The Flora of the Oconee National Wildlife Refuge

Georgia Botanical Society

compiled by Marie B. Mellinger

Geranium maculatum
Copyright John Pickering 1997

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The Oconee National Forest lies entirely within the Piedmont of Georgia. It is not a solid entity, but areas of national forest interspersed with state or private lands. The Redlands District lies mostly within Greene County, with small areas in Oglethorpe, and Oconee Counties. The Uncle Remus District lies within Jasper, Jones, and Putnam Counties. On the south the National Forest borders the Piedmont National Wild Life Refuge.

The Georgia Piedmont was settled at an early date, and comprises pine forest, either through natural succession, orthrough planting programs. The greatest value of the Oconee Forest comes from the annual timber harvest, and timber production is its top priority.

Botanically, however, much of the forest is cut-over, rather scrubby woods, ridden with privet, japanese honeysuckle, and an ever increasing amount of kudzu. There is a sad understory of underpriveledged dogwood and wild cherry.

Most of the original Piedmont forest were cut at an early date. Early records for 1868-1900, indicate that thousands of board feet of southern sugar maple were cut along the Oconee River. Evidence exists that the white pine (Pinus strobus) once grew as far south as Oconee County. There is a record of a white pine 165 feet high, and 6 feet in diameter, since struck by lightning.

There are some hardwood areas along streams, with a good second growth of young hardwoods, including the southern sugar maple. These should be kept in a natural state, both for aesthetic reasons, and to protect the streams from siltation, runn-off, and erosion. These areas could give needed recreation areas for mid Georgia.

The Oconee River runs through the Redlands District, with some river swamps (flooding in times of high water), and some richly shaded hillsides. These provide a variety of tree and shrub species and an understory of spring wild flowers and ferns. The Ocmulgee River forms the western boundary of the Uncle Remus District. Branches of Lake Sinclair, and several smaller lakes and ponds, offer aquatic habitats that need further botanical explorations.

Sporadic granitic outcrops occur in Greene, Oconee, and Putnam Counties, with flora endemic to the granite rocks ofthe Georgia Piedmont.

There are several good hiking trails in the Oconee national Forest, such as the Ocmulgee River trail, and the ScullShoals trail. There could definitely be more trails to add to the recreational opportunities in the forest. There are four National Forest Recreation Areas, Greeneboro Lake, Oconee River, Hillsboro Lake, and Lake Sinclair. Their closeproximity to Athens makes these of special value. More such areas could be added. The Forest includes an interesting archeological site, the Prehistoric Indian Mounds near the Oconee River, and Old Fort Clark, and 1784 village site, in the Scull Shoals Historical Area.

There are good populations of deer, turkey, raccoons, and squirrels, and hunting is the second most important activity within the forest. Fishing is good at the various man made lakes and impoundments. The red-cockaded woodpecker, arare and endangered species, nests within the forest pinelands.

The dry, sterile woodlands, and the debris of harvested timber are both well adapted for lichen growth. The reindeer moss, and other species of Cladonia, including the brightly colored british soldiers, are abundant.

Because of the regulated timber cutting, much of the forest is in the early stages of succession, with an abundanceof grasses, legumes, and composites. Because the forest is composed of small areas, scattered between private holdings, and the close proximity of forested areas to roads and cultivated fields, there are many introduced, weedy plant species.

Much of the botanizing done in the forest by members of the Georgia Botanical Soceity was in Greene, Oconee, and Putnam Counties. Special credit must go to Pat Cooper and Osborne Bounds for arranging field trips, and to Steve Bowlingfor his help with plant listings.

More work is needed within the forest, especially on the azaleas and rhododendrons. More botanical explorations are needed in Jasper and Jones Counties, where influence of the Coastal Plain flora is evident.

Habitat designations according to E. Lucy Braun, Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America, and especially adaptedby the compiler to the Oconee National Forest.


A-HARDWOODS (dominant beech (Fagus) and white oak (Quercus alba))-mostly richly wooded slopes and ravines bordering streams and rivers.







H-DISTURBED AREAS-cut-over areas, logging roads, walking trails, camp grounds, highway berms


compiled by Marie B. Mellinger
(with habitat designations and special habitat notes. Unless otherwise stated, plants on list are found in all counties within the National Forest.)
Unusual, rare, or endangered Species*

