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Pinus edulis Engelm.
TWONEEDLE PINYON
Colorado Pinyon Pine; Pinyon

Life   Plantae   Gymnospermae   Pinaceae   Pinus

Pinus edulis, seed - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus edulis, seed - general view

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Pinus edulis, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus edulis, cone - female - mature open
Pinus edulis, cone - female - closed
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus edulis, cone - female - closed

Pinus edulis, cone - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus edulis, cone - male
Pinus edulis, leaf - entire needle
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus edulis, leaf - entire needle

Pinus edulis, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus edulis, bark - of a large tree
Pinus edulis, whole tree - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus edulis, whole tree - view up trunk

Pinus edulis, bark - of a small tree or small branch
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus edulis, bark - of a small tree or small branch
Pinus edulis, whole tree - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus edulis, whole tree - view up trunk

Pinus edulis, cone - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus edulis, cone - unspecified
Pinus edulis, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus edulis, cone - female - mature open

Pinus edulis, cone - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus edulis, cone - male
Pinus edulis, whole tree - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pinus edulis, whole tree - general

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Adelgidae  Pineus ( @ CSCA_TCN (1)
Amphisphaeriaceae  Pestalotia foedans @ BPI (1)

Pestalotia stevensonii @ BPI (2)
Anthocoridae  Orius tristicolor @ AMNH_IZC (1)
Aphididae  Cinara ( @ AMNH_PBI (15); NCSU_ENT (7)

Essigella ( @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Cicadidae  Okanagana bella @ CSUC_TCN (1)

Tibicen duryi @ AMNH_IZC (1)
Coleosporiaceae  Coleosporium crowellii @ 130425B (1); 130425C (1); 130425A (1); BPI (23)

Coleosporium jonesii @ BPI (69)
Cronartiaceae  Cronartium occidentale @ BPI (113)

Cronartium ribicola @ BPI (2)

Peridermium ribicola @ BPI (1)

Peridermium @ BPI (1)
Margarodidae  Matsucoccus acalyptus @ CSCA_TCN (8)

Matsucoccus eduli @ CSCA_TCN (5)

Matsucoccus monophyllae @ CSCA_TCN (1)

Pityococcus ferrisi @ CSCA_TCN (5)
Meruliaceae  Merulius ambiguus @ BPI (1)
Miridae  Ceratocapsus apicatus @ AMNH_PBI (4)

Deraeocoris bakeri @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Deraeocoris brevis @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Deraeocoris davisi @ AMNH_ENT (2)

Deraeocoris fulvescens @ AMNH_ENT (5)

Dichaetocoris anasazi @ AMNH_PBI (2); AMNH_ENT (140)

Dichaetocoris nevadensis @ AMNH_ENT (79)

Dichaetocoris pinicola @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Dichrooscytus apicalis @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Dichrooscytus flavescens @ AMNH_PBI (3); AMNH_ENT (29)

Dichrooscytus junipericola @ AMNH_ENT (17); AMNH_PBI (2)

Dichrooscytus pinicola @ AMNH_PBI (11); AMNH_IZC (89)

Dichrooscytus uhleri @ AMNH_ENT (77); AMNH_IZC (11); AMNH_PBI (11)

Irbisia serrata @ AMNH_IZC (2)

Lopidea scutata @ AMNH_IZC (3)

Lopidea ute @ AMNH_ENT (4)

Neoborella @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Orthotylus albocostatus @ AMNH_IZC (2)

Pappus vanduzeei @ AMNH_ENT (64)

Parthenicus cowaniae @ AMNH_PBI (4)

Parthenicus @ AMNH_PBI (11)

Phytocoris comulus @ AMNH_ENT (4)

Phytocoris corticola @ AMNH_PBI (8)

Phytocoris heidemanni @ AMNH_ENT (12); AMNH_PBI (3)

Phytocoris hopi @ AMNH_ENT (2)

Phytocoris mellarius @ AMNH_PBI (25); AMNH_ENT (96)

Phytocoris shoshoni @ AMNH_IZC (1); AMNH_ENT (32)

Phytocoris simulatus @ AMNH_PBI (1); AMNH_ENT (32)

Phytocoris stellatus @ AMNH_ENT (3)

Phytocoris sublineatus @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Pilophorus diffusus @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Pilophorus exiguus @ AMNH_PBI (19)

