. Figure 161 from
The following genus description of
the adult stage
)is derived directly from
"Front wing 3.5 to 14 mm. long, usually more than 7 mm. long. Head and thorax ofmoderate proportions except that propodeum is unusually long. Abdomen elongate,nearly always strongly compressed. Eye margin nearly always sharply indented oppositeantennal socket, sometimes only moderately indented. Cheek short or very short. Clypealfoveae weakly impressed, often closed. Clypeus of moderate size, weakly convex, its apextruncate or subtruncate, the margin simple, blunter medially than laterally. Mandible short,its lower than upper tooth and a little shorter. Temple short or very short. Genal carinajoining oral carina or sometimes joining mandibular base. Mesopleurum mate to polished,its punctures fine an weak to coarse and strong. Posterior mesosternal carina complete. Propodeum long, its posterodorsal profile flat or weakly convex, the median part of itsposterodorsal face flat or with a longitudinal impression. Areola absent and petiolar areanot defined. Propodel spiracle elongate or sometimes only elliptic. Hind basitarsuswithout a medain ventral row of closely spaced hairs. Tarsal claws of moderate length,pectinate. Areolet nearly always large, pointed or petiolate above, receiving secondrecurrent vein near its middle. Nervulus distad of basal vein, often much distad. Discoidella reaching nerveless or not, often pigmented. First abdominal segment long, thepetiolar part straight or almost so, the postpetiolar part weakly to moderately widened. Glymma present, vestigial, or absent. Thyridium elongate, distant from base of its tergite. Epipleurum of tergite 3 often not separated by a crease or only partly separated (alwayscompletely separated in the rest of the subfamily). Ovipositor usually 1.0 to about 1.5 aslong as apical depth of abdomen, rarely longer."
The following genus description of
the final-instar of the larvae
is derived directly from
"Characteristsics common to all the species examined are: the labial sclerite is completeventrally with thickness of the ventral portion ranging from one0sixth to more thanone0half the full length of the sclerite, the majority being two-fifths or more; length of thelabial sclerite is 1.4 to .17 times its width; the labial sclerite has lateral areas; themandibular process has a posterior strut that is considerably longer than the anterior strutand is approximately the same width for its entire length (except villosa (Nort.)); thestipital sclerite is not widened laterally (except seamansi (Vier.) which widens slightly); themaxillary and labial palpi are large, having a diameter at least equal to the lateral arm ofthe labial sclerite and /or the stem of the prelabial sclerite, both at their narrowest point;mandibles each have a slightly-curved blade that varies in length form slightly less toslightly more than one-half the full width of mandible; and prelabial sclerite is attached tolabial sclerite dorsally."
Probably the best identification guide for the adult stages is
. This has by far the most thorough and complete listing of any of the sources I encountered. As for the descriptions of the final-instar of the larvae refer to
is a very large group of
wasps, with worldwide distribution. It is so large in fact, that no common names exist for this group and only a few species have been reared. It parasitizes lepidopterous larvae on trees and bushes, mostly coniferous and decidious trees. They are koinobionts, meaning they do not kill their hosts immediatly, and are solitary, endoparasitoids.
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