Equisetum hyemale (scouring rush) - Green (H)*
Lycopodium alopecuroides (looping clubmoss) - Jasper, Oglethorpe (F)*
Lycopodium complanatum v. flabelliforme (turkey foot) -  sparingly in all (C-D)
Selaginella apoda (spike moss) - all, sparingly, in wet, damp places (E-F)
Isoetes engelmanni - Jasper, Putnam, Oglethorpe (E-F)* (rare)
Botrychium dissectum var. tenuifolium (ternate grape fern) - occasional in all habitats.
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern) - (A-B-C-E)
Botrychium alabamense (alabama grape fern) - Oconee, Putnam* (rare)
Ohioglossum vulgatum (adder's mouth) - Jasper- (H)* (rare)
Ohioglossum crotalophoroides - Greene (H)* (rare)
Ophioglossum nudicaule v. tenerum - Jasper (H)* (rare)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern) - occasional in all wet places
Woodsia obtusa - Greene (A)*
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern) - occasional in all wet places
Dryopteris noveboracensis (new york fern) - Greene (A-E)
Dryopteris hexagonoptera (broad beech fern) - (A)
Dryopteris normalis (sword fern) - Jones (E)*
Polystichum acrostichoides (christmas fern) - (A-B-C)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern - both red and green-stemmed ferns) - (A-E)
Asplenium resiliens - Greene (G-H)
Asplenium platyneuron (spleenwort) - common in all disturbed soil
Woodwardia aerolata (netted chain fern) - common in wet places
Cheilanthes lanosa (hairy lip fern) - Greene, Putnam, Jasper, Oglethorpe (G)
Adiantum capilus-venerus - Putnam (E-G)
Adiantum pedatum (maidenhair fern) - Greene (A)
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken) - common in all habitats.
Polypodium polypodioides (resurrection fern) - common on trees, especially oak (Quercus)
Pinus palustris (long-leaf pine) - Jasper, Jones (C-D)
Pinus taeda (loblolly) - (C-D)
Pinus echinata (short-leaf pine) - common
Juniperus virginiana (red cedar) - common
Typha latifolia (cat-tail) - (E-F)
Sparganium americanum (bur-reed) - Putnam, Greene (E-F)
Potamogeton diversifolium (pondweed) - Putnam (F)
Sagittaria graminea (grass leaved arrowhead) - Jasper, Greene (F)
Sagittaria latifolia (arrowhead) - (E*-F)
Arundinaria tecta (small cane) - common
Arundinaria gigantea (tall cane) - (E-F)
Arundo donax (reed) - Greene (F)
Bromus commutatus (silky oat grass) - (G-H)
Bromus tectorum - (G-H)
Festuca rubra (red fescue) - (G-H)
Festuca elatior (love grass) - (H-I)
Festuca obtusa - Greene (G)
Vulpia elliottea (Festuca) - Greene (H)
Vulpia octoflora (Festuca) - Greene, Putnam (H)
Glyceria striata (manna grass) - Greene (E-F)
Poa annua (low spear grass) - common
Poa chapmanniana - Greene (H)
Poa compressa - Greene (H)
Poa partensis (kentucky blue grass) - Greene (H-I)
Poa autumnalis - Greene, Putnam, Jasper (A)
Melica mutica (melic grass) - Greene, Putnam, Oconee (A-E)
Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass) - (H)
Eragrostis capillaris (hair grass) - (H*-I)
Eragrostis spectabilis - (H-I)
Eragrostis refracta - (H-I)
Uniola latifolia (oak grass) - (E)
Uniola sessiliflora (sprangle grass) - (A-B-C)
Uniola laxa - Greene (E)
Triodia flava (red top) - common in all habitats
Lolium perenne (rye grass) - (H)
Secale cereal (rye) - Greene, Putnam (planted along road berms and sparingly naturalized)
Elymus virginicus (wild rye) - (E-F)
Sphenopholis nitida - Jasper, Putnam (G) (dry, rocky woods)
Sphenopholis filiformis - Jasper (A)
Aira caryophyllea - Putnam (G-H)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass) - (D-G-H)
Danthonia sericea - Greene (C-D)
Sporobolus poirettii (smutgrass) - (H*I)
Agrostis hyemalis (fly away grass) - common in all habitats
Agrostis ellipttiana - Greene (A)
Muhlenbergia schreberi (nimble will) - common pest in all habitats
Muhlenbergia capillaris (purple hair grass) - (H-I)
Brachelytrum erectum (wood awn) - Greene (A)
Stipa avenacea (black oat grass) - (C*-D*-H*-I)
Aristida oligantha - Jasper, Jones (D-G)
Cynodon dactylon (bermuda grass) - (H)
Eleusine indica (goosegrass) - (H)
Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass) - (H)
Leersia virginica (cut-grass) - (E*-F)
Leersia oryzoides (rice-cut grass) - (E-F)
Digitaria sanguinalis (crab grass) - (H-I)
Pasplum dissectum (floating manna) - Putnam (F)
Pasplum distichum - Greene, Putnam (H)
Pasplum laeve (blue taspalum) - (H-I)
Paspalum floridanum - (H-I)
Paspalum setaceum - (H-I)
Paspalum boscianum (bull grass) - (H-I)
Paspalum dilitatum - (H)
Paspalum urvillea - (H-I)
Paspalum notatum (bahia grass) - (H-I)
Leptoloma cognatum - Greene (F-H* wet spots)
Panicum equilaterale - Greene (H-I)
Panicum dichotamiflorum (fall panic) - (H-I)
Panicum capillare (old witch grass) - (G-H-I)
Panicum philadelphicum (wood witch) - (A-B-C)
Panicum virgatum (switch grass) - Putnam (F)
Panicum agrostoides (marsh panic) - (E-F-H)
Panicum linearifolium (spring panic) - (A-B-C)
Panicum lithothilum (rock panic) - Greene (G)
Panicum laxiflorum - (A-B-C)
Panicum aciculare - (C-D-G-H-I)
Panicum angustifolium (red stem panic) - (C-D)
Panicum bicknelli - (B-C-D)
Panicum wrightiana - Greene (H)
Panicum lanuginosum (wooly panic) - (H-I)
Panicum shaerocappon - (B-C-D)
Panicum ravenali - Greene (A)
Panicum clandestinum (deer tongue) - (C-D)
Panicum latifolium (broad leaved panic) - (A-B-C)
Echinochloa crus-galli (cockspur grass) - (H)
Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail) - (G-H-I)
Setaria viridis (green foxtail) - (H)
Setaria magna (giant foxtail) - Jasper, Jones (H)
Cencrhus echinatus (sand spur) - (H)
Eulalia miscanthus (eulalia) - Jasper (H) (old house sites)
Erianthus alopecuroides (silver plume grass) - (C-D)