Pilophorus fuscipennis @ AMNH_PBI (29)

Pilophorus tibialis @ AMNH_PBI (104)

Pinomiris knighti @ AMNH_PBI (7)

Plesiodema polhemi @ AMNH_IZC (1); AMNH_PBI (13)

Psallovius flaviclavus @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Psallovius piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (2)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Lecanosticta acicola @ BPI (1)
Patellariaceae  Tryblidiella sabina @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Cryptoporus volvatus @ BPI (1)

Fomes pini @ BPI (1)

Polyporus cinnabarinus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus volvatus @ BPI (1)
Reduviidae  Rasahus @ AMNH_PBI (4)

Rhynocoris @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Sinea @ AMNH_PBI (13)

Zelus tetracanthus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Zelus @ AMNH_PBI (5)
Rhytismataceae  Elytroderma deformans @ BPI (15)

Hypoderma deformans @ BPI (3)

Hypoderma pini @ BPI (6)

Hypoderma robustum @ BPI (1)

Hypoderma saccatum @ BPI (12)

Hypodermella sulcigena @ BPI (2)

Lophodermium friabile @ BPI (1)

Lophodermium @ BPI (2)
Stereaceae  Aleurodiscus mesaverdensis @ BPI (1)
_  Diplozythia @ BPI (2)

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The Gymnosperm Database

photo

Mature tree and saplings; woodland in background is almost all Pinus edulis with minor Juniperus scopulorum ; location Colorado, 38.81663°N, 106.08633°W [C.J. Earle, 2006.07.09].

Map of this site : nearly every tree visible is Pinus edulis .

photo

Mature cone 4 cm long [C.J. Earle, 2006.07.09].

photo

Seedling 7 cm tall [C.J. Earle, 2006.07.09].

photo

Ripe cones, all have been gleaned already by birds [C.J. Earle, 2006.07.09].

photo

Branchlet with immature pollen cones and maturing seed cone [C.J. Earle, 2006.07.09].

photo

Growing shoot with current year cone [C.J. Earle, 2006.07.09].

photo

Mature tree at Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park ; location 38.565°N, 107.750° W [C.J. Earle, 2006.07.09].

photo

Bark on a tree 30 cm in diameter [C.J. Earle, 2006.07.09].

 

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Conservation status

Pinus edulis

Engelmann 1848

Common names

Piñon ( Elmore & Janish 1976 ); New Mexican, Colorado, mesa, two-leaved, or common piñon (or pinyon) pine ( Peattie 1950 ).

Taxonomic notes

Subsection Cembroides ( Perry 1991 ). Syn: P. monophylla var. edulis ( Silba 1986 ), Caryopitys edulis (Engelmann) Small, P. cembroides Zuccarini var. edulis (Engelmann) Voss ( Kral 1993 ).

Pinus edulis forms natural hybrids with P. cembroides (Little 1979) and P. monophylla ( Lanner 1974 ).

Pinus edulis is sometimes described as occurring in the New York Mountains of extreme eastern California, but other authors assign these trees to Pinus monophylla . These trees have also been described as a species, Pinus californiarum D.K. Bailey, which has also been described as a subspecies ( P. monophylla subsp. californiarum (D.K. Bailey) Zavarin) or variety ( P. monophylla var. californiarum (D.K. Bailey) Silba) of P. monophylla .

Hybrids with Pinus monophylla are common where the two species co-occur along the eastern margin of the Great Basin ( Lanner 1974 ). See the Pinus monophylla page for further discussion of the complex and geographically varied legacy of edulis-monophylla hybridization. For more information see the work by Cole et al. (2007) and an interesting blog about that work .

