Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA SCS. 1991.
Southern wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species
. South National Technical Center, Fort Worth. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI).
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete noxious weed list for that location, or click here for a composite list of all
Federal and State Noxious Weeds
This plant and the related entity italicized and indented above can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of
Weeds of the U.S.
, (± fleshy), 15—250 cm; stout taproots and a fascicle of fleshy lateral roots, often perennating by root sprouts.
1—several, usually erect, often stout, glabrous to densely tomentose; branches 0—many, spreading to ascending, short, stout.
: blades linear to oblanceolate or oblong-elliptic, 10—40 × 2—10 cm, unlobed and spiny-dentate to deeply pinnatifid, lobes spiny-dentate or coarsely lobed, main spines stout, 5—30 mm, abaxial faces subglabrous to loosely tomentose, adaxial glabrous to ± densely villous with septate trichomes; basal present at flowering, spiny winged-petiolate, bases often tapered; principal cauline sessile, well distributed, often not much reduced distally, bases often ± auriculate-clasping; distal cauline often spinier than the proximal.
1—20 in subcapitate to corymbiform arrays (each closely subtended by an involucre-like ring of spiny-margined bracts).
hemispheric to campanulate, 3—5 × 3—8 cm.
in 5—9 series, subequal to imbricate, light green to stramineous, lanceolate to linear, distally often with reddish margins, abaxial faces without glutinous ridge, often ± thinly tomentose, often scabridulous in submarginal bands; outer and middle appressed-ascending, bodies usually reddish-tinged, margins setulose-ciliolate, apices acuminate, spines 1—2 mm, weak; apices of inner straight, flat.
white to yellow, pink, purple, or red, 30—47 mm, tubes 11—30 mm, throats 6—10 mm, lobes 7—10 mm; style tips 3—5 mm.
straw-colored to tan, 4—6 mm, apical collars weakly differentiated;
= 32, 33, 34, 35.
Varieties 4 (3 in the flora): e United States, Mexico.
Although several variants have been given taxonomic recognition as species, these seem at most races. Flower color varies greatly, sometimes within populations and sometimes on a populational or regional basis. Herbarium specimens are sometimes difficult to assign to variety.
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