Erianthus ravennae - (H) (old house sites)
Andropogon virginicus (broom sedge) - common in all habitats, dominant, early succession stage I
Andropogon ternarius (white top) - (C-D)
Andropogon gerardii (big turkeyfoot) - Putnam (C)
Sorgum halepense (johnson grass) - (H-I)
Sorghastrum nutans (indian grass) - (C-D)
Cyperus flavescens (yellow galingale) - (F-H)
Cyperus aristatus (including C. granitophilus) - (G) (also found in H-sandy areas)
Cyperus rotundus (nut grass) - (H)
Cuypeus esculentus (H) - sparingly
Cyperus strigosus (straw sedge) - (E-F-H-I)
Cyperus tenuifolius (Kyllingia) - (H)
Dulichium arundinaceum - (E-F)
Eleocharis obtusa (spike rush) - (E-F)
Bulbostylis capillaris (sand rush) - (G-H)
Fimbristylis dichotoma (beaked ruch) - Greene (G)
Scirpus atrovirens (including S. georgianus) - (E-F-G)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass) - (E-F)
Rhynchospora glomerata - (E-F-G)
Rhynchospora globularis - (F-sparingly)
Rhynchospora caduca - Greene (F) (north of usual range)
Scleria oligantha (nut rush) - (C-D)
Scleria pauciflora - Jasper, Putnam (C-D)
Carex vulpinoidea (fox sedge) - (F) (not common)
Carex willdenowii - Jasper, Jones, Putnam (D)
Carex physorhyncha - Jasper (D)
Carex nigromarginata (january sedge) - (B-C-D)
Carex umbellata - Greene (G)
Carex crinata (fringed sedge) - (E-F)
Carex flaccosperma (thin fruited sedge) - Greene, Putnam (A)
Carex digitalis - (B*-C-D)
Carex laxiflora - (A)
Carex lurida (sallow sedge) - (E-F)
Carex intumescens (bladder sedge) - (E-F)
Carex lutulina (hop sedge) - (E-F)
Sabal minor (blue stem palmetto) - Jasper, Jones (E) rare*
Arisaema triphyllum (jack-in-the-pulpit) - (E-F)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum) - (E-F)
Commelina communis (day flower) - (H)
Commelina diffusa - (H)
Commelina virginica - Jasper, Jones (E)
Commelina erecta - (G)
Tradescantia ohioensis (spiderwort) - sparingly in various habitats
Tradescantia hirsuticaulis - (G-sparingly)
Pontederia cordata (pickerel weed) - Greene (F)
Juncus tenuis (chicken grass) - (G-H)
Juncus effusus (rush) - (E-F-H)
Juncus canadensis (canada rush) - Greene, Putnam (E-F)
Juncus diffusissimus - Greene, Putnam (F)
Juncus georgianus - Greene, Putnam (F)
Luzula acuminatus (wood rush) - (A)
Luzula bulbosa - (H)
Asparagus officinalis - (H)
Amianthium muscaetoxicum (fly poison) - Greene, Oconee (A-E)*
Polygonatum biflorum (solomon seal) - (A-B-E)
Trillium sessile (toad trillium) - (A-E)
Trillium catesbai (nodding trillium) - (B-C)
Smilacina racemosa (solomon plume) - (A-B-C)
Uvularia perfoliata (bellwort) - (A-B-C)
Uvularia sessilifolia (merry bells) - (B-C-D)
Chamaelirium luteum (fairy wand) - (A-B-C)* (sparingly)
Schoenolirium croceum (sunnybells) - (G)*
Lilium michauxii (carolina lily) - (C)*
Erythronum americanum (trout liluy) - (A-E-G)
Allium canadense (wild onion) - (H)
Allium vineale (field garlic) - (H)
Allium cathbertii - (G)* (sparingly)
Allium mutabile (prairie star onion) - Oconee (H)*
Nothoscordum bivalve (false onion) - (H)
Yucca filamentosa (bear grass) - (D-G-H-I)
Smilax psudo-china (china brier) - occurs in all habitats
Smilax walteri (red-berried smilax) - Jones, Jasper (E)
Smilax rotundifolia (green brier) - common in all habitats
Smilax bona nox v. hastata - common in all habitats
Smilax gluca - common in all habitats
Smilax laurifolia (bamboo vine) - (E-F)
Smilax lanceolata - Jasper, Jones (E)
Smilax pumila - Oconee (C)*
Hemerocallis fulva (day lilly) (H) - persistent around old house sites
Dioscorea vilosa (wild yam root) - (A-E-F)
Dioscorea batatas (asiatic yam root) (H) - becoming increasingly more common
Narcissus speudo-narcissus (daffodil) (H) - common along road sides and at old house sites
Zephyranthes atamasco (rain lily) - (E)
Agave virginica (am. aloe) - (C-D-G)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass) - (B-C-D)
Belamcanda chinensis (blackberry lily) - Greene, Putnam (H) (old house sites)
Sisyrinchium arenicola (blue-eyed grass) - Greene, Putnam (H)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium - (E-F)*
Iris verna (spring iris) - no records but should occur in (C-D)
Cypripedium acaule (moccasin flower) - Greene (C)* (very rare)
Spiranthes gracilis (ladies' tresses) - Putnam (F)*
Sprianthes vernalis - Oconee, Greene (F)*
Goodyera pubescens (rattlesnake plantain) - (B-C-D)* sparingly
Corallorhiza odontorhiza (autumn coralroot) - (C)* sparingly
Malaxis unifolia (adder's mouth) - (A-E) * rare
Habenaria clavellata (green wood orchis) - (A-E)* rare
Habenaria ciliaris (orange fringe) - (C-H)* sparingly (E-F)
Tipularia discolor (cranefly) - (A-B-C-E)
Saururus cernuus (lizard's tail) - (E-F)
Myrica cerifera (wax myrtle) - (C-D-H-I) Greene, Putnam, Jones
Salix caroliniana (willow) - (E-F) (sparingly)
Salix nigra (black willow) - (E-F)
Populus deltoides (cottonwood) - (E-F)
Populus alba (silver poplar) - (H) (sparingly by old house sites)
Juglans cinerea (butternut) - Jasper (old house site)
Juglans nigra (black walnut) - (A-E-H)
Carya illinoensis (pecan) - (H-persistent around old house sites)
Carya aquatica (water hickory) - (E) sparingly, somewhat north of range
Carya cordiformis (bitternut) - (A-E)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory) - Putnam, Jasper (A)
Carya laciniosa (shellbark) - Jones (E)
Carya tomentosa (mockernut) - (A-Dominant in B)
Carya glabra (pignut) - (C*-D)
Carya pallida (pale hickory) - Greene, Oconee (G)
Ostry virginiana (hop hornbeam) - (A-E)
Carpinus caroliniana (ironwood) - (B-C-E)
Betula nigra (river birch) - (E)
Alnus serrulata (alder) - (E-F)