Description

Monoecious evergreen shrubs or trees typically to 21 m tall and 60 cm dbh, strongly tapering, erect; crown conic, rounded, dense. Bark red-brown, shallowly and irregularly furrowed, ridges scaly, rounded. Branches persistent to near trunk base; twigs pale red-brown to tan, rarely glaucous, aging gray-brown to gray, glabrous to papillose-puberulent. Buds ovoid to ellipsoid, red-brown, 0.5-1 cm, resinous. Leaves (1-)2(-3) per fascicle, upcurved, persisting 4-6 years, 20-40 × (0.9-)1-1.5 mm, connivent, 2-sided (1-leaved fascicles with leaves 2-grooved, 3-leaved fascicles with leaves 3-sided), blue-green, all surfaces marked with pale stomatal bands, particularly the adaxial, margins entire or finely serrulate, apex narrowly acute to subulate; sheath 0.5-0.7 cm, scales soon recurved, forming rosette, shed early. Pollen cones ellipsoid, ca. 7 mm, yellowish to red-brown. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, shedding seeds and falling soon thereafter, spreading, symmetric, ovoid before opening, depressed-ovoid to nearly globose when open, ca. (3.5)4(-5) cm, pale yellow- to pale red-brown, resinous, nearly sessile to short-stalked; apophyses thickened, raised, angulate; umbo subcentral, slightly raised or depressed, truncate or umbilicate. As with other piñons, the seeds rest in a deep cone-scale declivity and upper cone scale tissue holds the seeds in place, so seeds do not readily fall out and are readily available to avian dispersers. Seeds mostly ellipsoid to obovoid; body 10-15 mm, brown, wingless. 2 n =24 ( Kral 1993 , Ronald M. Lanner e-mail 1999.12.20).

Distribution and Ecology

USA: widespread in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico, with small outlier populations in extreme eastern Nevada, southern Wyoming, extreme western Oklahoma, trans-Pecos Texas, and Mexico: Chihuahua. Grows at elevations of 1500-2100(-2700) m. Found on dry mountain slopes, mesas, and plateaus ( Kral 1993 ).

Distribution data from USGS (1999) .

The piñon-juniper woodland is one of the principal forest types of western North America. Woodlands of this type, dominated by Pinus edulis , cover approximately 14.9 million ha in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah (Ronco 1990). Most such woodlands are dominated by one or two species of pine and another one or two species of juniper. The principal pines involved are Pinus edulis , P. monophylla , and P. cembroides , and the principal junipers are Juniperus occidentalis , J. monosperma , J. osteosperma , J. deppeana and J. flaccida . However, a good variety of other, sometimes rather unusual combinations may occur. For instance, at the northern extreme, the Missouri Breaks of eastern Montana have Pinus flexilis - Juniperus scopulorum woodlands, whereas Mexico has stands that contain some very rare species of both pine and juniper. Regardless of its dominant tree species composition, the piñon-juniper woodland is of enormous ecological importance because the dominant trees create a structure that produces habitat diversity, attenuates soil erosion and microclimatic extremes, retains snow cover and enhances soil moisture, supports very high diversity of both cryptogamic and vascular vegetation, and provides an important food source (pine nuts and juniper "berries") for many species of birds, mammals, and insects. These resources are in turn available to humans, who historically have exploited them primarily for grazing domestic animals, and in this connection the piñon-juniper woodland is of great economic importance.

Although Americans tend to see piñon-juniper as a hot desert vegetation type, Pinus edulis in particular occupies a relatively cold, relatively mesic niche within the piñon-juniper type. Annual precipitation varies with geography and elevation from about 250-560(-690) mm, and varies from summer-wet to winter-wet, though some summer rainfall occurs throughout the species' range (Ronco 1990). Pinus edulis tends to give way to junipers or desert shrubs on dry sites, and to forest trees such as Pinus ponderosa on wet sites. Temperatures in the species' range vary from (-35-)4-16(-44)°C, with January means of -10-6°C and July means of 20-27°C (Ronco 1990). Hardy to Zone 5 (cold hardiness limit between -28.8°C and -23.3°C) ( Bannister and Neuner 2001 ).

As noted, Pinus edulis is a major component of the piñon-juniper forest type. It is also a minor component of Pinus aristata , Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca , Juniperus scopulorum , Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum , Cupressus arizonica , and Quercus spp. forest types. Where they co-occur, common associates are Juniperus monosperma , J. osteosperma , J. erythrocarpa , J. deppeana , and J. scopulorum ; these juniper species are ranked roughly from hot-dry to cold-moist site occurrence. Although most stands qualify as "woodland", they still vary considerably in appearance and composition. Dense stands may approach canopy closure with correspondingly low understory species diversity, while very open stands have widely scattered pines and junipers with a diverse assemblage of shrubs, forbs, and grasses. Some of the more common associated species are Quercus gambelii, Q. grisea, Q. turbinella, Cercocarpus montanus, C. ledifolius, Purshia tridentata, Artemisia tridentata, A. nova, Amelanchier spp., Chrysothamnus spp., Cowania mexicana, Fallugia paradoxa, Rhus trilobata, Ephedra spp., Yucca spp., Opuntia spp., Gutierrezia sarothrae , and Eriogonum spp. Some of the more important herbs are Chenopodium graveolens, Solidago pumila, Gilia spp., Penstemon spp., Calochortus nuttallii, Sphaeralcea spp., Aster hirtifolius, Hymenopappus filifolius var. lugens, Oryzopsis hymenoides, Sporobolus spp., Stipa comata, Sitanion hystrix, Koeleria pyramidata, Hilaria jamesii, Bouteloua gracilis, B. curtipendula, Muhlenbergia torreyi, Agropyron smithii, A. spicatum, A. trachycaulum, Bromus tectorum , and Arisitada spp. (Ronco 1990).

