes odorata @ BPI (2)

Trametes pini @ BPI (3)

Trametes serialis @ BPI (3)

Trametes setosus @ BPI (1)

Trametes variiformis @ BPI (3)
Pseudoperisporiaceae  Epipolaeum tsugae @ BPI (3)

Eudimeriolum tsugae @ BPI (1)
Pucciniastraceae  Pucciniastrum vaccinii @ BPI (2)
Reduviidae  Rasahus @ AMNH_PBI (3)
Rhizinaceae  Rhizina undulata @ BPI (2)
Rhytismataceae  Discocainia treleasei @ BPI (1)

Lophodermium @ BPI (2)

Propolis leonis @ BPI (1)
Steccherinaceae  Fibricium lapponicum @ BPI (1)

Odontia abietina @ BPI (4)

Odontia lactea @ BPI (1)

Steccherinum @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Aleurodiscus penicillatus @ BPI (5)

Stereum abietinum @ BPI (5)

Stereum chailletii @ BPI (9)

Stereum rugisporum @ BPI (8)

Stereum sanguinolentum @ BPI (13)

Stereum sulcatum @ BPI (11)
Strophariaceae  Flammula @ BPI (1)

Pholiota adiposa @ BPI (3)
Tubeufiaceae  Acanthostigma scopulum @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora abietis @ BPI (1)

Valsa abietis @ BPI (1)
_  Blitridium signatum @ BPI (2)

Caeoma abietis-canadensis @ BPI (1)

Caeoma dubium @ BPI (49); 156096A (1); 156096B (1)

Clithris crispa @ BPI (6)

Dimeriopsis tsugae @ BPI (1)

Dimerosporium tsugae @ BPI (2)

Grandinia @ BPI (4)

Hypochnus umbrinus @ BPI (1)

Neopatella dematium @ BPI (1)

Sirococcus tsugae @ BPI (3)

Ulocolla foliacea @ BPI (1)

Uraecium holwayi @ BPI (6)

Uredo holwayi @ 155038A (1); BPI (11); 155038B (1)

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Following modified from The Gymnosperm Database
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://conifers.org/pi/ts/heterophylla.php

Following modified from US Forest Service
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/tsuga/heterophylla.htm

Following modified from Virginia Tech Dendrology
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 500 Can't connect to www.cnr.vt.edu:80 http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/Theterophylla.htm

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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TSHE ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TSHE
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TSHE ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=TSHE
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=TSHE ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=TSHE
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.
western hemlock

Image of Tsuga heterophylla

General Information
Symbol: TSHE
Group: Gymnosperm
Family: Pinaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Tree
Native Status : AK   N
CAN   N
L48   N
Characteristics
Plant Guide (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
About our new maps
Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Tsuga thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, CA, San Francisco, Golden Gate Park, Strybing Arboretum. October 1, 2002. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, WA, Mount Rainier National Park, White River. May 5, 1991. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . May 1991. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, WA, Crystal Mountain Road. June 2003. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, WA, Crystal Mountain Road. June 2003. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, WA, Mount Rainier National Park. May 2003. Usage Requirements .

©Richard A. Howard. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Richard A. Howard Photograph Collection . United States, WA, Seattle. Usage Requirements .

©Mary Clay Stensvold. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany . United States, AK, S.E. region, Sitka area, Harris Island. Usage Requirements .

K.D. Swan. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, ID. 1935. Usage Requirements .

K.D. Swan. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, ID. 1935. Usage Requirements .

Charles A. Wellner. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, ID. 1939. Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Coniferophyta – Conifers
Class Pinopsida
Order Pinales
Family Pinaceae – Pine family
Genus Tsuga Carri̬re Рhemlock
Species Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. – western hemlock

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Alaska FAC
Arid West FACU
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast FACU

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (TSHE)
CalPhotos (TSHE)
Flora of North America (TSHE)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (TSHE)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (TSHE)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (TSHE)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (TSHE)
Native Plants Network (TSHE)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (TSHE)
Related Websites
Forestry Images (TSHE)
MI-Michigan State University Extension (TSHE)
Native Conifers of North America (TSHE)
OR-Oregon State University Landscape Plants (TSHE)
Tree Species of the World's Boreal Forests (TSHE)
UK-Plants For A Future (TSHE)
USDA FS Softwoods of North America (TSHE)
USDA FS-Center for Wood Anatomy Research (TSHE)
USDA FS-Pacific Northwest Research Station (TSHE)
USDA Forest Service-Silvics of North America (TSHE)
VA-Virginia Tech Dendrology (TSHE)
WA-Central Washington Native Plants (TSHE)
WA-Department of Natural Resources (TSHE)
WA-University of Washington Burke Museum (TSHE)
www.conifers.org (TSHE)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Quinlan Low Low

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Quinlan Moderate High

Sources

Quinlan, S.E., and S. Cuccarese. 2004. Native Alaskan and exotic plants used by wildlife . Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Anchorage.

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover
High Average 25-50% of diet Regular source of cover
Low 5-10% of diet Infrequently used as cover
Minor 2-5% of diet Sparsely used as cover
Moderate Average 10-25% of diet Occasional source of cover


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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 2 | Pinaceae | Tsuga

4. Tsuga heterophylla (Rafinesque) Sargent, Silva. 12: 73, plate 605. 1898.

Western hemlock, pruche de l'ouest

Abies heterophylla Rafinesque, Atlantic J. 1: 119. 1832

Trees to 50m; trunk to 2m diam.; crown narrowly conic. Bark gray-brown, scaly and moderately fissured. Twigs yellow-brown, finely pubescent. Buds ovoid, gray-brown, 2.5--3.5mm. Leaves (5--)10--20(--30)mm, mostly appearing 2-ranked, flattened; abaxial surface glaucous with 2 broad, conspicuous stomatal bands, adaxial surface shiny green (yellow-green); margins minutely dentate. Seed cones ovoid, (1--)1.5--2.5(--3) ´ 1--2.5cm; scales ovate, 8--15 ´ 6--10mm, apex round to pointed. 2 n =24.