Fagus grandifolia (beech) - (dominant in A-E)
Castanea dentata (am. chestnut) - sprout forests in A-B, or C
Castanea pumila (chinquapin) - (B-C-D)
Quercus alba (white oak) - (occurs in all habitats, dominant in A)
Quercus stellata (post oak) - (C-D-G)
Quercus stellata v. margaretta (margaret's oak) - (G)
Quercus austrina (bluff oak) - Putnam, Greene (A) - occasionally E
Quercus lyrata (overcup oak) - (E)
Quercus michauxii (swamp chestnut oak) - (E)
Quercus muehlenbergii (yellow chestnut) - (G) Putnam, Jones
Quercus pinus (chestnut oak) - (B-C usually on higher ridges)
Quercus oglethorpensis - Jasper* very rare, and endemic oak (am not sure it actually grows within forest boundaries)
Quercus  rubra (n. red oak) - (A-E)
Quercus coccinea (B-C) - (usually at higher elevations)
Quercus laevis (turkey oak) - Greene, Putnam, Jasper, Jones-on G, sparingly or on sandy ridges
Quercus velutina (black oak) - (B-C)
Quercus falcata (spanish oak) - (B-C)
Quercus marilandica (blackjack oak) - (C-D)
Quercus nigra (possum oak) - common in a variety of habitats
Quercus shumardii (swamp red oak) - (E)
Quercus incana (bluejack oak) - Greene, Jones (G - or sparingly on sandy ridges)
Quercus phellos (willow oak) - * in a variety of habitats
Ulmus rubra (slippery elm) - (E)
Ulmus americana (am. elm) - (A-E)
Ulmus alata (winged elm) - (C-D*-G)
Planera aquatica (water elm) - Greene (E)
Celtus laevigata (sugarberry) - (B-C-E)
Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry) - naturalized in a variety of habitats
Morus rubra (red mulberry) - (A)
Morus alba (white mulberry) - naturalized in a variety of habitats
Maclura pomifera (osage orange) - Greene (E)
Pilea pumila - Greene (E)
Uritca chamaedryoides (nettle) - Greene (E)
Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle) - (E-F)
Pyrularia pubera (buffalo nut) - Greene (C)
Phoradendron flavescens (mistletoe) - common on a variety of host trees, but usually on oak (Quercus)
Asarum arifolium (heart-leaf ginger) - (A-B-C)
Aristolochia serpentaria (birthroot) - (B-C)
Eriogonum tomentosum (dog-tongue) - (Jones) H (sandy areas)
Rumex verticillatus (water dock) - (E)
Rumex crispus (yellow dock) - (H)
Rumex pulcher (painted dock) - Oconee, Greene (H)
Rumex acetosella (sheep sorrel) - (H)
Rumex hastatulus (showy sheep sorrel) - (H)
Tovara virginiana (jump seed) - (E)
Polygonum pensylvanica (Pinkweed) - (H-I)
Polygonum lapathifolium (smartweed) - Greene (E-F)
Polygonum hydropiper (water pepper) - Oconee, Putnam (E-F)
Polygonum Hydropiperoides (mild water pepper) - (E-F)
Polygonum persicaria (lady's thumb) - (H)
Polygonum sagittatum (tearthumb) - (E-F)
Polygonum arifolium (halberd leaved tearthumb) - (E-F)
Polygonum scandens (climbing buckwheat) - (H)
Brunnichia cirrhosa (buckwheat vine) - Jones (E)
Chenopodium album (goosefoot) - (H)
Chenopodium ambrosoides (mexican tea) - (H)
Amaranthus hybridus (pigweed) - (H)
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth) - (H)
Amaranthus viridis (green pigweed) - (H)
Amaranthus retroflex - (H)
Phytolacca americana (poke) - (H)
Portulaca smallii - (G) *sparingly
Claytonia virginiana (spring beauty) - *Jasper (H)
Talinum teretifolium (fame flower) - (G)* sparingly
Arenaria linifolia (rockwort) - Putnam, Greene, (G)*
Stellaria media (chickweed) - (H)
Cerastium viscosum (mouse-ear chickweed) - (H)
Silene antirrhina (sleepy catchfly) - (H) (not common)
Silene stellata (stitchwort) - Greene (A)
Nuphar advena (pond lily) - Greene, Oconee (F)
Xanthorhiza simplicissima (yellow-root) - Greene (E)
Ranunculus abortivus (crowfoot) - (E-H)
Ranunculus recurvatus (bristly crowfoot) - (E*-H)
Ranunculus carolinianus (buttercup) - Greene (F)
Ranunculus acris (buttercup) - (F-H)
Anemonelia thalictroides (rue anemone) - (A)
Hepatica americana (liverwort) - (A-B)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed) - (C-D-H)
Clematis viorna (leatherflower) - Greene (E-F)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower) - (E-F)
Aquilegia canadense (columbine) - *Putnam (record not verified? habitat unknown?)
Podophyllum peltatum (mayapple) - (E)
Cocculus carolinus (coralbeads) - (D-H-I)
Schizandra glabra - *Morgan (Gene cline record - habitat not listed)
Magnolia acuminata (cucumber tree) - (A-B)
Magnolia grandiflora (bullbay) - Greene, Putnam, Jones (E, or H, persistent around old home sites)
Magnolia virginiana (sweetbay) - (E)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar) - occurs in all habitats
Calycanthus floridus (sweet shrub) - (A*-B*-C)
Asimina triloba (pawpaw) - (E) Putnam, Greene
Asimina parviflora (dwarf pawpaw) - Greene (G)
Sassafras aloidum - (occurs in all habitats, very abundant in early stages of succession)
Persea borbonea (red bay) - Jones (E)
Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot) - (A-B-E)
Draba brachycarpa (rock cress) - Greene (G)
Lepidium virginicum (peppergrass) - (H)
Brassica kaber (pale mustard) - (H)
Brassica juncea (mustard) - (H)
Arabidopsis thaliana (mouse ear cress) - (G-H)
Barbarea verna (winter cress) - (H)
Cardamine hirsuta (bitter cress) - (H)
Cardamine pensylvanica - (E-F)
Sedum smallii (Diamorpha) (elf orpine) - (G*)
Tiarella wherryi (foam flower) - Putnam (A) (probably in other counties as well)
Heuchera americana (alumroot) - (A-G)
Decumaria barbara (climbing hydrangea) - (E)
Philadelphus hirsutus (wild mock orange) - Greene (B)
Hydrangea arborescens (seven bark) - (E-G)
Itea virginica (virginia willow) - (E-F)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweet gum) - *common in a variety of habitats
Hamamelis virginiana (witch-hazel) - (A-B-C-E)