One of the most ecologically interesting things about piñon pines is their relationship with the birds that gather, cache and eat their seeds, and upon which the trees are completely dependent for seed dissemination. This relationship is wonderfully detailed in two books by Ron Lanner (Lanner 1981 , 1996 ). Because the seeds are large and wingless, they cannot be disseminated by wind. Instead, the seeds are gathered by four species of corvids: the Clark's nutcracker ( Nucifraga columbiana ), Steller's jay ( Cyanocitta stelleri ), Mexican jay ( Aphelocoma ultramarina ), and pinyon jay ( Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus ). Each of these will gather and cache huge numbers of seeds for consumption during the winter months. Some seeds are not recovered by the jays, and germinate to produce new seedlings. Steller's and Mexican jays collect seed only from open cones, but pinyon jays and Clark's nutcrackers forage from green cones, and then from open cones as the season progresses. Clark's nutcrackers and Steller's jays probably do not effectively disseminate the seeds because their caches are located in ponderosa pine and mixed conifer forests or in the ecotone above pinyon-juniper woodlands. Mexican jays and pinyon jays, however, cache seeds in woodland areas, the former in small, local territories, whereas the latter transport seeds up to 12 kilometers. Thus, the pinyon jay is the most important of the four species because it forages from both green and mature cones, disseminates the seeds across significant distances, and sites caches in locations where successful regeneration may occur. Pinyon jays can carry an average of up to 56 seeds in an expandable esophagus, and most seeds are cached individually rather than in groups, so there is a good dispersal of the potential seedlings. Pinyon jays live in flocks of 50 to 500 birds, and it has been estimated that during a substantial seed year in New Mexico, about 4.5 million seeds were cached by a single flock (Ronco 1990).

Big tree

Diameter 172 cm, height 21 m, crown spread 16 m. Locality: Cuba, New Mexico (American Forests 1996).

Oldest

A crossdated age of 973 years from sample SUNB2522, collected in NE Utah by Schulman in 1956 ( Brown 1996 ). Trees more than 750 years old are reasonably common, given that you can find a relatively fireproof site where they have not been killed by ranchers who, especially from the 1950s to the 1990s, would cheerfully bulldoze a thousand-year-old tree in the hope that a little grass would grow up in its stead.

Dendrochronology

Pinus edulis has been very widely used since the development of dendrochronology; a recent search found it referenced in 147 papers. In the early 20th Century crossdating techniques were used to assign calendar dates to timbers used in the construction of early Native American cliff dwellings and other structures. Later the species was used to develop climate reconstructions, first at the local scale and then as part of large tree-ring data networks covering sub-continental scales. In recent years the uses of the species have further expanded to include streamflow reconstructions, studies of erosion and alluviation, forest demography and succession, forest growth responses to climate change and changing carbon dioxide concentrations, and a host of more esoteric problems in archeology, tree physiology, climate studies, ecology, and geology. More than almost any other tree species, it acts as an articulate witness of all that it experiences in its long lifetime.

Ethnobotany

The seeds are much eaten and traded by Native Americans ( Kral 1993 ), and by others who are lucky enough to partake of the harvest. The wood was formerly used in construction by Native Americans, and is still often used for fenceposts and firewood. Due to their ecological importance, management of Pinus edulis woodlands is a major concern throughout their area of distribution. Principal management themes include wildfire control, grazing, invasion by weedy forbs and shrubs, and "grassland invasion" due to fire suppression. The literature on this subject is immense; search for "pinyon juniper management" to see some examples.