Plantanus occidentalis (sycamore) - (E)
Gillenia trifoliata (bowman's root) - Greene, Oconee (B-C-H)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry) - (H) (I)
Duchesnea indica (indian strawberry) - (H)
Potentilla canadensis (five finger) - (D-G-H)
Potentilla simplex (cinque foil) - (D*-G*-H*-I)
Geum canadense (avens) - (D-H)
Agrimonia parviflora (agrimony) - (D-H-I)
Agrimonia microcarpa - (A-E)
Pyrus communis (pear) - (H) old house sites
Pyrus angustifolius (wild crab apple) - (C)
Aronia arbutifoila (red chokeberry) - (E-F)
Amelanchier laevis (allegheny service berry) - (A-B-C)
Amelanchier canadensis - Greene, Putnam (C)
Crataegus phaenopyrum (haw) - Greene (C)
Crataegus viridis (green haw) - (E)
Crataegus spathulata - Greene, Jones, Putnam (C-D)
Crataegus marshallii - (C-D)
Crataegus uniflora (one-fruited haw) - (C-D) early succession stages of I
Carategus flava (october haw) - (B*C*D)
Crataegus pestivalis (mayhaw) - Jasper, Jones (E-F)
Crataegus ravenali - Jones (habitat not given)
Rubus cuneifolius (sand blackberry) - (D-G-H-I)
Rubus argutus (blackberry) - common in all habitats, especially in early stages of succession
Rubus betulifolius (swamp blackberry) - (E-F)
Rubus trivialis (running dewberry) - (D-G-H-I)
Rubus flagellaris (dewberry) - (B-C-D)
Rosa palustris (swamp rose) - Putnam, Jones (E-F)
Rosa carolina (pasture rose) - (D-G*-I)
Rosa laevigata (cherokee rose) - Jones, Putnam (old house sites)
Rosa x wichuriana (rambler rose) - (H) (old house sites)
Rosa multiflora (hedge rose) - naturalized in a variety of habitats
Prunus angustifolia (chickasaw plum) - (C-D-G-I)
Prunus umbellata (hog plum) - (B-C-E)
Prunus persica (peach) (H) - sparingly naturalized
Albizzia julibrissin (mimosa) - occurs in various habitats now subject to mimosa wilt
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust) - occurs in various habitats
Cercis canadensis (redbud) - common understory tree 
Cladastris lutea (yellow-wood) *******S. Bowling record, habitat not given, Oconee county
Cytisus scoparius (scotch broom) (H) - sparingly naturalized or persistent at old house sites
Amorpha fruticosa (lead-bush) - (E) not common
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) - (A-B)
Schrankia microphylla (cat brier) - (D-G-H-I)
Cassia marilandica - Oconee, Greene (H)
Cassia fasciculata (partridge pea) - (H-I, rarely G)
Cassia nictitans (sensitive pea) - (G-H)
Baptisia tintoria (horsefly weed) - (C-D-H)
Baptisia alba - (C-D-H) (also rarely occuring in a cream-colored form)
Trifolium repens (white clover) - (H)
Trifolium caroliniana (spring clover) - (H)
Trifolium procumbens (yellow hop clover) - (H)
Trifolium pratense (red clover) - (H)
Trifolium incarnatum (crimson clover) - (H)
Melilotus alba (sweet clover) - (H)
Tephrosia virginiana (dolly varden) - (C-D-G-H)
Tephrosia spicata (goat's ruse) - (C-D-G-H-I)
Wisteria frutescens (wisteria) - (E-F)
Wisteria chinensis - (occasional around old house sites)
Desmodium nudiflorum - (A-B-E)
Desmodium rotundifolium (dollar weed) - (C-D-G-H-I)
Desmodium strictum - (C-D-H-I)
Desmodium lineatum - (C-D-H-I)
Desmodium viridiflorum (velvet tick trefoil) - (A-B-C)
Desmodium panaculatum - (H-I)
Desmodium laevigatum - Jasper (H)
Desmodium tortuosum (beggarweed) - (H-I)
Lespedeza procumbens - occurs in all habitats
Lespedeza repens - occurs in all habitats
Lespedeza violacea - (C-D-H-I)
Lespedeza stuvai - (H-I)
Lespedeza virginica - (C-D-H-I)
Lespedeza captiata (bush clover) - (C-D-H-I)
Lespedeza hirta - (C-D-H-I)
Lespedeza angustifolia - Jasper (H)
Lespedeza cuneata (sericea) - common in H-I
Lespedeza striata (creeping japanese clover) - (H)
Lespedeza bicolor - (planted for quail food, also naturalizes)
Stylosanthes bicolor (pencil flower) - (B-C-D-G-H)
Vicia grandiflora (yellow vetch) - (H)-occasional
Vicia sativa (field vetch) - (H-I)
Vicia angustifolia - (H-I)
Vicia caroliniana (spring vetch) - (A-E)
Vicia villosa (hairy vetch) - (H-I)
Lathyrus latifolius (perennial sweet pea) - (H) sparingly naturalized or persistent around old house sites
Apios americana (ground nut) - (E-F)
Phaseolus polystachios (wild bean) - (A-E-F)
Clitoria mariana (butterfly pea) - (B-C-D-G-H-I)
Centrosema virginiana (spurred butterfly pea) - Greene, Oconee (C-D)
Galactia regularis (milk vetch) - (C-D-G-I)
Pueria lobata (kudzu) - (all to common all parts of Forest)
Linum virginianum (yellow flax) - (F)
Oxalis violacea (wood sorrel) - (A-B)
Oxalis filipes - common in all habitats, also in varying forms including one with dark red foliage
Geranium maculatum (cranesbill) - (A-B-E)
Geranium carolinianum - (G-H-I)
Ptelea trifoliata (hop tree) - Putnam (habitat not given)
Zanthoxylum clava-hercules (hercules club) - Greene, Putnam (E)
Ailanthus altissima (tree of heaven) - (H)
Melia azederach (chinaberry) - (H) especially around old house sites
Polygala polygama (milkwort) - (B-C-G-H)
Polygala curtissii - (B-C-G-H)
Acalypha rhomboidea (copperleaf) - (H)
Tragia urens - (H)
Euphorbia corollata (flowering spurge) - (occurs in all habitats)
Eurphorbia curtissii - (B-C-G-H)
Rhus copallina (shining sumac) - common in all habitats, there is a record tree 25-30ft high, near bridge, oconee county?
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac) - occurs in various habitats
Rhus aromatica (fragrant sumac) - Jones (B-D)
Rhus vernix (poison sumac) - (E-F)
Rhus toxicodendron (poison oak) - (D-G)
Rhus radicans (poison ivy) - occurs in all habitats, usually as a high climbing vine, but often shrubby on sand ridges or rock outcrops
Ilex opaca (holly) - occurs as an understory tree whereever fire has been dept out