Observations

Easily found in most of its range. I have seen it forming vast woodlands in South Park, Colorado (location referenced at right). Some extremely picturesque trees, including some of the oldest known ones, are easily found along the trails and roads of Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park , also in Colorado. It also appears at Mesa Verde , Grand Canyon , Petrified Forest , Guadalupe Mountains , Arches , Canyonlands , Capitol Reef , Bryce Canyon , and Zion National Parks.

Remarks

Piñon ( Pinus edulis ) is the state tree of New Mexico ( Kral 1993 ).

This species, along with Pinus monophylla , is host to the dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium divaricatum ( Hawksworth and Wiens 1996 ).

Citations

American Forests 1996. The 1996-1997 National Register of Big Trees. Washington, DC: American Forests. This is a dated citation; the big tree register is now available online .

Engelmann 1848. Sketch of the botany of Dr. Wislizenius' expedition. Appendix, pp. 87-115, to Wislizenus, F. A. Memoir of a Tour to Northern Mexico . Washington.

Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p.

Ronco, Frank. 1990. Pinyon, in Burns and Honkala (1990) .

See also

The FEIS database .

Some nice photos at Northern Arizona Flora , accessed 2009.04.28.

Some more nice photos at Wikipedia Commons , accessed 2009.04.28.

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Pinus edulis Engelm.
twoneedle pinyon

Image of Pinus edulis

General Information
Symbol: PIED
Group: Gymnosperm
Family: Pinaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Tree
Native Status : L48   N
Characteristics
Plant Guide (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
About our new maps
Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Pinus thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, UT, Grand Co., Arches National Park. July 15, 2001. Usage Requirements .

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, UT, Grand Co., Arches National Park. July 15, 2001. Usage Requirements .

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, NV, White Pine Co., Great Basin National Park. July 15, 2001. Usage Requirements .

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, NV, White Pine Co., Great Basin National Park. July 15, 2001. Usage Requirements .

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, UT, Grand Co., Arches National Park. July 15, 2001. Usage Requirements .

©Gary A. Monroe. United States, NV, Washoe Co., Wilbur D. May Arboretum. June 16, 2003. Usage Requirements .

Steve Hurst. Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory . United States, AZ. Usage Requirements .

©Al Schneider. Southwest Colorado Wildflowers . United States, CO, NM, AZ, UT, Four Corners vicinity, within 150 miles of the corners. Usage Requirements .

Patrick J. Alexander. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, AZ, Sedona. June 8, 2006. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, AZ, Sedona. June 8, 2006. Usage Requirements .

©Susan McDougall. Trees Live Here . United States, AZ, Sedona. June 8, 2006. Usage Requirements .

Leland J. Prater. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, CO. 1963. Usage Requirements .

W.H. Shaffer. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, UT. 1938. Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, AZ. 1935. Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, CO, Roosevelt National Forest, Owl Canyon. Usage Requirements .

©Gary A. Monroe. United States, NV, White Pine Co., Great Basin National Park, Snake Creek. July 14, 2007. Usage Requirements .

©Gary A. Monroe. United States, NV, White Pine Co., Great Basin National Park, Snake Creek. July 14, 2007. Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Symbol Scientific Name
PICEE Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. edulis (Engelm.) Voss

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Coniferophyta – Conifers
Class Pinopsida
Order Pinales
Family Pinaceae – Pine family
Genus Pinus L. – pine
Species Pinus edulis Engelm. – twoneedle pinyon

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (PIED)
CalPhotos (PIED)
Flora of North America (PIED)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (PICEE)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (PIED)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (PIED)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (PIED)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (PIED)
Native Plants Network (PIED)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (PIED)
Related Websites
AZ-Northern Arizona University (PIED)
CO-Southwest Colorado Wildflowers, Ferns, (PIED)
Forestry Images (PIED)
Gymnosperm Database (PIED)
MO-Missouri Botanical Garden W3 Tropicos (PIED)
NC-Plant Fact Sheets (PIED)
NM-Medicinal Plants of the Southwest (PIED)
NM-State Plants (PIED)
OK-Oklahoma Biological Survey (PIED)
USDA Forest Service-Silvics of North America (PIED)
UT-Range Plants of Utah (PIED)
VA-Virginia Tech Dendrology (PIED)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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8. Pinus edulis Engelmann in Wislizenus, Mem. Tour N. Mexico. 88. 1848.