Ilex ambigua - Jasper? (record not confirmed, no habitat given)
Ilex decidua (possum haw) - (E-F)
Ilex glabra (gallberry) - Greene, Jones (F)
Euonymus americanus (hearts a' burstin') - (A-B-C-E)
Acer rubrum (red maple) - occurs in all habitats
Acer saccharum complex (including A. leucoderme, and A. floridana) - A-B, occurring as beginning of hardwood succession
Acer saccharinum (silver maple) - Greene, Jasper (C)
Acer negundo (box elder) - occurs in all habitats as a waif
Aesculus octandra (yellow buckeye) - Jasper (A-E)
Aesculus pavia (red buckeye) - (E-F)
Aesculus sylvatica (piedmont buckeye) - (A-B-E) 
(Note: these last two hydribid, may be part of same complex)
Impatiens capensis (jewelweed) - (E-F)
Phamnus caroliniana (carolina buckthorn) - (C) sparingly in understory
Ceanothus americanus (new jersey tea) - C-D-G
Berchemia scandens (supple-jack) - Jasper, Jones (E)
Ampelopsis arborea (pepper-vine) - Jasper, Jones (E-F-H)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (virginia creeper) - common in all habitats
Vitis aestivalis (summer grape) - (E-F)
Vitis labrusea (fox grape) - occurs in all habitats
Vitis cinerea - (E)
Vitis rotundifolia (muscadine) - occurs in all habitats
Tilia heterophylla (basswood) - (A-E)
Modiola caroliniana (creeping mallow) - (H)
Sida spinosa (pricly mallow) - (H)
Sida rhombifolia - (H)
Hibiscus moscheutos (rose mallow) - (E-F)
Ascyrum hypericoides (st. andrew's cross) - occurs in all habitats
Ascyrum stans (st. peter's wort) - (E-F)
Ascyrum pumilum - (D-G)
Hypericum virginicum (st. john's wort) - (E-F)
Hypericum punctatum - occurs in all habitats
Hypericum mutilum - (E-F)
Hypericum gentianoides (pineweed) - (D-G-H)
Lechea villosa (pinweed) - (D-G-H-I)
Viola kitabailiana (rafinesque) (field pansy) - (H-I)
Viola walteri - (A-B-C)
Viola tripartita (piedmont violet) - (B-C-D)
Viola palmata - (B-C-D-G)
Viola primulifolia - (E-F) also (H)
Viola papilionaceae - (H) occurs around old house sites as forma priceae (confererate violet), or in a pure white form
Viola cucullata (blue wood violet) - (A-B-E)
Viola pedata (bird's foot violet) - (C-D-G)
Passiflora incarnata (maypop) - occurs in a variety of habitats
Passiflora lutea (yellow passion flower) - (E-F, rarely H)
Opuntia compressa (prickly pear) - (G)
Rhexia virginica (deer grass) - (E-F)
Rhexia mariana (meadow beauty) - (E-F)
Ludwigia alternifolia (rattlebox) - (E-F)
Ludwigia palustris - (E-F)
Oenothera biennis (evening primrose) - (H)
Oenothera laciniata - (H)
Oenothera fruticosa (sun drops) - (B-C-G)
Oenothera speciosa (showy primrose) - (H)
Myriophyllum brasiliense (parrot feather) - Greene (F)
Aralia spinosa (devil's walking stick) - (E-F)
Hedera helix (english ivy) - (H-persistent near old house sites and spreading into neighboring woods)
Hydocotyl umbellata (water pennywort) - Greene, Oconee (F)
Centella erecta - (H)
Sanicula marilandica (black snakeroot) - (A-B-C-E)
Sanicula gregaria - Oconee, Greene (B*-C)
Sanicula trifoliata - Oconee, Greene (E)
Sanicula canadense - occurs in all habitats
Eryngium yuccifolia (rattlesnake master) - (B*-C*-D-H)
Chaerophyllum tainturieri - (H)
Osmorphiza claytonii (sweet cicely) - Oconee, Greene (A-E)
Zizia trifoliata - Greene (A)
Cicuta maculata (water hemlock) - (E-F)
Sium suave (water parsnip) - (E-F)
Thaspium baroinode (alexanders) - Putnam (A)
Angelica venenosa (nono root) - (B-C-D)
Daucus carota (queen anne's lace) - (H-I)
Nyssa sylvatica (black gum) - common as an understory tree.
Cornus florida (dogwood) - common as an understory tree
Cornus amomum (swamp dogwood) - Greene (E-F)
Cornus alternifolia (pagoda dogwood) - Jasper (A-E)
Cornus stricta - (E-F)
Chimophila maculata (pipsissewa) - (B-C-D)
Monotropa uniflora (indian pipe) - (A-B-E)
Rhododendron minus - Jasper (E) should occur in other counties as well
Rhododendron nudiflorum (azalea) - (A-B-C-E)
Kalmia latifolia - (Greene) - (E)
Lyonia ligustrina (maleberry) - (B-C-E)
Oxydendrum arboreum (sourwood) - occurs as an understory tree.
Gaylussacia dumosa (dwarf huckleberry) - (C-D-G)
Gaylussacia frondosa (huckleberry) - (A-B-C-E)
Vaccinium arboreum (sparkleberry) - (C-D-G) common
Vaccinium stamineum (squawberry) - (A-B-C-D-G)
Vaccinium elliotti (swamp blueberry) - (E-F)
Vaccinium vacillans (blueberry) - *C-D
Vaccinium corymbosum (high bush blueberry) - (A-B-E)
Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled loosestrife) - found in a variety of habitats
Lysimachia tonsa - *Greene, Oconee (F)
Bumelia lyciodes (C) - sparingly
Diospyros virginiana (persimmon) - common in all habitats
Symplocos tinctoria (horse sugar) - occurs in all habitats
Styrax grandifolia - (B-C)
Halesia carolina (silverbell) - (E)
Fraxinus americana (white ash) - (A-B)
Fraxinus profunda (pumpkin ash) - Putnam (E)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (river ash) - (E)
Fraxinus caroliniana (green ash) - (E)
Forestiera acuminata - Greene (E)
Forestiera ligustrina - Putnam (G)
Chionanthus virginicus (fringe tree) - (E)
Osmanthus americana (devilwood) - Greene (E)
Ligustrum vulgare (privet) - naturalized in all habitats and over abundant
Gelsemium sempervirens (carolina jessamine) - occurs in various habitats
Spigelia marilandica (indian pink) - (A-B-E)
Polypremum procumbens (wireweed) - (H-I) also on rock outcrops
Sabatia angularis (marsh pink) - (E-F)
Gentiana villosa (green gentian) - * occasional (B-C-E)
Apocynum cannabinum (indian hemp) - (H)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed) - (H)
Asclepias quadrifolia - (very occasional A-B)
Asclepias variemata * (milkweed) - sparingly in a variety of habitats