Pinyon, piñón

Caryopitys edulis (Engelmann) Small; Pinus cembroides Zuccarini var. edulis (Engelmann) Voss

Shrubs or trees to 21m; trunk to 0.6m diam., strongly tapering, erect; crown conic, rounded, dense. Bark red-brown, shallowly and irregularly furrowed, ridges scaly, rounded. Branches persistent to near trunk base; twigs pale red-brown to tan, rarely glaucous, aging gray-brown to gray, glabrous to papillose-puberulent. Buds ovoid to ellipsoid, red-brown, 0.5--1cm, resinous. Leaves (1--)2(--3) per fascicle, upcurved, persisting 4--6 years, 2--4cm ´ (0.9--)1--1.5mm, connivent, 2-sided (1-leaved fascicles with leaves 2-grooved, 3-leaved fascicles with leaves 3-sided), blue-green, all surfaces marked with pale stomatal bands, particularly the adaxial, margins entire or finely serrulate, apex narrowly acute to subulate; sheath 0.5--0.7cm, scales soon recurved, forming rosette, shed early. Pollen cones ellipsoid, ca. 7mm, yellowish to red-brown. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, shedding seeds and falling soon thereafter, spreading, symmetric, ovoid before opening, depressed-ovoid to nearly globose when open, ca. (3.5--)4(--5)cm, pale yellow- to pale red-brown, resinous, nearly sessile to short-stalked; apophyses thickened, raised, angulate; umbo subcentral, slightly raised or depressed, truncate or umbilicate. Seeds mostly ellipsoid to obovoid; body 10--15mm, brown, wingless. 2 n =24.

Dry mountain slopes, mesas, plateaus, and pinyon-juniper woodland; 1500--2100(--2700)m; Ariz., Calif., Colo., N.Mex., Okla., Tex., Utah, Wyo.; Mexico in Chihuahua.

Pinus edulis var. fallax Little ( P . californiarum subsp. fallax (Little) D.K.Bailey) appears to combine features of P . edulis and P . monophylla . More study is needed.

Seeds of Pinus edulis , the commonest southwestern United States pinyon, are much eaten and traded by Native Americans.

Pinyon ( Pinus edulis ) is the state tree of New Mexico.

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Pinus+edulis&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Pinus+edulis&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 59
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Pinus edulis%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Two-needle Pinyon Pine
ID: 9189 3301 3553 0031 [detail]
Robert Potts
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Mexican Pinyon Pine
ID: 0024 3291 1997 0011 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 2000 California Academy of Sciences

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Pinyon Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0101 0158 [detail]
© 1998 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Colorado Pinyon
ID: 7335 3182 4412 0003 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
ID: 0024 3291 2014 0119 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 2000 California Academy of Sciences

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Colorado Pinyon
ID: 7335 3182 4412 0002 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Edible Pinyon Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0101 0159 [detail]
© 1998 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Mexican Pinyon Pine
ID: 0024 3291 1997 0015 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 2000 California Academy of Sciences

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Mexican Pinyon Pine
ID: 0024 3291 1997 0012 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 2000 California Academy of Sciences

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Pinon Pine
ID: 9189 3301 3553 0032 [detail]
Robert Potts
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
New Mexico pinon pine
ID: 9189 3301 3553 0033 [detail]
Robert Potts
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Colorado Pinyon
ID: 7335 3182 4412 0001 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Mexican Pinyon Pine
ID: 0024 3291 1997 0014 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 2000 California Academy of Sciences

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Mexican Pinyon Pine
ID: 0024 3291 1997 0013 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 2000 California Academy of Sciences

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Pinyon Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0405 0562 [detail]
© 2005 Robert Sivinski

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Pinyon Pine
ID: 0000 0000 1005 1232 [detail]
© 2005 Robert Sivinski

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Pinyon Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0106 0777 [detail]
© 2006 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Pinyon Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0106 0778 [detail]
© 2006 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Pinyon Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0106 0779 [detail]
© 2006 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Pinyon Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0106 0780 [detail]
© 2006 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Pinyon Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0106 0781 [detail]
© 2006 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Pinyon Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0106 0782 [detail]
© 2006 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Pinyon Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0106 0783 [detail]
© 2006 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Pinus edulis
Pinus edulis
Pinyon Pine
ID: 0000 0000 0106 0784 [detail]
© 2006 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

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