Asclepias amplexicaulis - (B-C-D-G)
Gonolobus gonocarpos (Matelea) (climbing milkweed) - (E-F)
Dichondra repens - (H)
Ipomoea coccinea - (H)
Ipomoea purpurea (morning glory) - (H)
Ipomoea pandurata (man of the earth) - (G-H-I)
Convolvulus sepium (bindweed) - (H)
Jacquemontia tamnifolia - (H)
Cuscuta pentagona (dodder) - (on a variety of host plants)
Cuscuta campestris (clover dodder) - (on legumes)
Cuscuta compacta - (on shrubs) (E)
Phlox pilosa - (B-C-D)
Phlox glaberrima (tall phlox) - in a variety of habitats
Phacelia dubia - (G)
Callicarpa americana (american beautyberry) - (C-D-G)
Verbena urticaefolia (vervain) - (H)
Verbena rigida - Greene, Oconee (H)
Verbena carnea - (H)
Verbena bonariensis - (H)
Verbena canadensis - (H)
Trichostemma dichotomum (blue curls) - (D-G-H-I)
Trichostemma setaceum - (G)
Hedeoma pulegioides (pennyroyal) - Greene (H)
Scutellaria ovalis (Putnam) - (A-B)
Scutellaria incana - Green, Oconee (E-F)
Scutellaria interrifolia (skullcap) - (A-B-C-G-H)
Prunella vulgaris (selfheal) - occurs in all habitats
Lamium amplexicaule (hen-bit) - (H)
Salvia lyrata (blue sage) - (G-H-I)
Salvia azurea - Oconee (habitat not given)
Satureja calamintha - Oconee, Greene (C-D-G)
Satureja georgina (mint-shrub) - (B-D-G)
Pycanthemum incanum (mt. mint) - occurs in various habitats
Lycopus virginicus (bugleweed) - (E-F)
Lycopus rubellus - (E-F)
Collinsonia canadensis (richweed) - (A-E)
Collinsonia anisata (horse balm) - Greene (habitat not given)
Solanum carolinense (horse nettle) - (H)
Datura stramonium (jimson weed) - (H)
Pawlonia tomentosa (empress tree) - (naturalized in various habitats)
Verbascum thapsus (mullein) - (G-H-I)
Verbascum blattaria (moth mullein) - Greene, Oconee (H)
Linaria canadensis (toad flax) - (H-I)
Chelone glabra (turtlehead) - (E-F)
Penstemon digitalis - (B-C-G)
Penstemon hirsutus (beardstongue) - in a variety of habitats
Penstemon canescens - Greene, Oconee (B-C)
Mimulus ringens (monkey flower) - (E-F)
Gratiola neglecta - (E-F)
Lindernia dubia (water hyssop) - (E-F)
Lindernia monticola - Greene (G)*
Amphianthus pusillus - * rare (G)
Veronica serpyllifolia (speedwell) - (H)
Veronica arvensis - (H)
Gerardia purpurea - (in a variety of habitats, mostly E-F)
Gerardia tenuifolia - (G)
Gerardia virginica - (A-B-C)
Gerardia flava - (A-B-C-E)
Gerardia pedicularia - Putnam (A)
Catalpa speciosa - (occasional as understory tree) (H) persists around old house sites
Campsis radicans (trumpet creeper) - (E-F-G-H)
Bignonia capreolata (cross vine) - (E-F-G)
Epifagus virginiana (beech drops - (A-E) saprophytic on Fagus
Conopholis americana (squaw-weed) - (A-E)
Justicia americana - Putnam (F)
Ruellia caroliniensis - (C-D-G)
Ruellia purshiana - Greene (habitat not given)
Dyschoriste oblongifolia - (E-F)
Phryma leptostachya (lopseed) - Greene (A-E)
Plantago major (plantain) - (H)
Plantago lanceolata (ribwort) - (H)
Plantago aristata (bracted plantain) - (G-H)
Plantago virginianum - (H)
Galium circaezans (wild licorice) - Greene, Oconee (A-B-C)
Galium uniflorum - Greene, Oconee (A)
Galium tinctorium - (F)
Galium hispidulum (bedstraw) - occurs in various habitats
Richardia scabra (mexican clover) - (H)
Diodia virginiana (buttonweed) - (H-I)
Diodia teres - (G-H-I)
Mitchella repens (partridge berry) - (C-E)
Houstonia caerulae (bluets) - (E-F)
Houstonia pupurea - (A-B-C-G)
Houstonia longifolia - (A)
Houstonia patens - (H)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush) - (E-F)
Lonicera sempervirens (trumpet honeysuckle) - in a variety of habitats
Lonicera japonica - (J-H) all too common as an introduced pest in all forest areas
Lonicera fragrantissima (winter honeysuckle) - persistent around old house sites, and infrequently naturalized
Viburnum nudum (nannyberry) - (E-F)
Viburnum prunifolium (black haw) - (B-C)
Viburnum rufidulum (blue haw) - (E)
Viburnum dentatum (arrow-wood) - (A-B-C)
Viburnum acerfolium (maple-leaved viburnum) - (A-B-C*-E)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry) - common in all habitats
Valerianella radiata (corn salad) - (H)
Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber) - Greene (habitat not given)
Melothria pendula - Greene, Oconee (H)
Specularia perfoliata (venus' looking glass) - (H-I)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower) - (E-F)
Lobelia puberula - (E-F)
Baccharis halimifolia (groundsel tree) - very occasional, almost northern perimeter of its range
Vernonia altissima (iron weed) - (E-F)
Vernonia noveporacensis - (E-F)
Vernonia glauca - (C-D)
Elephantopus caroliniana (elephant foot) - in a variety of habitats
Elephantopus tomentosus (devil's grandmother) - (C-D)
Elephantopus nudatus - (C-D-G)
Eupatorium maculatum (tall joe tye) - (E-F)
Eupatorium fistulosum (pale joe pye)
Eupatorium capillifolium (showy dog fennel) - (H-I)
Eupatorium album (thoroughwort) - (B-C-D)
Eupatorium leucolepsis - (B-C-D*-I)
Eupatorium altissimum - (H)
Eupatorium serotinum - (E-F-H)
Eupatorium cuneifolium v. semiserratum - (C-D-I)
Eupatorium hyssopifolium - (C-D-I)
Eupatorium pilosum - (A-B-C)
Eupatorium rotundifolium - (A-B-C-D)
Eupatroium perfoliatum (boneset) - (E-F)
Eupatorium rugosum (white snakeroot) - (E-B-A)
Eupatorium coelestinum (mist flower) - (E-F-H)
Mikania scandens (climbing hempweed) - (E-F)
Liatris spicata (blazing star) - (C-D-G-I)
Liatris microcephala - (C-D)
Heterotheca subaxillaris (camphorweed) - (H-I)
Chrysopsis graminifolia (silkweed) - (C-D-G)
Chrysopsis mariana (golden aster) - occurs in a variety of habitats
Solidago flexicaulis (blue-stem) - (A-E)
Solidago erecta (wand goldenrod) - occurs in all wooded habitats
Solidago bootii - (A-E)
Solidago yadkinensis - (B-C-D-I)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod) - (B-C-D-G-I)
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod) - (B-C-D-I)
Solidago rugosa - (E-F-I)
Solidago altissima - (E-F-H-I)
Solidago gigantea - (E-F-H-I)
Solidago tenuifolia (Euthamia) - (E-F) near N. range perimeter
Solidago leptocephala (gymnospermoides) - Jasper, Jones (E-F)
Haplopappus divaricatus (dolly daisy) - (G-H-I)
Aster divaricanus (white woodland aster) - (A-B-E)
Aster puniceusred-stem) - (C-D-G)
Aster laevis (smooth aster) - occurs in all habitats
Aster ericoides (heath aster) - (H-I) very common in old fields
Aster vimineus (wreath aster) - (A-B-C-E)
Aster lateriflorus - (A-B)
Aster linariifolius - (A-B)
Aster patens - (C-D-I)
Aster undulatus - (A-B-C-D)
Aster dumosus (rice-button aster) - (E-F)
Sericocarpus asteroides (white-top) - (B-C-D-I)
Sericocarpus bifoliatus - (B-C-D-G-I)
Erigeron pulchellus (robin's plantain) - (E-G)
Erigeron annuis (fleabane daisy) - (H-I)
EriAgeron strigosus (white top) - (H-I)
Erigeron canadensis (horseweed) - (H-I)
Pluchea camphorata (camphorwort) - (E-F)
Antennaria plantaginifolia (pussytoes) - C-D-G, often with pipsissewa (Chimaphila) and reindeer moss (Cladonia)
Antennaria falax - (C-D-G)
Rudbeckia hirta (brown-eyed-susans) - occur in all habitats
Rudbeckia laciniata (tall coneflower) - (E-F)
Rudbeckia triloba - (H-I)
Helianthus annuis (sunflower) - occasional in old garden sites, dumps, or along R. R. tracks
Helianthus angustifolius - (C-D*-I)
Helianthus atrorubens - (C-D)
Helianthus laetiflorus (pale sunflower) - (E-F)
Helianthus occidentalis - Greene, (C)
Helianthus divaricatus (woodland sunflower) - (B-C-D)
Helianthus tomentosus (wooly sunflower) - (B-C-D)
Helianthus strumosus - Putnam (C)
Helianthus tuberosus (jerusalem artichoke) - (E-H) naturalized in rich soil along streams, persistent old garden sites)
Helianthus giganteus (tall sunflower) - (E-F)
Verbesina alternifolia (wing-stem) - (E-F)
Verbesina occidentalis (crownbeard) - (A-B-E)
Verbesina virginica (frostweed) - (B-C-D)
Coreopsis gladiata (tickseed) - Putnam, Greene (H)
Coreopsis lanceolata - (H)
Coreopsis grandiflora (including C. saxicola of the granite outcrops) - (G-H-I)
Coreopsis major (whorled tickseed) - (common in most habitats)
Bidens ipinnata (spanish needles) - (H-I)
Bidens cernua - (F)
Helenium tenuifolium (bitterweed) - (G-H-I)
Helenium autumnale (sneezeweed) - (E-F)
Helenium nudiflorum - (H)
VigAuera porteri (stone mountain daisy) - (G)
Achillea millefolium (yarrow) - (H-I)
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-ye daisy) - (H-I)
Centaurea cyanus (bachelor button) - (H-I)
Gnaphalium obtusifolium (rabbit tobacco) - (B-C-D-H-I)
Cnaphalium purureum (cudweed) - (H)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed) - (H-I)
Ambrosia trifida (buffalo weed) - (H-I) often in wet places
Xanthium strumosum (clotbur) - (H-I)
Polymnia uvedalia (leaf-cup) - (A-E)
Silphium dentatum (rosin-weed) - (A-B-E)
Silphium compositum (bear paws) - (C-D)
Chrysogonum virginianum (gold in green) - (C-D)
Parthenium integrifolium (quinine weed) - (B-C-D)
Tetragoontheca helianthoides (pine ginseng) - (A-B-C-E)
Erichtites hieracifolia (pilewort) - (H-I) especially abundant after fires
Cacalia atriplioifolia (indian plantain) - (A-B-E)
Senecio smallii (golden ragwort) - (G-H-I)
Senscio tomentosus - (G)
Senscio aureus (squaweed) - (E)
Senscio glabellus - (A-E)*
Cirsium horridulum (horrible thistle) - (H-I)
Cirsium altissimum (tall thistle) - (E-H-I)
Krigia virginica (dwarf dandelion) - (G-H)
Drigia dandelion (cynthia) - (H-I)
Hypochaeris radicata (cat's ears) - (H-I)
Taraxacum officinalis (dandelion) - (H-I)
Sonchus asper (sow-thistle) - (H-I)
Lactuca scariola (prickly lettuce) - occurs in all habitats
Lactuca candensis - (E-H-I)
Lactuca hirsutus - (H-I)
Lactuca graminifolia - (H-I)
Lactuca floridana - (E-H-I)
Pyrropappus caroliniana (lemon drop) - (H-I)
Prenanthes serpentaria (rattlesnake master) - (A-B-C)
Prenanthes trifoliata - (A-B-E)
Hieracium scabrum (hawkweed) - (H-I)
Hieracium gronovii - (H-I)
Hieracium venosum (rattlesnake weed) - (G-H-I)
Hieracium paniculatum - (C-D-H-I)
Land Manager's Guide to Point Counts of Birds 14 December 1994 pg. 62
  1. ...other), evergreen (i.e., rhododendron, mountain laurel, bays, switchcane, other).
  2. Percent Canopy Cover (An ocular estimate from point center of percent cover by the shrub layer according to the following categories: 0%, 1-25%, 26-50%, 51-75%, 76-100%).
Herbaceous Layer variables include:
  1. Dominant Vegetation (general categories based on ocular observations from point center that include: woody, forbs/sedges, grasses).
  2. Percent Canopy Cover (An ocular estimate from point center of percent cover by the herbaceous layer according to the following categories: 0%, 1-25%, 26-50%, 51-75%, 76-100%
  3. Groundcover Description (An ocular estimate from point center of the following categories: litter, open glade, bare ground, moist, standing water).
Other Key Habitat Components include:
  1. Standing Snags (An ocular estimate from point center of the following categories: number of snags greater than 20" DBH, number of snags greater than 12" DBH).
  2. Live Cavity Trees (An ocular estimate from point center of the following categories: number of cavity trees greater than 20" DBH, number of cavity trees greater than 12" DBH).
II. Level Three scheme
The standard set of measurements follows: Additional measurements that some of us find useful are: