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Superfamily ICHNEUMONOIDEA
Family ICHNEUMONIDAE

By Robert W. Carlson

Most of the members of this large family are parasites of holometabolous insects. A few spe-
cies or groups of species parasitize spiders (egg sacs, spiderlings, or adults) or egg sacs of pseu-
doscorpions. No identified Ichneumonidae are known to be primary parasites of paurometabo-
lous insects (cf. Clancy and Pierce, 1966). Further discussion of host relations is deferred to the
introductions pertaining to genera or supergeneric categories. General information on the biolo-
gy, host selection, or ecology of Ichneumonidae can be found in the discussions of Cushman
(1926), Clausen (1940), Townes and Townes (1951, p. 184-185), and Townes (1958,1962). Addi-
tional biological references were cited by Sachtleben (1962c).

According to the estimate of Townes (1969, p. 6) the Nearctic fauna of Ichneumonidae includes
slightly more than 8000 species, only 35 percent of which had been described. Of the 27 currently
recognized subfamilies, only the Agriotypinae and Collyriinae have no species native to North
America (one species of Collyriinae was introduced from Europe).

I have attempted to include most of the species known to have been released in North Amer-
ica for purposes of biological control. In a few cases, I knew from voucher material or had other
reasons to suspect that the identifications which had been published in reference to releases
were incorrect. When I lacked the information necessary for correcting the identifications of
such species, they were excluded from the catalog. None of the species thus excluded are known
to be established.

Lists of species synonymy for species not confined to America north of Mexico are as
complete as I could make them. No synonyms were intentionally excluded by virtue of having
been described from areas outside the geographic scope of this catalog.

Distributions given for species are self-explanatory. In the catalog of Townes and Townes
(1951) numerous species which are not particularly common in collections, and some which ac-
tually are rather scarce, were cited as having distributions such as "transcont. in Transit, and U.
Austr. Zones." Except in a very few cases, distributions of the latter type have been replaced by
lists of states and provinces or by bracketing distributions such as: Que. w. to s. B. C, s. to n.
Fla., N. Mex., and s. Calif.

In giving the geographic distributions of genera or supergeneric categories, and in some other
discussions, I have used the terms Nearctic and Neotropic in reference to distributions in Amer-
ica north of Mexico and south of the United States, respectively. No alternatives were feasible.

Lists of hosts are arranged so that names of taxa belonging to the same family are in
alphabetical sequence. The names of the families themselves would have been a very worthwhile
addition, and their inclusion would not have been incompatible with the process of computeriza-
tion. It is hoped that inclusion of them will be allowed in future editions of the catalog.

Although he did not refer to them by number (except on p. 49), Townes, (1969, p. 15-18)
discussed the manner in which Opinions 157 and 159 of the International Commission on Zoologi-
cal Nomenclature came to be pubHshed by Hemming (1945). I have looked into the various




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aspects of these cases and have found that Townes' statements about their history are correct
(see Hemming, 1943). I also learned that Opinion 135, which pertains to suppression of the
names of Jurine which were vaUdated in 1801 (including Cryptus), has no vaUdity on the same
grounds. However, in 1973 I discovered that Opinion 135 is of no consequence with respect to
the homonymy of Cryptus Fabricius (1804) because the latter would be preoccupied by Cryptus
Panzer (1804) if Cryptus Jurine (1801) had been suppressed. The fact that Panzer's usage of the
name Cryptus predates the Fabrician usage is demonstrated by Fabricius' (1804, p. 35) citation
of fascicle 88 of Panzer's "Faunae insectorum Germanicae", wherein Panzer (1804) validated the
name Cryptus segmentarius, which is the type-species of Cryptus Jurine by subsequent
monotypy and which is a synonym of Arge rustica (Linnaeus). After pondering this matter for a
considerable time, I decided to use the name Cryptus Fabricius in the present catalog in spite of
its homonymy for the following reasons: (1) the name Cryptus Jurine was never applied more
than sparingly to sawflies of the genus Arge for a variety of reasons, the principal ones being
the obscurity of the publication in which Cryptus Jurine (1801) appeared and the fact that most
authors thought the name had been validated only by Jurine (1807) and treated it either as a ju-
nior homonym of Cryptus Fabricius or a junior synonym of Hylotomma (itself a junior synonym
of Arge); (2) neither Cryptus Jurine nor Cryptus Panzer are likely to be hereafter treated as
available names by specialists working on Symphyta; (3) the historic significance of the names
Cryptus and Cryptinae for ichneumonology is secondary only to that of Ichneumon and Ichneu-
monidae.

Fitton and Gauld (1976, p. 249) apparently made independent discovery of the Fabrician cita-
tion of Panzer (1804, fasc. 88), and opted in favor of the group name Hemitelinae. I am not cer-
tain that the latter will gain wide acceptance among ichneumonid workers, a question which also
influenced my decision in favor of Cryptus and Cryptinae. In any event, the paper of Fitton and
Gauld did not appear untU after the computerization of my manuscript for the Cryptinae, and it
is not feasible for me to now alter my decision.

I have applied the names Ichneumon and Pimpla according to the type-species designations
of Curtis (1828 and 1839, respectively). I regard application of the names Pimpla Fabricius
(1804) and Pimplini to Coccygomimus and Echthromorphini, respectively (in accordance with
the illegal Opinion 159), as a nomenclatural absurdity of incredible magnitude. Fabricius placed
no species of Coccygomimus in Pimpla; he invariably placed them in Cryptus in 1804. Thus
Ichneumon instigator Fabricius (the type-species of Pimpla according to Opinion 159) was not
one of the species which Fabricius had included in Pimpla.

I regard Ephialtes Schrank (1802, p. 316) as an available name. Schrank's partial misidentifica-
tion of the type-species (see his p. 269-270 description of Ichneumon compunctor Unnaeus)
makes it a case analogous to that of his genus Paniscus (see introductory discussion of Netelia),
except for the fact that Paniscus is suppressed as a junior synonym of Ophion.

Questions of synonymy of supergeneric names have here been decided in favor of the oldest
available supergeneric names having type-genera which are currently valid (i.e. not suppressed
as junior objective or subjective synonyms). The resultant usage is largely in agreement with
that in the paper by Fitton and Gauld (1976) on the ichneumonid supergeneric names other than
those of Ichneumoninae. The most noteworthy differences between their usages and mine per-
tain to Ephialtini (not used here), Pimplini, and names based upon Cryptus.

The following is a discussion of some of the most important publications on Ichneumonidae
pertinent to studies of the Nearctic fauna; to a limited extent, some of the authors are also
discussed. Biographical data on these and additional authors who published on Ichneumonidae
were compUed by Sachtleben (1962b, p. 720-726).

The first real specialist to study Ichmeumonidae was Gravenhorst (my reference to him as an
ichneumonid speciahst should not be misconstrued; he is also well known for his taxonomic work
on certain Coleoptera, and he published on subjects other than entomology). In 1815 Graven-
horst published the first sizeable taxonomic paper that dealt strictly with Ichneumonidae. In
1819 he published a conspectus (i.e. outline) of the 1829 work that is the foundation for modern
ichneumonology. The appearance of the latter work was preceded by Gravenhorst's (1820) paper
on the ichneumonids of the Italian Piedmont and by Thunberg's (1822, 1824) revision of
"Ichneumonidea," (Ichneumonoidea, Gasteruptiidae, and Aulacidae). Thunberg's revision was
based largely upon Fabricius (1804), but the nine generic names which Fabricius had proposed
for the species Thunberg treated were suppressed by Thunberg as synonyms of Ichneumon.
This resulted in much homonymy, and Thunberg proposed many replacement names. Fortunate-




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ly, most of the replacement names are unavailable by virtue of having been proposed to replace
senior homonyms.

Gravenhorst (1829), on the other hand, attempted to redefine the Fabrician genera of Ichneu-
monidae and give them phyletic meaning by excluding all but a few of the originally included
species and adding others. With the exception of Gelis Thunberg (1827), Gravenhorst also util-
ized the generic names which had been proposed by other authors who had preceded him.
Although Gravenhorst's generic nomenclature was not altogether sound with respect to present
rules (see Townes, 1969, p. 10), many of the nomenclatural problems which surfaced in the early
part of the 20th Century were not caused by anything Gravenhorst did (although he is culpable
in the cases of Bassus and Xorides), and could not have been avoided by anything he could have
foreseen. In the case of Pimpla, Gravenhorst (1819) did not indicate the precise group of species
for which he would use the name in his familial (our generic) sense; therefore, Curtis (1828)
could not have known that his choice of type-species would not agree with Gravenhorst's (1829)
usage.

Townes (1959) described the general condition of the Gravenhorst collection. Additional infor-
mation on the collection and its labeling were published by Townes (1965).

Foerster (1868) was the next person to publish a major work dealing with the entire family.
All of the 489 genera newly described in his 1868 paper had no included species. Foerster in-
tended that his generic names would apply to the European fauna, but the first included species,
European or otherwise became the only ones eligible for selection as type-species. In many cases
the type-species fixation was by subsequent monotypy (Intematl. Code Zool. Nomencl., art. 69
[A] [ii] [2]). Perkins (1962) dealt with the type-species of the Foerster genera, and except for
the few cases in which corrections are made here or elsewhere, or in which species have been
referred to Foerster genera since 1962, the type-species I have cited are those cited by Perkins.

Holmgren, Cresson, and Provancher were contemporaries who between 1855 and 1890
published many descriptions of new species of Ichneumonidae, and, in the case of Holmgren,
many new genera also. The majority of the new species described by Cresson are Nearctic.
Cresson's (1887) synopsis of Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico included keys to the sub-
families and genera of Ichneumonidae and a catalog of the species and their synonyms. Cresson
(1916) published a list of species he had described, and he indicated which single specimen was to
be regarded as the type for each; thus he selected lectotypes for those cases in which he had
described a species from more than one specimen. His 1916 paper also included a list of all the
papers he had published on Hymenoptera, but there is no published list which excludes those
that do not involve Ichneumonidae. Cresson's (1928) paper (published posthumously) on the
types of other authors concerns only those to be found in the collection at the Academy of Natu-
ral Sciences of Philadelphia. Therefore, in cases where all the type material of a given species
was not deposited at the A. N. S. P., Cresson's citations of individual specimens may not con-
stitute lectotype selection. It is apparent, however, that they were accepted as such by Townes
(1944, 1945) and in cases where only one syntype (or only one syntype from the locality indicated
as the type locality) was deposited at the A. N. S. P., "Townes may technically be the lectotype
selector.

Provancher dealt mostly with the Fauna of Canada, most particularly with that of Quebec. He
published most of his original descriptions in "le Naturaliste canadien," but in 1883 published a
compilation of them. Additions and corrections to the ichneumonid parts of this 1883 compilation
were published by Provancher (1886, 1888, 1889). Gahan and Rohwer (1917, 1918) selected lecto-
types for many of Provancher's Hymenoptera (except bees). Barron (1975) restudied the Ichneu-
monidae in the Provancher collections. He located some types not found by Gahan and Rohwer
and in some cases rejected lectotypes that Gahan and Rohwer had selected. In most cases, Bar-
ron's grounds for rejecting particular Gahan and Rohwer lectotypes seem valid, but in a number
of the cases there was no proof that the Gahan and Rohwer lectotypes had not been syntypes. In
those cases (which I discuss under the species in question) I have regarded the Gahan and
Rohwer lectotypes as being valid. Barron discussed Provancher's life, collections., and
methodology; he also tabulated Provancher's publications on Ichneumonidae (p. 414).

Holmgren dealt mainly with the fauna of Sweden, but did describe six species from California
(Holmgren, 1869a) and seven from Greenland (Holmgren, 1869b, 1872). According to information
published by Persson (1971) all of the California species were probably collected in the vicinity
of San Francisco.

Thomson published on Ichneumonidae between 1783 and 1897, mostly in his "Opuscula en-




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tomologica"; the latter has continuous pagination, but is in most other respects a serial publica-
tion, and in this catalog I have bibliographically treated it as such. Thomson was an important
adopter of Foerster names. In adopting them, however, he often altered their terminations (see
Perkins, 1962, p. 387-390). The Thomson spellings have most recently been treated as emenda-
tions (see Walkley, 1958, p. 57; Perkins, 1962, p. 387; Townes, 1969, p. 13-14), and I have cited
them as such in this catalog. However, Thomson never cited the original spellings in any of these
cases, and although it is obvious in most cases that his spellings were deliberate, they technically
should be treated as lapses. Thomson was good at finding characters for distinguishing genera,
and also seems to have been very talented at distinguishing closely related species. His ability in
the latter respect, at least, seems to have been much greater than that of any of his contempora-
ries who worked on Ichneumonidae. The weaknesses in Thomson's work stem from the fact that
he apparently never traveled to study the collections even of prior Scandinavian workers (e.g.
Hobngren, Thunberg, Woldstedt), but instead ignored their names (i.e. in the case of Thunberg)
or attempted to identify their species from their descriptions. Many of Thomson's errors in the
identification of the species of others are being corrected in current papers.

Ashmead published on Ichneumonidae between 1888 and 1906. His 1900 treatment of the
Ichneumonoidea was hastily contrived and full of errors. It is based largely upon the generic
keys of Foerster and, with respect to Ichneumonidae, is significant mostly for its fixation of
some type-species and for the validation of new generic and specific names. Some of the names
validated by Ashmead (1900) were discussed by Cushman (1942). Crawford (1900) published a
list of Ashmead's entomological papers and an index to the generic names of Ashmead; there is
no published list of only those Ashmead papers which involve Ichneumonidae.

The ichneumonid part (1901-1902) of Dalla Torre's catalog of Hymenoptera is, for the most
part, bibliographically accurate and nearly complete. Those inaccuracies which are found in his
catalog appear to have resulted from the fact that he either did not have all of the primary
literature available to him or did not have time to check it. He connot be faulted on either ac-
count, but those who can feasibly check his cataloging of older works probably would be wise in
doing so.

Viereck published a significant number of papers on Ichneumonidae and other Hymenoptera
between 1902 and 1928, but is probably best known for his publications on the type- species of
Ichneumonoidea (1914, 1921) and the Hymenoptera of Connecticut (1917, with other collaborat-
ing authors). His work on the ichneumonoid type-species was based largely upon Dalla Torre's
catalog; some of his oversights of first inclusions of species in ichneumonid genera of Foerster
could have been avoided if he had studied Dalla Torre's catalog more carefully. Viereck was not
a careful worker, however, and the characters he used for distinguishing what he called genera
and species were poorly chosen. Consequently, his 1917 treatment of the Ichneumonidae in
Hymenoptera of Connecticut has served only to befuddle or mislead those who have attempted
to use it. Apparently, there is no published list of Viereck's publications.

Roman (Sweden) and Cushman (U. S. A.) were specialists who published numerous papers on
Ichneumonidae over periods of time that were largely overlapping (1903-1940 and 1913-1947,
respectively). I have cited below the four taxonomic papers of Cushman (1921 [with Gahan],
1922, 1928, 1942) which deal with Ichneumonidae in a more or less general fashion. A complete
listing of Cushman's publications was given by Townes (1957).

Roman (1912, 1932, 1936) published important papers on ichneumonid type specimens of Thun-
berg and Linnaeus. His papers on the Ichneumonidae of Greenland are some of the most recent
ones on the subject; these and other papers on Greenland Ichneumonidae were cited by
Sachtleben (1962c, p. 923). Sachtleben (1962a, p. 171-173) listed most of Roman's papers on
Ichneumonidae.

The Nearctic catalog of Ichneumonidae by Townes (1944, 1945) differs from the present
catalog in showing all the published generic combinations for each species and in citing type lo-
calities and type repositories. Those types of Viereck cited in that catalog as being at the Conn.
Agr. Expt. Sta. have since been transferred to the U. S. Natl. Museum. Other corrections to the
1944-1945 catalog of Townes were given by Townes (1973, p. 359-369).

The Nearctic catalog of Townes and Townes (1951) did not cite either the nomina nuda which
had been cited in synonymy by Townes (1944, 1945) or those he had left unplaced (1945, p.
768-770). The nomina nuda are reinserted here because they have some historic significance, that
significance being greatest when they pertain to specimens which subsequently became types of
valid names.




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Short's (1959, 1970) study of final-instar larvae was more complete and detailed than that of
Beirne (1941), and therefore seems to have had a greater impact upon the classification of Ichne-
umonidae. Although some specialists who work primarily with adults have recently incorporated
larval studies into their taxonomic revisions, information about larvae has come chieftly from
scientists, like Dr. Short, who are larval specialists. I believe that the information they have
published has in some cases been misused by those who specialize in study of adult specimens.
The latter sometimes accord as great a significance to structural characters of the head sclerites
of final-instar larvae as to the sum total of the adult structural characters which have been stu-
died. For example, Townes (1969, p. 28-29) based his assertion that Ichneumoninae and Cryp-
tinae (=his GeUnae) are unrelated upon differences between the known larvae of the two
groups. Townes believed the fact that "these two subfamilies ... resemble each other to a re-
markable degree" ... "to be the result of hunting [for] hosts on foot," a habit shared by many
members of both groups, but not all the members of either. The Ichneumoninae are internal
pupal and larval-pupal parasites of Lepidoptera, whUe most of the Cryptinae are presumed to be
external parasites of a variety of hosts, including Lepidoptera. The known larvae of these two
groups differ accordingly. Because internal parasitism must evolve from external parasitism (or
vise versa), I believe that it is Ulogical to regard the known larval differences as evidence in-
dicating that the Ichneumoninae and Cryptinae are unrelated. I hope that this and similar
questions are to be addressed in Dr. Short's revised and greatly expanded work on larvae which
is nearly ready for publication (personal commun., J. R. T. Short, 1977).

Sachtleben's (1962a) bibliography of of Palearctic Ichneumonidae is an extremely valuable tool
for those interested in the taxonomy or biology of Ichneumonidae. Additions and corrections to
this bibliography were published by Sachtleben (1962b, p. 726- 731), and Sachtleben (1962c) pro-
vided a set of subject indices to the bibliography (e.g. indices to papers on morphology, ecology,
physiology, parasitization of individually listed hosts, various taxonomic categories, etc.). It
seems likely that in compiling this set of papers Sachtleben would not have found time for veri-
fying dates of publication; this seems to be borne out by my observation regarding dates for
various papers of Holmgren, for some of which I have established dates (i.e. years) of publica-
tion later than those cited by Sachtleben.

Much new species synonymy was published in the catalogs of Townes, Townes, and Gupta
(1961), Townes, Momoi, and Townes (1965) and Townes and Townes (1966, 1973); some improve-
ments in generic and supergeneric classification were also made, particularly in the 1961, 1965,
and 1966 catalogs. Many additional changes in classification were made by Townes (1969, 1970a,
1970b, 1971) in his treatment of the genera of the world (except Ichneumoninae). The fact that
these works on the genera have been of great importance to the present catalog will be obvious
from the fact that I have largely adopted Townes' arrangement of genera and supergeneric
categories. However, the arrangement of the taxa in any classification is a superficial matter of
secondary importance, and the ultimate value of Townes' volumes on the genera stems from the
great amount of new and old real information that they have brought together.

Townes' (1969) estimate of the number of extant ichneumonid species as slightly fewer than
60,500 is rather frequently cited in publication and conversation. In a recent conversation I was
told of an anonymous coleopterist who has estimated the size of the Curculionidae to be "100,000
to 250,000" species, and I have also heard claims that the Noctuidae and Chalcidoidea may ex-
ceed the Ichneumonidae in size. The fact that no persons have yet assembled the collections or
the knowledge of them to allow them to make size estimates of the Noctuidae, Chalcidoidea, or
Curculionidae that they are willing to publish would seem to attest to the ability and dedication
of both of the Towneses. Uncertainties about the absolute and relative sizes of the groups men-
tioned will outlive those presently wondering about them. However, our present speculations
serve to remind us that the number of persons working on the various aspects of systematics
and biology of the taxa in any large insect group is far fewer than the number which can
possibly satisfy the demand for information about those taxa.

Taxonomy: Jurine, 1801. In Panzer, Litteratur-Ztg. Erlangen, Intelligenzbl. 1: 163.
— Schrank, 1802. Fauna Boica, v. 2, p. 261-319. —Panzer, 1804. Faunae Ins. German., fasc.
88, pi. 17. -Fabricius, 1804. Systema Piezatorum, p. 35, 54-101, 112-123, 126-140. —Jurine,
1807. Nouv. Meth. Class. Hym. Dipt. v. 1, p. 49-51, 98-115, pi. 3, 6, 8. — Gravenhorst, 1815.
Monog. Ichn. Pedestrum, VIII and 110 p. —Gravenhorst, 1819 (1818). Nova Acta
Leopoldina 9: 281-298. —Gravenhorst, 1820. Acad. Sci. Torino, Mem. 24: 275-388.




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—Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8: 249-281 (key); 9:
285-368. —Thunberg, 1827. Soc. Sci. Upsala, Nova Acta 9: 199-204 (Gelis described).
—Curtis, 1828. Brit. Ent., v. 5, pi. 214 (type-species desig. for Pimpla). — Gravenhorst,
1829. Ichn. Europaea, 3 v., xxxi and 2916 p. —Curtis, 1839. Brit. Ent., v. 16, pi. 728
(type-species desig. for Ichneumon). — Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25:
135-221. -Holmgren, 1869a (1868). Eug. Resa, pt. 2 (Zool.), sect. 1 (Ins.), p. 391-442.
—Holmgren, 1869b. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (n. f.) 8 (5): 1-56. —Holmgren, 1872.
Svenska Vetensk.-Akad., Ofvers. af ... Forhandl. 29: 97-105. —Thomson, 1873-1897. Opusc.
Ent. 5: 455-527 (1873); 6: 589-612 (1874); 8: 732-777 (1877); 9: 850-936 (1883); 10: 939-1040
(1884); 11: 1043-1182 (1887); 12: 1185-1318 (1888); 13: 1321-1438 (1889); 14: 1441-1534 (1890);
15: 1601-1656 (1891); 16: 1752-1773 (1892); 17: 1862-1886 (1892); 18: 1889-1967 (1893); 19:
1971-2137 (1894); 21: 2343-2404 (1896); 22: 2407-2450 (1897); — Provancher, 1883. Petite
Faune Ent. Canada, v. 2, p. 249-490, 752-803 (addit. et corr.), 819-830 (index).
—Provancher, 1886; 1888; 1889. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 29-121; 356-370
(sup. aux addit.); 445-475 (index), errata. — Cresson, 1887. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans., sup. vol.
(for 1887), p. 38-52 (keys), 183-221 (catalog). — Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23:
9-103, 104, 151-152, 161-190. -DaUa Torre, 1901; 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, pt. 1, p. 10-544; pt.
2, p. 545-1058, 1089. — Schmiedeknecht, 1902-1927; 1928-1936. Opusc. Ichn., 5 v., 44 fasc,
3570 p.; sup., 1 v., 25 fasc, 1875 p. — Cravi^ford, 1909. Ent. Soc Wash., Proc 10: 126-156
(biog. and bibliog. of Ashmead). —Roman, 1912. Zool. Bidr. Uppsala 1: 231-293. — Viereck,
1914. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 83, 186 p. — Morice and Durrant, 1915. Ent. Soc London,
' Trans. 63: 339-370, 372-375, 388-390 (scholarly discussion of Jurine, 1801). —Cresson, 1916.
Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 1: 12-64, 135-140. —Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat.
Hist. Survey Bui. 22: 243-360. — Gahan and Rohwer, 1917; 1918. Canad. Ent. 49: 298-308,
331-336, 391-400, 427-433; 50: 28-33, 101-106, 133-137, 166-171, 196-201. —Viereck, 1918;
1919. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc. 31: 69-74; 32: 45, 198 (supergeneric names). — Cushman and
Gahan, 1921. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 23: 153-171 (Say's species of Ichneumonidae).
—Viereck, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 59: 129-150 (sup. to Viereck, 1914). —Cushman,
1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 61 (8): 1-30. —Cresson, 1928. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 5: 11-26.
—Cushman, 1928. In Leonard, N. Y. (Cornell) Agr. Expt. Sta., Mem. 101: 920-960 (N. Y.
list, Ichneumonidae). —Roman, 1932. Ent. Tidskr. 53: 1-16 (Linnaean types). —Roman,
1933. Ent. Tidskr. 54: 37-39 (type-species of some old ichneumonid genera). —Roman, 1936.
Ent. Tidskr. 57: 1-5 (ichneumonid types of Linnaeus in Stockholm Mus.). — Hemming, 1939.
Internatl. Comn. Zool. Nomencl., Opinions and Declarations 2: 9-12 (Opinion 135). — Beime,
1941. Soc. Brit. Ent., Trans. 7: 124-190 -Cushman, 1942. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 92:
277-289. —Hemming, 1943. Bui. Zool. Nomencl. 1: 70-86. — Townes, 1944; 1945. Amer. Ent.
Soc, Mem. 11 (1): 1-477; 11 (2): 478-925. —Hemming, 1945. Internatl. Comn. Zool.
Nomencl., Opinions and Declarations 2: 253-260, 277-289 (Opinions 157 and 159). —Townes
and Townes, 1951. In Muesebeck, et al., U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 184-409.
—Townes, 1957. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 59: 248-254 (bibliog. of Cushman's papers).
— Walkley, 1958. In Krombein, U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2, sup. 1, p. 36-62. —Townes,
1959. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 61: 76-78. —Hopper, 1959. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 61: 155-172
(pronunciation and derivation of genric names of Nearctic Ichneumonidae). —Short, 1959.
U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 110: 391-511 (final-instar larvae). —Townes, 1961. Ent. Soc. Wash.,
Proc. 63: 103-113 (types of Nearctic ichneumonids in European museums). — Townes,
Townes, and Gupta, 1961. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 1: iv and 522 p. (Indo-Austalian catalog).
— Sachtleben, 1962a. Beitr. z. Ent. 12: 1-242 (bibliog. Palearctic Ichneumonidae). —Perkins,
1962. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 11: 385-483. —Sachtleben, 1962b. Beitr. z. Ent. 12:
720-731 (biographies, necrologies, and additions to Sachtleben, 1962a). —Sachtleben, 1962c.
Beitr. z. Ent. 12: 915-939 (indices to Sachtleben, 1962a). —Townes, Momoi, and Townes,
1965. Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 5: v and 661 p. (Eastern Palearctic catalog). —Townes and
Townes, 1966. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 8: iii and 367 p. (Nootropic catalog). —Walkley, 1967.
In Krombein and Burks, et al., U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2, sup. 2, p. 60-213.
—Townes, 1969-1971. Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 11: ii and 300 p. (1969); 12: iv and 537 p.
(1970 [1969]); 13: ii and 307 p. (1970 [1969]); 17: iii and 372 p. (1971) (genera of world,
except Ichneumoninae). —Short, 1970. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, Trans. 122: 185-210 (sup. to
Short, 1959). — Persson, 1971. Ent. Tidskr. 92: 164-172 (discussion of voyage of Eug. Resa;
see Holmgren, 1869a). —Townes and Townes, 1973. Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 19: iv and 416




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p. (Ethiopian catalog). —Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 387-591 (types of Provancher).
— Fitton and Gauld, 1976. Systematic Ent. 1: 247-258 (supergeneric names, except those of
Ichneumoninae).

Biology: Cushman, 1926. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 28: 5-6, 29-51. -Clausen, 1940.
Entomophagous Insects, p. 61-98. — Townes and Townes, 1951. In Muesebeck, et a/., U. S.
Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 184-185. —Townes, 1958. Jour. Econ. Ent. 51: 650-652.
—Townes, 1962. Verh. XI Internatl. Kong. f. Ent. Wien 1960, v. 2, p. 738-741.
— Sachtleben, 1962c. Beitr. z. Ent. 12: 924-939 (various biological indices to Sachtleben
1962a [see taxonomy refs.]). —Clancy and Pierce, 1966. Jour. Econ. Ent. 59: 855, 857.

Morphology: Peck, 1937. Canad. Jour. Res., Sect. D: Zool. Sci. 15: 221-274 —Sachtleben,
1962c. Beitr. z. Ent. 12: 923-924 (morphology indices to Sachtleben, 1962a [see taxonomy
refs.]).

Subfamily PIMPLINAE
Revision: Townes and Townes (et a/.), 1960. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 3-436.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1921. U.S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 60 (4): 1-6 (key to tribes). — Oehlke, 1964.
Ent. Abhandl. 29 (10): 533-590 (keys to Palearctic tribes and genera). — Finlayson, 1967.
Canad. Ent. 99 (1): 1-8 (final-instar larvae). —Oehlke, 1967. In Ferriere and Vecht, Hym.
Cat., pt. 2, 49 pp. (catalog, western Palearctic species). — Aubert, 1969. Ichn. Ouest-Pal. et
Leurs Hotes, pt. 1, 302 p. (catalog). —Townes, 1969. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 11: 59-142
(genera of world).

Morphology: Pratt, 1939. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 32: 727-742.

Tribe PIMPLINI

Taxonomy: Perkins, 1943. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 11) 10: 249-273.

Genus EXERISTES Foerster

Exeristes Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 164.

Type-species: Pimpla roborator Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and desig. by
Schmiedeknecht, 1888.
Eremochila Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 165.

Type-species: Pimpla nificollis Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and desig. by
Schmiedeknecht, 1888.

Members of this genus are usually parasites of Pyralidae or Olethreutidae.

Exeristes comstockii (Cresson)
Southern Que., s. to Fla., w. to B. C. and Calif. Host: Barbara

colfaxiana siskiyouana (Kft.), B. colfaxiana taxifoliella (Bsk.), Eucosyna monitorana
Heinr., Laspeyresia caryana (Fitch), L. cupressana (Kft.)?, L. torenta (Grt.), L.
youngana (Kft.), Petrova albicapitana (Bsk.), P. comstockiana (Fern.), Rhyacionia
buoliana (D. and S.), R.frnstrana (Com.), R. rigidana (Fern.), Dioryctria amatella
(Hulst), D. auranticella (Grt.), D. clariolaris (Wlk.), D. disclusa Heinr., D. zimmermanni
(Grt.), Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.).
Ephialtes Comstockii Cresson, 1880. In Comstock, U. S. Dept. Agr., Ann. Rpt. for 1879, p.
235. ♀.

Biology: Cushman, 1927. Jour. Agr. Res. 34: 616. —Miller, 1953. Ohio Jour. Sci. 53 (1): 60.

—Arthur, 1963. Canad. Ent. 95: 1079-1085.

Exeristes roborator (Fabricius)
Eurasia. Introduced but never established in Ontario (1957-1958) and
various points in the U. S. (1924-1932). Host: Ostrinia nnbilalis Hbn., Rhyacionia
buoliana (D. and S.). The hosts listed were the target species for introductions into
North America, but other hosts have been recorded in Europe.

Ichneumon roborator Fabricius, 1793. Ent. System., v. 2, p. 17(). 9.

Pimpla longicauda Brulle, 1833, (1832). Exped. Sci. de Moree, v. 2, p. 379. ♀.

Xorides aegypticus Walker, 1871. List Hym. Coll. ... Red Sea and Arabia, p. 3. ♀.

Pimpla jlavipenyiis Rudow, 1883. Ent. Nachr. 9: 234. ♀.

Pimpla nodosa Rudow, 1883. Ent. Nachr. 9: 235. ♀.




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Pimpla robusta Rudow, 1883. Ent. Nachr. 9: 238. ♀.

Pimpla Schmiedeknechti Kriechbaumer, 1888. Ent. Nachr. 14: 339. ♀.

Pimpla brachycera Thomson, 1895. Opusc. Ent. 19: 2126. ♀.

Pimpla punctata Thomson, 1895. Opusc. Ent. 19: 2126. 9

Pimpla blattifera Tosquinet, 1896. Soc. Ent. Belg., Mem. 5: 310. ♀.

Pimpla schmiedeknechtii Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 449. Emend.

Pimpla roboratrix Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 104. Emend.

Pimpla pyraustae Okamoto, 1921. Hokkaido Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 12: 15. ♂.

Biology: Fox, 1927. Natl. Res. Council, Rpt. 21, Ottawa, 58 pp. — Timon-David, 1931. Soc. de
Biol. [Paris], Compt. Rend. 106: 829-831. —Baker and Jones, 1934. U. S. Dept. Agr., Tech.
Bui. 460: 1-26.

Exeristes ruficollis (Gravenhorst)
Europe. Introduced in Conn, and N. Y. in 1935-1936 and 7 times in
Ontario between 1933 and 1957 without becoming established. Host: Rhyacionia
biioliana (D. and S. ). Other hosts are known in Europe, but R. buoliana was the target
species for introductions in N. Amer.
Pimpla ruficollis Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 153. ♀.
Pivipla variegata Ratzeburg, 1844. Ichn. d. Forstins., v. 1, p. 118. ♀.

Biology: Thorpe, 1930. Bui. Ent. Res. 21: 395. —Thorpe and Caudle, 1939. Parasitology 30:
523-528. — Juillet, 1959. Canad. Ent. 91: 709-719.

Genus SCAMBUS Hartig

Revision: Walley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 14-79.
Genus SCAMBUS Subgenus ENDROMOPODA Hellen

Endromopoda Hellen, 1939. Notulae Ent. 19: 56.

Type-species: Pimpla melanopyga Gravenhorst. Orig. desig.

Scambus detritus (Holmgren)
N. B. to s. B. C, s. to Ohio and Calif.; Europe. Host: Cephus cinctns
Nort., C. pygmaens (L.), Trachelus tabidus (F.).
Pimpla detrita Holmgren, 1860. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (ser. 4), 3(10): 23. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Salt, 1931. Bui. Ent. Res. 22: 519-526. —Holmes, 1953. Canad. Ent. 85: 339.

Scambus lithocolletidis (Ashmead)
Calif. Host: Lithocolletis sp. This is a new subgeneric placement.
The host was reared from Grindelia robusta Nutt.
Pimpla lithocolletidis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 447. ♂.

Scambus productus Walley
N. S., s. to R. I., w. to Alaska and Calif.

Scambus (Endromopoda) productus Walley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.
Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 23.

Scambus rubescens Walley
Western N. Y., w. to Sask., s. to Kans. and Wyo.

Scambus (Endromopoda) rubescens Walley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 19. tJ, 9.

Genus SCAMBUS Subgenus LISSOSCAMBUS Walley

Scambus subg. Lissoscambus Walley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 2): 25.

Type-species: Scambus (Lissoscambus) arizonensis Walley. Orig. desig.

Scambus arizonensis Walley
Colo., Ariz.; Mexico.

Scambus (Lissoscambus) arizonensis Walley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.
Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 25. ♂, ♀.

Genus SCAMBUS Subgenus ATELEOPHADNUS Cameron

Ateleophadnus Cameron, 1905. Invertebrata Pacifica 1: 127.

Type-species: Ateleophadnus bicarinata Cameron. Monotypic.

Scambus deceptor Walley
Que., s. to N. Y., w. to B. C. and Colo.

Scambus (Ateleophadnus) deceptor Walley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 35. ♂, ♀.




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Scambus granulosus Walley
N. S., s. to S. C, w. to N. W. T. and Calif. Host: Mompha eloisella (Clem.).

Scam bus (Atelophadnus) granulosus Walley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.
Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 31. ♂, ♀.

Scambus pterophori (Ashmead)
Northern N. S., s. to S. C, w. to Alaska and Calif. Host: Periploca
ceanotliiella (Cosens), Gnorinioschema gallaeasterieUa (Kell.), G. gallaesolidaginus
(Riley), Mompha eloisella (Clem.), Achatodes zeae (Harris), Ancylis comptana (Froel),
Epiblema otiosanum (Clem.), E. scudderianum (Clem.), E. strenuanum (Wlk.),
Grapholitha molesta (Bsk.), Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), Proteoteras aesculana Riley,
Platyptilia carduidactyla (Riley), P. williamsi (Grin.), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbn.),
Mononychus vulpeculus (F.), Aynetastegia glabrata (Fallen).

Piinpla pterophori Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 445. ♀.

Colpomeria litoralis Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 367. ♂.

Atelophadnus bicarinata Cameron, 1905. Invertebrata Pacifica 1: 128. ♀.

Biology: Vinal and Caffrey, 1919. Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 189: 58. — Leiby, 1922. N. Y.
Ent. Soc, Jour. 30: 93. — Cushman, 1926. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 28: 33. —Wilder, 1927.
Psyche 34: 227-229. — Balduf, 1929. Ohio Jour. Sci. 29: 224-226.

Genus SCAMBUS Subgenus SCAMBUS Hartig

Scambus Hartig, 1838. Jahresber. Fortschr. Forstwiss. Forstl. Naturk. 1: 267.

Type-species: Scambus sagax Hartig. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Tromera Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Vehr. 25: 164.

Type-species: Pimpla pomorum Ratzeburg. Monotypically included and desig. by
Schmiedeknecht, 1888.
Epiurus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 164. Preocc. by Rafinesque,
1815.

Type-species: Pimpla calobata Gravenhorst. Here desig. from two species included
by Woldstedt, 1877 (1876).
Troctocenis Woldstedt, 1877 (1876). Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Bui. 22: 296.

Type-species: Troctocenis elegans Woldstedt. Monotypic.
Pseudopoemenia Kiss, 1924. Siebenbuerg. Ver. Naturw., Verh. u. Mitt. 72-74: 91.
Type-species: Pseudopoemenia annulata Kiss. Monotypic.

Scambus annulatus (Kiss)
N. S., Que., N. H., N. W. T., Alaska and B. C; Europe. Host: Spilonota
ocellana (D. and S.). This species had been misidentified as Scambiis nucum.
(Ratzeburg), a synonym of planatus Hartig, which is not known from North America.
Psezidopoemenia annulata Kiss, 1924. Siebenbuerg. Ver. Naturw., Verh. u. Mitt. 72-74: 92.

S.
Pimpla lativentris Ulbricht, 1926. Konowia 5: 51. ♂, ♀. Preocc. by Rudow, 1881.
Pimpla trilobata Keler, 1937. Prace Wydz. Chorob. Roslin Panst. Inst. Nauk. Gosp. Wiejsk.
w Bydgoszczy 16: 11. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Oehlke, 1966. Beitr. z. Ent. 16: 189.

Scambus aplopappi (Ashmead)
Nebr., Colo., N. Mex., Idaho, Ariz., Wash., Calif. Host: Coleotechnites
milleri (Bsk.), Etiella zinckenella (Treit.), Rhyacionia frustrana bushnelli (Bsk.), R.
neomexicana (Dyar), Stomopteryx nigrella (Cham.).
Pimpla aplopappi Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 446. ♂.
Scambus evetrivorus Rohwer, 1915. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 49: 225. ♀.

Scambus atrocoxalis (Ashmead)
Newfoundland (Labrador), N. W. T., Alta., Yukon, Alaska; Sweden.

Epiurus atrocoxalis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 49: 225. ♂, ♀.

Scambus brevicornis (Gravenhorst)
Newfoundland (Labrador) s. to N. J., w. to Alaska and Calif.;
Greenland; Europe. Host: Anthophila pariana (Clerck), C horistoneura rosaceana
(Harris), Laspeyresia nigricana (Steph.), Laspeyresia sp., Parlobesia viteana (Clem.),
Spilonota ocellana (D. and S.).
Pimpla brevicornis Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 211. 6,1.
Pimpla nigriscaposa Thomson, 1877. Opusc. Ent. 8: 755. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla punctiventris Thomson, 1877. Opusc. Ent. 8: 756. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla {Epiurus) balearica Kriechbaumer, 1894. Ann. Hist. Nat. Madrid 23: 248. ♀.
Epiurus bicoloripes Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 201. ♀.




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Phthorimus anomalus Morley, 1905. Ent. Soc. London, Trans. 53: 420. ♀.
Pimpla euphrantae Schmiedeknecht, 1914. Ztschr. f. Angew. Ent. 1: 452. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla ameformis Keler, 1937. Prace Wydz. Chorob. Roslin Panst. Inst. Nauk. Gosp.
Wiejsk. w Bydgoszczy 16: 10. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Stuart, 1957. Bui. Ent. Res. 48: 477-488.

Scambus buolianae (Hartig)
Europe. Introduced in Ontario in 1956 and 1958, but apparently without
becoming established. Host: Rhyacionia huoliana (D. and S.).
Pimpla Buolianae Hartig, 1838. Jahresber. Fortschr. Forstwiss. Forstl. Naturk. 1: 267. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla flavotrochanterata Pfeffer, 1913. Ver. f. Vaterland. Naturk. in Wuerttemb.,
Jahresh. 69: 814. ♀.

Biology: Leius, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 371. — Leius, 1961. Canad. Ent. 93: 1079. — Leius, 1962.
Canad. Ent. 94: 1078. —Leius, 1963. Canad. Ent. 95: 202.

Scambus canadensis Walley
Northern Que., s. to N. S. and Maine, w. to Alaska and Calif. Host: Glypta
fumiferanae (Vier.), C horistonetira conflictana (Wlk.).
Scambus (Scambus) canadensis Walley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 38. ♂, ♀.

Scambus decorus Walley
N. S. and Que., s. to Mich., w. to Alaska and Wash. Host: Amorbia humerosa
(Clem.), C horistoneura fnmiferana (Clem.), Coleophora pmniella Clem., C . fuscedinella
Zell., Microsetia stipella (Hbn.), Graciliaria sp., Paraclemensia acerifoliella (Clem.),
Phalonia rutilana (Hbn.), Spilonota ocellana (D. and S.).
Scambus (Scambus) decorus Walley, 1960. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 2): 38. ♂, ♀.

Scambus dioryctriae Walley
Sask., Alta. Host: Dioryctria reniciilella (Grt.).

Scambiis (Scambus) dioryctriae Walley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 61. cj, 9.

Scambus foliae (Cushman)
Austria. Introduced in Maine, apparently without becoming established

because of small number of individuals released (50 mated females). Host: Heterarthrus
nemoratus (Fallen).
Epiunis foliae Cushman, 1938. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 28: 27. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Dowden, 1941. U. S. Dept. Agr., Tech. Bui. 757: 8, 9, 11, 16-20.

Scambus hispae (Harris)
N. S. s. to Ala., w. to Alaska and Calif. Host: Acrobasis betulella Hulst, A.
comptoniella Hulst, A. rubrifasciella Pack., Anacampis innocuella (Zell.), Dryocampa
rubicunda rubicunda (¥.), Anthophila pariana (Clerck), Archips rosanus (L.),
C horistoneura fumiferana (Clem.), C. pinus Free., Coleophora pruniella Clem.,
Episimus argutanus (Clem.), Exartema connectum McD., Media variegana (Hbn.),
Acleris minuta (Rob.), Grapholitha molesta (Bsk.), Tigrioides bicolor (Grt.), Malacosoma
disstria Hbn., Psilocorsis sp., Spilonota ocellana (D. and S.), Tischeria sp.,
Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haw.), Rhyacionia buoliana (D. and S.), Heterarthrus
nemoratus (Fallen), Metallus rohweri MacG., Anoplitus inaequalis (Weber), A. rosea
(Weber), Arthrochlamys bebbianae Brown, Xenochalepus dorsalis (Thun.), Hyposoter
fugitivus (Say).

Ichneiimon Hispae Harris, 1833. In Hitchcock, Rpt. Geol. Mineral. Bot. Zool. Mass., p. 587.
Nomen nudum.

Ichneumon hispae Harris, 1835. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Jour. 1: 149-150. ♀.

Pimpla indagatrix Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 146. ♂.

Pimpla minuta Weed, 1887. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., Bui. 3: 41. ♂.

Pimpla gossypii Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 445. ♀.

Scambus (Scambus) teciimseh Viereck, 1917. Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey Bui.
22: 320. 9. N. syn. In Walley's revision of Scambtis this name is incorrectly applied to a
species for which no name is apparently available.

Scambus (Eremochila) indagator (!) Viereck, 1917. Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.
Survey Bui. 22: 322.

Biology: Porter and Garman, 1923. Conn. (State) Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 246: 260. — Balduf,
1926. Canad. Ent. 58: 140. —Cushman, 1927. Jour. Agr. Res. 34: 616. — McConnell, 1928.




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Md. Agr. Exp. Sta., Bui. 298: 180. — Schaffner and Griswold, 1934. U. S. Dept. Agr., Misc.
Pub. 188: 143. — Balduf, 1937. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 39: 178. —Arthur, 1963. Canad. Ent.
95 (10): 1085-1086.

Scambus imparls Walley
Colo., Alta., Utah, B. C, Wash., Calif. Host: Zelleria haimbachi Bsk.

Scambus (Scambus) imparis Walley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 2): 51. (J, 9.

Scambus longicorpus
***authority mismatch
longicorpus Walley. Que., N. H., Ont., Sask., Alta., Alaska. Host: Dioryctria
reniculella (Grt.), Laspeyresia youngana (Kft.).
Scambus {Scambus) longicorpus longicorpus Walley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S.
Nat. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 44. cJ, 9.

Scambus longicorpus
***authority mismatch
occidentalis Walley, Mont., Colo., B. C, Wash., Calif.

Scambus (Scambus) longicorpus occidentalis Walley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S.
Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 46. tj, 9.

Scambus nigrifrons (Viereck)
P. E. I., N. S., N. B., Mass., Mich. Host: Orgyia sp, 0. leucostignia (J. E.
S.).
Pimpla (Epiurus) nigrifrons Viereck, 1909. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 11: 211. ♂, ♀.

Scambus protentus Walley
Colo., B. C, Wash. Ecology: The holotype emerged from cones of Picea

sitchensis. Host: Laspeyresia sp.
Scambus (Scambus) protentus Walley, 1960. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.

216 (pt. 2): 40. tJ, 9.
Scambiis (Scambus) portentus (!) Walkley, 1967. hi Krombein and Burks, U. S. Dept. Agr.,

Agr. Monog. 2, Sup. 2, p. 63.

Scambus sagax Hartig
Europe. Introduced in Ontario in 1956 and 1958, apparently without becoming

established. Host: Rhyacionia buoliana (D. and S.), Petrova resinella (L.). The target

species for the introductions in Ontario was R. buoliana.
Scambus sagax Hartig, 1838. Jahresber. Fortschr. Forstwiss. Forstl. Naturk. 1: 267. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla linearis Ratzeburg, 1844. Ichn. d. Forstins. v. 1, p. 117. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla atrocoxata Pfeffer, 1913. Ver. f. Vaterland. Naturk. in Wuerttemb., Jahresh. 69:

343. ♀.

Biology: Harris, 1960. Canad. Jour. Zool. 38: 764. — Adlung and Sailer, 1963. Allg. Forst-u.
Jagd-Ztg. 134 (9): 232-233.

Scambus subtilis Walley
Oreg., Nev., Calif.

Scambus (Scambus) subtilis Walley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 2): 47. ♀.

Scambus transgressus (Holmgren)
Idaho, s. B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif. Host: Grapholitha packardi

(Zell.), Acleris variana (Fern.), Archips rosanus (L.), C horistoneura occidentalis Free.,
Anthophila pariana (Clem.), Coleopkora laHcella (Hbn.).
Pimpla transgressus Holmgren, 1869 (1868). Eug. Resa, pt. 2 (Zool.), sect. 1 (Ins.), p. 405. ♀.
Epiurus innominatus Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 42: 149. ♀.

Genus SCAMBUS Subgenus ERYTHROSCAMBUS Walley

Scambtis subg. Erythroscambus Walley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 77.

Type-species: Pimpla hirticauda Provancher. Orig. desig.

Scambus hirticauda (Provancher)
Ariz., B. C, Wash., Calif. Host: Lithocolletis felinelle Hein.,
Setiostoma femaldella Riley, Gracillaria sp.
Pimpla hirticauda Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 116. ♀.
Provancher erroneously gave the type locality as Ontario, but Walley (I960) established
that Victoria, B. C. is the actual type locality.

Genus CALLIEPHIALTES Ashmead

Calliephialtes Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 54.

Type-species: Pimpla xanthothorax Ashmead. Monotypic and orig. desig.




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Calliephialtes ferrugineus Cushman
Southern Fla.; Puerto Rico, Cuba. Host: Hypsipyla grandella (ZelL),
Peetinophora gossypiella (Sdrs.). The specimens upon which these host records are
based are from Puerto Rico.
Calliephialtes femigineus Cushman, 1940. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 88: 362. ♀.

Calliephialtes grapholithae (Cresson)
Mass., s. to Fla., w. to Mich, and Texas. Host: Acrobasis hebescella
Hulst, A.juglandis (LeB.), A. nibrifasciella Pack., Carmenia texana (Hy. Ed.)?,
Laspeyresia caryana (Fitch), Meskea dyspteraria Grt., Stagmatophora ceanothiella Cos.,
Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haw.), Megalopyge opercularis (J. E. S.).

Pimpla grapholithae Cresson, 1890. In Hamilton, Ent. News 1: 50. ♂, ♀.

Pimpla xanthothorax Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 446. ♀.

Biology: Hamilton, 1890. Ent. News 1: 49 —Nickels, Pierce, and Pinkney, 1950. U. S. Dept.
Agr., Tech. Bui. 1011: 12-14.

Morphology: Peck, 1937. Canad. Jour. Res., Sect. D (Zool. Sci.) 15: 248, 249, 252.

Calliephialtes notandus (Cresson)
Southern Que., s. to Fla., w. to s. B. C. and Calif. Host: Epiblema

desertayium (Zell.), E. scudderianum (Clem.), E. stremianum (Wlk.), "Gelechia" sp.,
Gnorimoschema baccharisella Bsk., G. gallaeasteriella (Kell.), G. gallaesolidaginis
(Riley), Walshia "amorphella" Clem.
Pimpla 7iota7ida Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 148. (5,9.

Biology: Riley, 1877. Mo. State Ent., Ann. Rept. 9: 98. — Leiby, 1922. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour.
30: 93.

Calliephialtes thurberiae Cushman
Southeastern N. Mex., Ariz.; Mexico, Costa Rica. Host: Anthonomus
grandis thurberiae Pierce, Disholcaspis sp., Acrobasis nuxvorella Neun., Antron
pliimbeuvi (Weld).
Calliephialtes thurberiae Cushman, 1915. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 17: 132. ♂, ♀.

Genus PIMPLA Fabricius

Pimpla Fabricius, 1804. Systema piezatorum, p. 112.

Type-species: Ichneumon manifestator Linnaeus. Desig. by Curtis, 1828. Members
of this genus parasitize aculeate Hymenoptera which nest in wood. My reasons
for using the name Pimpla rather than Ephialtes for this genus are given in the
introductory discussion of the Ichneumonidae.

Pimpla brevis (Morley)
Que., Ont., Man., Sask., Alta.; Europe. Host: Megachile sp., M. inerviis Prov.,
M. nivalis Friese.
Ephialtes brevis Morley, 1914. Rev. Ichn. Brit. Mus., v. 3, p. 23. ♀.

Pimpla decumbens Townes
Iowa, Colo., B. C, Calif.

Pimpla decumbens Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
102. ♂, ♀.

Pimpla macra (Cresson)
N. Y., Colo., Oreg., Calif. Host: Passaloecus sp. The host record given by

Townes and Townes as 'W. brevicomis" is a mistake for Dendroctonus brevicomis LeC,
the pupal cells of which harbored the true host, Passaloecus sp.
Ephialtes macer Cresson, 1868. Canad. Ent. 1: 35. ♀.

Pimpla spatulata Townes
Que. s. to N. C, w. to B. C. and Calif.; Europe. Host: Euodynenis sp.,
Ancistrocerus lineative7itris Cameron.
Pimpla spatulata Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
106. ♂, ♀.

Genus LIOTRYPHON Ashmead

Liogaster Kriechbaumer, 1890. Ent. Nachr. 16: 297. Preocc. by Meyer, 1844.

Type-species: Liogaster longulus Kriechbaumer. Monotypic.
Liotryphon Ashmead, 1900. Canad. Ent. 30: 368. New name for Liogaster Kriechbaumer.
Apistes Seyrig, 1927. Eos 3: 221. Preocc. by Fischer, 1823; Cuvier, 1829.

Type-species: Apistes perversus Seyrig. Monotypic. The type-species is regarded as
a synonym of Liotryphon ruficollis (Desvignes).
Apistephialtes Seyrig, 1928. Eos 4: 380. N. name for Apistes Seyrig.




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Neoephialtes Constantineanu and Pisica, 1970. An. Stiintifice Universitatii "Al. I. Cuza"
din lasi, sect. II (Stiinte Nat.) a. Biol. Mong. 2: 18.

Type-species: Neophialtes foveolatus Constantineanu and Pisica. Monotypic and
orig. desig.

Liotryphon arcticus (Roman)
N. W. T., Alaska; Siberia.

Ephialtes arcticus Roman, 1926 (1914). Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem., ser. 8 (el.
Phys. Math.) 29 (7): 6. ♀.

Liotryphon caudatus (Ratzeburg)
Europe. Introduced in California in 1904 and 1905 and in the eastern U.
S. A. in 1935 and 1936, apparently without becoming permanently established. Host:
Laspeyresia pomonella (L.).
Pimpla caudata Ratzeburg, 1848. Ichn. d. Forstins., v. 2, p. 92. ♀.
Ephialtes brevivalvis Hensch, 1929; 1930. Konowia 8: 159; 9: 75, 249. ♂, ♀.
Neoephialtes foveolatus Constantineanu and Pisica, 1970. Stiintifice Universitatii "Al. I.
Cuza" din lasi, sect. II (Stiinte Nat.) a. Biol. Monog. 2: 19. ♀.

Taxonomy: Perkins, 1939. Bui. Ent. Res. 30: 307-308.

Biology: Whitaker, 1907. Calif. State Comm. Hort., Bien. Rpt. 2: 231-235.

Liotryphon coracinus (Townes)
N. Y., N. J., Md., N. C, Tex.

Apistephialtes coracinus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2): 99. ♂, ♀.

Liotryphon dentatus (Townes)
Colo., Alta., B. C, Oreg., Calif. Host: Enoclenis sphegics (F.), Thanasimus
nigriventris (LeC).
Apistephialtes dentatus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2):97. (J, 9.

Liotryphon laspeyresiae (Uchida)
Japan. Introduced in N. J. from 1934-1936, apparently without becoming
established. Host: Grapholitha 7nolesta (Bsk.).
Ephialtes laspeyresiae Uchida, 1932. Insecta Matsumurana 6: 160. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Allen, Holloway, and Haeussler, 1940. U. S. Dept. Agr. Cir. 561: 48.

Liotryphon masoni (Townes)
Ont., Man., N. W. T., Alta., Alaska, Yukon.

Apistephialtes masoni Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.

2): 93. ♀.

Liotryphon nucicola (Cushman)
Colo., N. Mex., Ariz., B. C. s. to Calif. Ecology: May parasitize

lepidopterous inquilines in the galls of the Hymenoptera listed as hosts. Host: Ajidricus

sp., Atrusca sp., Disholcaspis eldoradensis (Beut.), Pontania sp., Gnorimoschema

baccharisella Bsk., Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), Periploca cea7iothiella (Cosens),

Proteoteras arizonae Kft., Walshia amorphella Clem., Melissopus latiferreanus (Wlsm.).
Calliephialtes nucicola Cushman, 1931. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 79 (14): 5. ♂, ♀.

Liotryphon petulcus (Cresson)
Tex.; Mexico.

Pimpla petulca Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 165. ♀.

Liotryphon punctulatus (Ratzeburg)
Europe. Introduced in Idaho (year unknown), without attempts at

recovery; lacking evidence to the contrary, it is here presumed to be unestablished.

Host: Laspeyresia pomonella (L.). Other hosts are known, but that listed was the target

species for the introduction in Idaho.
Pimpla punctulata Ratzeburg, 1848. Ichn. d. Forstins., v. 2, p. 90. ♀.
Ephialtes extensor Taschenberg, 1863. Ztschr. Gesam. Naturw. Halle 21: 255. 6, 9. This is

the name which was applied to the material imported to Idaho.
Ephialtes discolor Brischke, 1880. Naturf. Gesell. Danzig, Schr. (n. s.) 4 (4): 110. ♂, ♀.
Liogaster longuius Kriechbaumer, 1890. Ent. Nachr. 16: 297. ♀.
Ephialtes macrurus Habermehl, 1916. Ztschr. f. Wiss. Insektenbiol. 12: 163. ♀. Preocc. by

Thomson, 1895.
Ephialtes tener Hensch, 1929; 1930. Konowia 8: 140; 9: 75, 245. ♂, ♀.
Ephialtes venialis Hensch, 1929; 1930. Konowia 8: 152; 9: 76. ♂.
Ephialtes gracileyit^is Hensch, 1930. Konowia 9: 75. Nomen nudum.

Taxonomy: Perkins, 1939. Bui. Ent. Res. 30: 307-308.

Biology: Lyngnes, 1960. Norsk Ent. Tidsskr. 11: 122-134.




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Liotryphon variatipes (Provancher)
Que., N. H. s. to Md., W. Va., w. to Minn. Host: Canarsia

ulmiarrosorella (Clem.), Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), Grapholitlia molesta (Bsk.).
Ephialtes variatipes Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 114. ♂.
Pimpla stultor Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 367. ♂.
Calliephialtes benefactor Cushman, 1931. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 79 (14): 6. ♂, ♀.

Genus TOWNESIA Ozols

Townesia Ozols, 1962. Latvijas Ent. 6: 12.

Type-species: Ephialtes tenuiventris Holmgren. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Townesia tenuiventris (Holmgren)
Que. s. to Md., w. to B. C. and Calif.; Eurasia. Ecology: Known to
parasitize aculeate Hymenoptera which nest in wood as well as sawflies which occupy
abandoned pupal cells of Coleoptera in the bark of trees, particularly Pinus. Host:
Trypoxylon figuhis (L.), Chelostoma maxillosum (L.), Xiphydria sp., Strongylogaster
sp., S. lineata (Christ). Except for Xiphydria sp., the preceding host records are
European. The record for Xiphydria sp. needs confirming, and the host record given in
the revision of Townes and Townes (1960) as Melanophila consputa LeC. appears to be
incorrect according to card file data pertaining to the specimen in question.

Ephialtes tenuiventris Holmgren, 1859. Svenska Vetensk. Akad., Ofvers. af ... Forhandl.
16: 123. Nomen nudum.

Ephialtes tenuiventris Holmgren, 1860. Svenska Vetensk.- Akad., Handl. (ser. 4) 3 (10): 14.
d, 9.

Ephialtes geniculatus Brischke, 1864. Phys. Oekonom. Gesell. Koenigsberg, Schr. 5: 179. ♂.
Uncertain syn.

Ephialtes pnsio Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 111. ♀.

Ephialtes antefurcalis Thomson, 1877. Opusc. Ent. 8: 741. ♀.

Ephialtes pacificus Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 24c. S, 9.

Ephialtes incertus Hensch, 1929; 1930. Konowia 8: 149; 9: 76. ♂.

Ephialtes gracilis Hensch, 1930. Konowia 9: 76. Nomen nudum.

Biology: Welke, 1966. Beitr. z. Ent. 9: 261-263.

Genus ANASTELGIS Townes

Anastelgis Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 109.
Type-species: Anastelgis terminalis Townes. Orig. desig.

Anastelgis terminalis Townes
Wash., Calif.

Anastelgis terminalis Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 110. ♂, ♀.

Genus DOLICHOMITUS Smith

Closterocerus Hartig, 1847. Naturw. Ver. Harz, Ber., 1846-1847, p. 18. Preocc. by
Westwood, 1833.

Type-species: Closterocerus sericeus Hartig. Monotypic.
Dolichomitus Smith, 1877. Zool. Soc. London, Proc, p. 411.

Type-species: Dolichomitus longicauda Smith. Monotypic.
Mesoephialtes Schmiedeknecht, 1906. Opusc. Ichn., v.3, p. 1014.

Type-species: Mesoephialtes coracinus Schmiedeknecht. Monotypic. The
type-species is regarded as a subspecies of Dolichomitus zonatus (Cresson).
Diclosterocerus Viereck, 1914. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 83: 45. New name for Closterocerus

Hartig.
Ichneumon subg. Exeristoidea Viereck, 1924. Canad. Ent. 56: 202.

Type-species: Ichneumon {Exeristoidea) watsoni Viereck. Orig. desig.
Tuberculephialtes Ozols, 1962. Latvijas Ent. 6: 19.

Type-species: Ichneumon tuberculatus Geoffroy. Orig. desig.

Members of this genus parasitize woodborers, usually Coleoptera. Ideally, the name Ephialtes
would apply to this genus (see introductory discussion of the family).




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Dolichomitus aciculatus (Hellen)
Que., Yukon, B. C; Europe. Host: Tetropium gabrieli Weise. This is a
European host record.
Ephialtes acicidaUis Hellen, 1915. Soc. pro Fauna et Flora Fenn., Acta 40: 25. ♀.

Ephialtes nodosus Gyorfi, 1941. Erdeszetl Kiserletek 43: 237, 247. "♂"=♀.

Morphology: Noskiewicz and Chudoba, 1951. Polski Pismo Ent. 21: 43-46, 57-58.

Dolichomitus buccatus Townes
Colo., B. C, Oreg.

Dolichomitus buccatus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2): 141. ♀.

Dolichomitus californicus Townes
Colo., N. Mex., Ariz., Idaho, Utah, B. C. s. to Calif. Host: Oeme costata
LeC, Seynanotus ligneus (F.).
Dolichomitus californicus Townes, 1960. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2): 146. ♂, ♀.

Dolichomitus cephalotes (Holmgren)
Que., Sask., Alta.; Europe.

Ephialtes cephalotes Holmgren, 1859. Svenska Vetensk-Akad., Ofvers. af ... Forhandl. 16:

123. Nomen nudum.
Ephialtes cephalotes Holmgren, 1860. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (ser. 4) 3 (10): 13. ♀.
Ephialtes longicauda Mocsary, 1897. Termes. Fuzetek 20: 644. 2. Preocc. in

Dolichomitus by Smith, 1877.
Ichneumon (Exeristoidea) watsoni Viereck, 1924. Canad. Ent. 56: 202. ♀.

Dolichomitus cuspidatus Townes
Calif. Host: Monochanuis maculosus Hald.

Dolichomitus cuspidatus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2): 120. cJ, 9.

Dolichomitus dolichosoma (Viereck)
Pa., Md., N. C, S. C, Ga., Ala., Kans., Colo. Ecology: Parasitizes
woodborers of angiosperms.
Ephialtes dolichosoma Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 42: 637. ♀.

flexilis Townes. Man., N. W. T., Yukon.

Dolichomitus jlexilis Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 142. ♀.

Dolichomitus foxleei Townes
N. S. w. to B. C, s. to Colo, and Calif. Host: Acanthocinus sp.

Dolichomitus foxleei Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 145. ♀.

Dolichomitus imperator (Kriechbaumer)
N. S. s. to Tenn., w. to Alaska and Calif; Eurasia. Host: Asemum
nitidum LeC, Xylotrechus sp., Monochamus sp.
Ephialtes imperator Kriechbaumer, 1854. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 15: 156. ♀.
Ephialtes occidentalis Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. PhUa., Proc. 4: 269. ♀.

Dolichomitus irritator (Fabricius)
Maine s. to Ga., w. to Minn, and Tex. Host: Anoplodera proxima (Say),
Astyleiopus variegatus (Hald.), E laphidionoides incertus (New.), E. villosus (F.),
Graphisurus sp., G. fasciatus (DeG.), Megacyllene caryae (Gah.), M. robiniae (Forst.),
Obriiim rufulum Gah., Pachyta lamed (L.), Saperda discoidea F., Stenocoms lineatus
(Oliv.), Xylotrechus annosus (Say), Melandrya striata Say, Synchroa punctata New.,
Cryptorhynchus lapathi (L.), Chrysobothris sp., Synanthedon tipulifomiis (Clerck).
Ichneumon irritator Fabricius, 1775. Systema Ent., p.336. ♀.

Biology: Chittenden, 1893. U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 5: 257. — MacAndrews, 1933. Ent.
Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 63: 50.

Morphology: Pratt, 1939. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 32: 735, 737.
messor perlongus (Cresson). N. B. s. to Va., w. to B. C. and Calif. Host: Buprestis confluenta
Say, Saperda calcarata Say, Saperda inomata Say., Xylocrius agassizi (LeC). D.
messor messor Gravenhorst is European.
Ephialtes perlongus Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 143. ♂.
Ephialtes gigas Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 110. ♀.

Dolichomitus messor sparsus Townes, 1960. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 2): 132, 133. ♂, ♀. N. syn.




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Dolichomitus populneus (Ratzeburg)
Ont., Sask., Colo., Wash.; Europe. Host: Saperda populnea (L.). This
host is recorded from Europe, but one North American specimen has been reared from
an unknown borer in Populus sp.

Ephialtes populneus Ratzeburg, 1848. Ichn. d. Forstins., v. 2, p. 100. ♂, ♀.

Ephialtes abbreviatus Thomson, 1877. Opusc. Ent. 8: 740. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Hinz, 1961. Deut. Ent. Ztschr. (N. F.) 8: 254-255.

Dolichomitus pterelas (Say)
N. B. s. to S. C, w. to B. C. and Oreg.; Europe.

Ichneumon (Pimpla) pterelas Say, 1829. Contrib. Maclurian Lyceum to Arts and Sci. 1: 71. ♀.
Ephialtes discrepans Hensch, 1929; 1930. Konowia 8: 145; 9: 74. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cushman and Gahan, 1921. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 23: 166.

Dolichomitus pygmaeus (Walsh)
N. H. s. to N. C, w. to B. C. and Calif. Host: Plectrura spinicauda Mann.

Ephialtes pygmaeus Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 111. ♀.

Dolichomitus sericeus (Hartig)
N. B., Que., Ont., Alaska, Yukon, B. C; Europe. Host: Tetropium
cinnamopterum Kby.
C losterocerus sericeus Hartig, 1847. Naturw. Ver. Harz, Ber. 1846-1847, p. 18. ♂.

Dolichomitus taeniatus Townes
Ariz., Calif. Host: Chrysobothris edwardsii Horn.

Dolichomitus taeniatus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2): 118. (J, 9.
terebrans nubilipennis (Viereck). N. S. s. to N. C, w. to B. C. and Calif. Host: Pissodes dubius
Rand., P. engelmanni Hopk., P.fasciatus LeC, P.fraseri Hopk., P. rotundatus LeC. D.
terebrans terebrans (Ratzeburg) occurs in Europe.
Exeristes nubilipennis Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 42: 638. ♀.
Exeristes hyalinipennis Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 42: 638. ♀.

Biology: Taylor, 1929. Ent. Amer. 10: 26-30, 68.

Dolichomitus tuberculatus
***authority mismatch
tuberculatus (Geoffroy). N. B. s. to N. Y., w. to Alaska and Oreg.; Europe,

northern Asia (excluding Japan). Host: Hylobius pinicola (Coup.), Monochamus sp., M.

scutellatus (Say). A second subspecies, D. t. jezoensis (Uchida), occurs in Japan.
Ichneumon tuberculatus Geoffroy, 1785. In Fourcroy, Ent. Parisiensis, v. 2, p. 385. ♀.
Ichneumon leucoptenis Gmelin, 1790. In Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. 13, p. 2699. 6 ?

Uncertain syn.
Ichneumon hyalinus Gmelin, 1790. In Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. 13, p. 2700. 9. Uncertain

syn.
Ichneumon crispus Christ, 1791. Naturgesch. Class. Nomencl. Ins., p. 364. 9. Uncertain

syn.
Ichneumon fluctuans Christ, 1791. Naturgesch. Class. Nomencl. Ins., p. 365. 9. Uncertain

syn.
Ephialtes parallelus Thomson, 1888. Opusc. Ent. 12: 1248. ♀.
Ephialtes dentiventris Hellen, 1915. Soc. Fauna et Flora Fenn., Acta 40: 29. 9. Uncertain

syn.
Ephialtes pfefferi Habermehl, 1918. Ztschr. f. Wiss. Insektenbiol. 13: 165. ♀.

Biology: Stroiny, 1951. Polskie Pismo Ent. 21: 140-144.

Dolichomitus vitticrus Townes
Que. s. to Pa., w. to Wis. and Kans.

Dolichomitus vitticrus Townes, 1960. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 148. cJ, 9.

Genus ACROPIMPLA Townes

Selenaspis Roman, 1910. Ent. Tidskr. 31(2-3): 191. Preocc. by Bleeker, 1858; Leonardi,
1898.

Type-species: Hemipimpla alboscutellaris Szepligeti. Orig. desig.
Acropimpla Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 159.
Type-species: Charitopimpla leucostoma Cameron. Orig. desig. Walkley (1967; In
Krombein and Burks, U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2, sup. 2, p. 68) states that
Acropimpla must have the same type-species as Selenaspis, but this is incorrect




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because Townes did not expressly propose Acropimpla as a replacement name
for Selenaspis.

Acropimpla alboricta (Cresson)
Newfoundland (Labrador) s. to S. C, w. to Alaska and Calif. Host:

Acrobasis betulella Hulst, Anacaynpsis sp., Archips argyrospilus (Wlk.), Argyrotaenia
pinatubana (Kft.), Ckoristoneura Jumiferana (Clem.), C. rosaceana (Harris), Episimus
argutanus (Clem.), Gracilaria rhoifoiiella Chamb., Pandeinis limitata (Rob.),
Pantographa limata G. and R., Spilonota ocellana (D. and S.), Zotheca tranquilla Grt.
Pimpla alboricta Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc. Trans. 3: 147. ♂.
Pimpla investigatrix Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 142. ♀.

Biology: Cushman, 1926. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 28: 33.

Acropimpla pronexus Townes
N. B. s. to N. Y., w. to B. C. and Wyo. Host: Glypta fumiferanae (Vier.).
Acropimpla pronexus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 161. ♀.

Genus GREGOPIMPLA Momoi

Gregopimpla Momoi, 1965. In Townes, Momoi, and Townes, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 5: 601.
Type-species: Pimpla kuwanae Viereck. Orig. desig.

According to Momoi (1965), members of this genus are usually gregarious parasites of
Lepidoptera which spin cocoons.

Gregopimpla inquisitor (Scopoli)
Europe. Introduced in Ont. in 1955 for control of the native Ckoristoneura

Jumiferana (Clem.). Only a small number of individuals (38) were released, which would

seem to have precluded establishment.
Ichneumon inquisitor Scopoli, 1763. Ent. Cam., p. 286. ♀.

Ichneumon scanicus Geoffroy, 1785. In Fourcroy, Ent. Parisiensis, v. 2, p. 416. ♀.
Ichneumon albipes Gmelin, 1790. hi Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. 13, v. 1, p. 2701. ♂.
Ichneumon variegatus Gmelin, 1790. In Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. 13, v. 1, p. 2701. ♂.

Preocc. by Schrank, 1785.
Ichneumon aurifrons Gmelin, 1790. In Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. 13, v. 1, p. 2702. ♀.
Ichneiimon annulatus Gmelin, 1790. In Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. 13, v. 1, p. 2702. ♀.
Ichneumon pennator Fabricius, 1793. Ent. System., v. 2, p. 171. ♀. Preocc. by Fabricius,

1793, p. 155.
Ichneiimon pinnator Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8:

274; 9: 348. N. name for /. pennator Fabricius, 1793, p. 155.
Pimpla flavipes Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 197. ♂.
Pimpla prini Hartig, 1838. Jahresber. Fortschr. Forstw. 1: 253. Pimpla pudibundae Ratzeburg, 1848. Ichn. d. Forstins., v. 2, p. 167. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla inquisitrix Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 104. Emend.

Genus ISEROPUS Foerster

Iseropus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 164.

Type-species: Ichneumon graminellae Schrank. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Woldstedt, 1877. The type-species is considered to be a synonym of
Iseropus stercorator {¥.).
Cnemopimpla Cameron, 1903. Entomologist 36: 159.

Type-species: Cnemopimpla pilosa Cameron. Monotypic.

Members of this genus are gregarious parasites of insects (usually Lepidoptera) which spin
flimsy cocoons. One to twenty adults may emerge from one host cocoon.

Iseropus californiensis Cushman
Colo., N. Mex., Calif. Host: Malacosoma califomicum califomicum
(Pack.), M. c. fragile Stretch, M. c. pluviale Dyar, Malacosoma sp.
Iseropus californiensis Cushman, 1940. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 42: 58. 6 , 9. In his key,
Cushman used the variant spelling "califomicus."




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Iseropus coelebs (Walsh)
N. B. s. to Fla., w. to Minn, and Tex. Host: Orgyia leucostigma (J. E. S.),

Orgyia sp., Malacosoma americanum (F.), M. disstria Hbn., "Olene" sp., Metallus

rohweri MacG.
Ichneumon inquisitor Say, 1829. Contrib. Maclurian Lyceum to Arts and Sci. 1: 71. ♀.

Preocc. by Scopoli, 1763.
Pimpla coelebs Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 141. ♂.
Pimpla inquisitoriella Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 435. N. name for /. inquisitor

Say.

Biology: Howard, 1897. U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent. BuL 7: 16. —Howard, 1897. U. S. Dept.
Agr., Div. Ent. Tech. Ser. 5: 8-17, 23, 31, 54. —Howard, 1898. Ent. Soc. Ont., Ann. Kept. 28:
88. — Fiske, 1903. N. H. Agr. Expt. Sta., Tech. Bui. 6: 198-200. — Cushman, 1926. Ent. Soc.
Wash., Proc. 28: 33. — Schaffner and Griswold, 1934. U. S. Dept. Agr., Misc. Pub. 188: 143.

Morphology: Peck, 1937. Canad. Jour. Res., Sect. D (Zool. Sci.) 15: 245-246. —Pratt, 1939.
Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 32: 735.

stercorator orgyiae (Ashmead). N. S. s. to Md., w. to Alaska and Calif. Host: C horistoneura
rosaceana (Harr.), Ctenucha virginica (Charp.), Halisidota sp., Orgyia sp., 0.
leucostigma (J. E. S.), 0. vetusta (Bdv.), Malacosoma sp., M. disstria Hbn., Simyra
henrici (Grt.). Iseropus stercorator stercorator (Fabricius) occurs in Europe.

Pimpla orgyiae RUey, 1891. In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3: 462.
Nomen nudum.

Ictoplectis (!) orgyiae Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 213. ♀.

Pimpla (Epiurus) bninneifrons Viereck, 1909. Ent. News 20: 291. ♂, ♀.

Iseropus bninneifrons septentrionalis Cushman, 1940. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 42: 56. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Patch, 1921. Maine Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 302: 318. (as coelebs, misdet.).

Genus TROMATOBIA Foerster

Tromatobia Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 164.

Type-species: Pimpla variabilis Holmgren. Desig. by Ashmead, 1900 from ten
species included by Schmiedeknecht, 1888.
Austropimpla Brethes, 1913. Buenos Aires, Mus. Nac. de Hist. Nat., An. 24: 40.

Type-species: Austropimpla huebrichi Brethes. Monotypic and orig. desig. Members
of this genus are gregarious parasites of spider egg cocoons.

Tromatobia notator (Fabricius)
N. C, Ga., Fla.; Cuba, Puerto Rico, Haiti, Guyana? Host: Argiope

argentata {¥.), Glyptocranium comigenim (Hentz). The species was reared from the

latter host in Fla., from the former in Puerto Rico.
Pimpla notator Fabricius, 1804. Systema Piezatorum, p. 115. ♀.
Clistopygai lateralis Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 34. ♂, ♀.
Ephialtes Cressoni Dewitz, 1881. Berlin. Ent. Ztschr. 25: 205. ♀.
Pimpla notatrix Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 104. Emend.

Tromatobia ovivora (Boheman)
N. S. s. to S. C, w. to Alaska and Calif.; Mexico, Hawaii, Europe, n. Asia.

Host: Araneus diadema L., A. solitarius (Emrtn.)., Argiope avara Thor., A. argentata

(F.), Cyrtophora califomiensis Keys.
Pimpla ovivora Boheman, 1821. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (ser. 3) 9: 336. ♂, ♀.
Ichneumon vexatorius Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8:

281; 9: 368. [female].
Ichneumon armillatorius Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem.

8: 281; 9: 368. [male].
Pimpla angens Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 162. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla scriptifrons Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 148. ♀.
Pimpla vidua Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 140. ♀.
Pimpla parallela Thomson, 1877. Opusc Ent. 8: 752. ♀.
Pimpla albipes Brischke, 1891. Naturf. Gesell. Danzig, Schr. (n. s.) 7 (4): 63. 6. Synonymy

uncertain.
Pimpla defensator Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 267. ♀.
Pimpla defensatrix Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 104. Emend.
Pimpla landerensis Viereck, 1906. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 32: 243. ♀.




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Apechtis rugulosa Morley, 1914. Rev. Ichn. Brit. Mus., v. 3, p. 34. ♀.

Biology: Nielsen, 1923. Ent. Meddel. 14: 194-195. -Shaw, 1930. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 38: 465.

Tromatobia rufopectus (Cresson)
Maine s. to Fla., w. to Iowa and Tex. Host: Argiope aurantia (Lucas), A.
trifasciata (Forsk.), Epeira sp. Townes (1960) treated rufopectus as a subspecies of
ovivora, but the geographical range of ovivora extends throughout most of that of
rufopectus. Morphological and biological differences discussed by Townes also indicate
that these two taxa should be treated as separate species.
Pimpla rufopectus Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 148. ♀.

Biology: Champlain, 1922. Psyche 29: 97.

Morphology: Pratt, 1939. Ent. Soc. Amer, Ann. 32: 735.

Tromatobia variabilis (Holmgren)
N. S. s. to Fla., w. to Alaska and Calif.; Europe; n. Asia.

Pimpla abdominalis Brulle, 1846. hi Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 99. ♂.

Preocc. by Gravenhorst, 1829.
Pimpla variabilis Hohngren, 1856 (1854). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 75: 88. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla rufovariata Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 149. ♀.
Polyspkincta cingulata Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 3: 141. ♀.
Pimpla epeirae Bignell, 1893. Ent. Monthly Mag. 29: 37. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla rufovariegata (!) Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 448. Lapsus for rufovariata

Cresson.
Pimpla Hibemica Morley, 1908. Ichn. Britannica, v. 3, p. 60. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla variabilis var. ruficoxa Kokujev, 1913. Russ. Ent. Obozr. (Rev. Russe d'Ent.) 13: 167. ♀.
Polyspkincta forsiusi Hellen, 1915. Soc pro Fauna et Flora Fenn., Acta 40: 45. ♂, ♀.
Tromatobia sapporensis Uchida, 1928. Hokkaido Imp. Univ., Faculty Agr., Jour. 25: 54. ♂, ♀.

Tromatobia zonata (Davis)
Mass. s. to Fla., w. to Ohio, 111., and Tex. Host: Epeira undata (Oliv.).
Clistopyga zonata Davis, 1895. Ent. News 6: 198. ♀.

Biology: Hubbell, 1932. Ent. Soc. Amer. Ann. 35: 504.

Genus ZAGLYPTUS Foerster

Zaglyptus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 166.

Type-species: Polyspkincta varipes Gravenhorst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Woldstedt, 1877.

Members of this genus parasitize spider egg cocoons and adults, sometimes simultaneously.

Biology: Nielsen, 1935. Ent. Meddel. 19: 206-215.

Zaglyptus arizonicus Townes
Ariz.

Zaglyptus arizonicus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 192. ♀.

Zaglyptus pictilis Townes
Ga., Ala., Fla.; Cuba?

Zaglyptus pictilis Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
194. ♂, ♀.
varipes incompletus (Cresson). N. S. s. to Fla., w. to Alaska and Calif. Z. varipes varipes
(Gravenhorst) occurs in Europe.
Pimpla incompleta Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 147. ♀.
Pimpla animosa Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 165. ♀.
Polyspkincta Riibricapensis Provancher, 1873. Nat. Canad. 5: 470. ♀.
Cylloceria Lemoinei Provancher, 1873. Nat. Canad. 5: 471. ♂.
Polyspkincta pimploides Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 145. ♀.
Polyspkincta nifigaster Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 12: 447. ♀.
Polyspkincta spinosa Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 368. ♀.

Genus CLISTOPYGA Gravenhorst

Clistopyga Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 132.

Type-species: Ichneumon incitator Fabricius. Desig. by Westwood, 1840.




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Ichneumonoglypta Blanchard, 1941. See. Ent. Argentina, Rev. 11: 9.

Type-species: Ichneumonoglypta lopez-richinii Blanchard. Monotypic and orig.
desig.
Hymenomacropyga Uchida, 1941. Insecta Matsumurana 15 (3): 116.

Type-species: Hymenomacropyga latifrontalis Uchida. Monotypic and orig. desig.

The systematic position of Clistopyga within the Pimplinae has been unsettled. Meager
evidence seems to indicate that Clistopyga spp. are parasitic upon egg sacs of species of spiders
which place their egg sacs in crevices. Townes (1960) seems to have given special emphasis to
this fact in removing Clistopyga from the Polysphinctini and placing it, along with Tromatobia
and Zaglyptus, marginally within the Pimplini.

Biology: Nielsen, 1929. Ent. Meddel. 16: 366-368.

Clistopyga alutaria Townes
Ont., Del., N. C, Fla., Wis.

Clistopyga alutaria Townes, 1960. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 200. cJ, 9.

Clistopyga atrata Cushman
Ariz., Oreg., Calif.

Clistopyga atrata Cushman, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 60 (4): U. 6, 9.

Clistopyga canadensis Provancher
N. S. s. to Pa., w. to Alta. and Colo.; Europe.

Polysphincta acuta Provancher, 1880. Nat. Canad. 12: 44. ♀.

Clistopyga Canadensis Provancher, 1880. Nat. Canad. 12: 46. ♀.

Clistopyga sauberi Brauns, 1898. Ver. Freunde Naturgesch. Mecklenburg, Arch. 51: 70. ♀.

Clistopyga maculifrons Cushman
Mass. s. to N. C, w. to Minn, and Tex.

Clistopyga maculifrons Cushman, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 60 (4): 12. ♀.

Clistopyga manni Cushman
N. Mex., B. C, Calif. Host: Agelenopsis sp.; salticid spider.

Clistopyga mamii Cushman, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 60 (4): 12. ♀.

Clistopyga nigrifrons Cushman
B. C, Calif. Host: Spider eggs. Notes in the U. S. Natl. Mus. indicate
that Cushman's type-specimens were definitely reared from the egg sac of a spider,
although the specimens are labled as "on spider nest."
Clistopyga nigrifrons Cushman, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 60 (4): 11. ♀.

Clistopyga recurva (Say)
N. J. s. to Fla., w. to Mo. and Tex.

Anomalon rectirvtis Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 243. ♂, ♀.
Clistopyga annulipes Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 150. ♀.
Clistopyga pulchripicta Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 448. ♀.

Genus ALOPHOSTERNUM Cushman

Alophostemum Cushman, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82: 7.

Type-species: Alophostemum foliicola Cushman. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Alophosternum foliicola Cushman
Maine, Mass., Calif. Host: Xenochalepus dorsalis (Thun.), Cameraria
aceriella/ Clem., C. corylisella (Chamb.), Paraclemensia acerifoliella (Fitch).
Alophostemum foliicola Cushman, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82: 8. ♂, ♀.

Tribe POLYSPHINCTINI

Members of this tribe are parasitic upon spiders. The larvae feed externally and solitarily, ex-
tracting the "juices" of an individual spider which remains active until the polysphinctine larva
matures.

Biology: Nielsen, 1928-1937. Ent. Meddel. 14: 137-205 (1923); 16: 152-155 (1928), 366-368
(1929); 19: 192-215 (1935); 20: 25-28 (1937).

Genus DREISBACHIA Townes

Laufeia Tosquinet, 1903. Soc. Ent. de Belg., Mem. 10: 381. Preocc. by Simon, 1889.

Type-species: Laufeia mira Tosquinet. Monotypic.
Dreisbachia Townes, 1962. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 64 (1): 38. N. name for La M_/eia Tosquinet.




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Dreisbachia navajo (Townes)
Ariz.; Honduras. Ecology: Found along streams at an elevation of 5000 ft. in
Arizona; a spider of the genus Pisaurina was common along these streams.
Laufeia navajo Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
223. ♂, ♀.

Dreisbachia slossonae (Davis)
N. B. s. to N. C, w. to Alaska and Calif.

Polysphincta slosso7iae Davis, 1895. hi Slosson, Ent. News 6: 317. Nomen nudum.
Polysplimcta slosso7iae Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 368. ♀.

Genus SCHIZOPYGA Gravenhorst

Schizopyga Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 125.

Type-species: Schizopyga podagrica Gravenhorst. Desig. by Westwood, 1840.
Several recent publications erroneously state that this genus was described
monotypically.

Schizopyga frigida Cresson
Maine s. to N. C, w. to B. C. and Calif.; Europe.

Schizopyga frigida Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 159. ♀.
Schizopyga atra Kriechbaumer, 1887. Ent. Nachr. 14: 87. ♂, ♀.

Polysphincta pontiaci Viereck, 1917. Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey Bui. 22: 317. ♂.

Schizopyga pulchra Walley
Mass., Ont., N. Y., N. J., N. C, Mich., Minn., B. C. Ecology: Occurs in marshy
places. This species appears to be closely related to the European Schizopyga circulator
(Panzer). Future study may show that pulchra is only a subspecies of circulator.
Schizopyga pulchra Walley, 1936. Canad. Ent. 68: 20. ♀.

Genus ZABRACHYPUS Cushman

Zabrachypus Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 37.

Type-species: Zabrachypus primus Cushman. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Zabrachypus primus Cushman
Md., Va., N. C, Ohio, N. Dak., Alta., B. C, Mont., Ariz.
Zabrachypus primus Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 37. ♀.

Genus ACRODACTYLA Haliday

Barypus Haliday, 1837. In Curtis, Guide Arrangement Brit. Ins., ed. 2, p. 94. Nomen

nudum.
Acrodactyla Haliday, 1839 (1838). Ann. Nat. Hist. 2: 117.

Type-species: Pimpla {Acrodactyla) degener Haliday. Desig. by Westwood, 1840.
Symphylus Foerster, 1871. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 28: 105. Preocc. by Dallas,
1851.

Type-species: Symphylus hadrodactylus Foerster. Orig. desig.
Polemophthorus Schulz, 1911. Zool. Ann. (Wuerzburg). 4: 22. N. name for Symphylus
Foerster.

Acrodactyla degener (Haliday)
Maine s. to N. C, w. to Alaska and Calif.; Europe. Host: Lepthyphantes

obsciirus (Blackwall), L. zebrinus (Menge), Microneta viaria (Blackwall), Pityohyphantes
phrygianus (C. L. K.). These hosts were recorded in Europe.

Pimpla (Acrodactyla) degener Haliday, 1839 (1838). Ann. Nat. Hist. 2: 117. ♂, ♀.

Acrodactyla degenera Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 103. Emend.

Taxonomy: Sedivy, 1972. Acta Ent. Mus. Natl. Pragae 38: 73-79.

Biology: Morley, 1913. Ichn. Britannica, v. 3, p. 133-134. — Nielson, 1923. Ent. Meddel. 14:
163-170 (here misdet. as "Polysphincta pallipes").

Acrodactyla jubata Townes
Colo., Yukon, Wash.

Acrodactyla jubata Townes, 1960. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
231. 9

Acrodactyla ocellata Townes
Que., Maine, N. H., Conn., N. Y., Md., N. C, Mich. Host: Pityohyphantes
phrygiamis (C. L. K.).
Acradactyla ocellata Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 232. ♂, ♀.




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Genus COLPOMERIA Holmgren

Colpomeria Holmgren, 1859. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad., Ofvers af ... Forhandl. 16: 126.
Type-species: Colpomeria laevigata Holmgren. Monotypic. Townes has most
recently been treating Colpomeria as a synonym of Acrodactyla, apparently
because of the structural intermediates of one Formosan species, C. orientalis
(Cushman). Except in C. orientalis, females of this genus have a prominent tooth
on the front femur and a weaker one (sometimes vestigial) on the middle femur.
The femoral teeth seem significant enough to warrant recognition of Colpomeria
as a distinct genus; it also has secondary distinguishing features found only in a
few species of Acrodactyla.

Colpomeria quadrisculpta (Gravenhorst)
N. S. s. to Ga., w. to Alaska and Calif.; Eurasia. Host:

Tetragnatha laboriosa Hentz, T. obtusa C. L. K. In North America quadrisculpta is
known to have been reared only from T. laboriosa.
Ichneumon quadrisculptus Gravenhorst, 1820. R. Accad. delle Sci. Torino, Mem. 24: 378.

S.
Colpomeria laevigata Holmgren, 1859. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad., Ofvers. af ... Forhandl. 16:

127. ♂, ♀.
Glypta mellithorax Riley, 1891. In RUey and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3: 463.

Nomen nudum.
Zaglyptus kincaidii Ashmead, 1894. U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 6: 260. ♂, ♀.
Panteles mellithorax Ashmead, 1900 (1899). In Smith, N. J. State Bd. Agr., Ann. Rpt. 27,

Sup., p. 575. Nomen nudum.
Polysphincta albocoxalis Ashmead, 1902. In Slosson, Ent. News 13: 320. Nomen nudum.
Colpomeria mellithorax Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 19. 9. The type locality
is D. C; on page 10 of the paper in which he described mellithorax, Cushman quoted
notes which presumably pertain to the cocoon of the holotype of mellithorax, not to the
female of Toxophoroides scituhis (Cresson).

Taxonomy: Aubert, 1969. Ichn. Ouest-Pal. et Leurs Hotes, pt. 1, p. 70.

Biology: Nielsen, 1937. Ent. Meddel. 20: 25-27. — Capener, 1938. Soc. Brit. Ent., Jour. 1:
209-210. —Howell, 1972. Entomophaga 17: 5-7.

Genus ERUGA Townes

Eruga Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 238.
Type-species: Eruga lineata Townes. Orig. desig.

Eruga atrata Townes
Oreg., Ariz.; Mexico.

Eniga atrata Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 238. ♂, ♀.

Eruga lineata Townes
Que. s. to N. C, w. to B. C. and Calif.

Eruga lineata Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 239. ♂, ♀.

Eruga rufa Townes
Md., S. C, Mo. Host: Frontinella communis Hentz.

Eruga rufa Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 240. ♂, ♀.

Genus PIOGASTER Perkins

Piogaster Perkins, 1958. Entomologist 91: 263.

Type-species: Piogaster rugosa Perkins. Orig. desig. The type-species is considered
to be a synonym of P. pilosator (Aubert).

Piogaster maculata Townes
Calif.

Piogaster maculata Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 241. ♀.

Genus OXYRRHEXIS Foerster

Oxyrrhexis Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 166.




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Type-species: Cryptus carbonator Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and desig.
by Schmiedeknecht, 1888.
carbonator texana (Cresson). Que. s. to Va., w. to B. C. and Calif. Host: Steatoda horealis
(Hentz). 0. carbonator carbonator occurs in Europe.
Polyspkincta texana Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 149. ♀.
Polysphincta vicina Provancher, 1873. Nat. Canad. 5: 470. ♂.

Polyspkincta bicarinata Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 368. ♂. Preocc. by
Riley, 1871.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 22.

Genus POLYSPHINCTA Gravenhorst

Polysphincta Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 112.

Type-species: Polysphincta tuberosa Gravenhorst. Desig. by Westwood, 1840.
Ephialtomorpha Ashmead, 1906. In Slosson, Ent. News 17: 324. Nomen nudum.

Revision: Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 20-28.

Polysphincta albipes Cresson
Southern N. Y. s. to Fla., w. to Kans.

Polysphincta albipes Cresson, 1880. In Comstock, U. S. Dept. Agr., Ann. Rpt. for 1879, p.
208. 6 . The type specimen of albipes is lost, and the species had been of somewhat
uncertain identity since being originally described from Florida. A female from Florida
in the U. S. Natl. Mus. collection agrees with the original description except in having
the head ferruginous instead of black. A paratype of eboripes Townes from Kansas
approaches the Florida specimen in coloration and agrees very well structurally. I doubt
that eboripes deserves subspecific distinction, and, therefore, it is synonymized below.
Polysphincta eboripes Townes, 1960. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 254. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Polysphincta burgessii Cresson
N. S. s. to Md., w. to B. C, Oreg., and Colo.

Polysphincta Burgessii Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 149. ♂.
Polysphincta nifopectus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 140. ♀.
Polysphincta (Polysphincta) venatrix DeGant, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82: 4. ♀.

Polysphincta koebelei Howard
Wash., Calif. Host: Epeira sp.

Polysphincta (Zaglyptus) koebelei Howard, 1892. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 2: 293. ♀.

Polysphincta limata Cresson
P. E. I. s. to N. C, w. to B. C, Oreg., and Colo.

Polysphincta limata Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 150. ♀.
tuberosa bruneti Provancher. Que. s. to N. Y., w. to Alaska and Calif. P. tuberosa tuberosa
occurs in Europe and northern Asia.
Polysphincta Bruneti Provancher, 1873. Nat. Canad. 5: 471. 9. Barron (1975) rejected the
lectotype selected by Gahan and Rohwer (1918) and gave data for the specimen he
regarded as the holotype.
Polysphincta brunetii Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 401. Emend.
Ephialtomorpha slossonae Ashmead, 1906. In Slosson, Ent. News 17: 324. Nomen nudum.
Polysphincta (Polysphincta) elongata Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 25. ♀.

Taxonomy: Gahan and Rohwer, 1918. Canad. Ent. 50: 169. —Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102:
437.

Genus ACROTAPHUS Townes

Acrotaphus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 256.
Type-species: Epimecis wiltii Cresson. Orig. desig.

Acrotaphus wiltii (Cresson)
Maine s. to Fla., w. to Man. and Tex. Host: Neoscona arabesca (Walck.).
Epimecis Wiltii Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 143. ♀.

Biology: Shannon, 1913. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 15: 162. — Gordh, 1971. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour.
44: 171-172.

Genus SINARACHNA Townes

Sinarachna Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 258.




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Type-species: Polysphincta pallipes Holmgren. Orig. desig.

Sinarachna anomala (Holmgren)
N. S. s. to Fla., w. to Alaska and Calif.; Mexico, Europe. Host: Dictyna

foliacea (Hentz).
Polysphincta anomala Holmgren, 1860. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (ser. 4) 3: 34. ♀.
Polysphincta picticollis Thomson, 1888. Opusc. Ent. 12: 1254. ♂, ♀.
Polysphincta dictynae Howard, 1888. U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 1: 107. ♂.
Polysphincta mimita Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 369. ♀.
Zatypota anomala meridionator Aubert, 1960. Soc. Linn, de Lyon, Bui. Mens. 29: 32. 9. N.

syn. Described from a single female from southern France.
Zatypota anomala meridionator Aubert, 1961 (1960). Vie et Milieu 11: 656. 9. Second

description of anomala meridionator as a new subspecies based on same unique

specimen.
pallipes strigis (Howard). Maine s. to N. C, w. to Alaska and Calif. Host: Epeira foliata

(Geoff.). S. pallipes pallipes occurs in Europe.
Polysphincta (Zatypota) strigis Howard, 1892. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 2: 291. ♀.

Genus ZATYPOTA Foerster

Zatypota Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 166.

Type-species: Ichneumon percontatorius Mueller. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from five
species included by Schmiedeknecht, 1888.
Polysphinctopsis Habermehl, 1917. Ztschr. f. Wiss. Insektenbiol. 13: 167.

Type-species: Polysphincta eximia Schmiedeknecht. Monotypic. This type-species is
considered to be a synonym of Z. albicoxa (Walker).
Lycorinopsis Haupt, 1954. Deut. Ent. Ztschr. (N. F.) 1 (1-11): 110.
Type-species: Lycorinopsis rhombifer Haupt. Orig. desig.

Revision: Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 29-36.

Zatypota alborhombarta (Davis)
Va., Fla., Ariz.; Mexico.

Clistopyga alborhombarta Davis, 1895. Ent. News 6: 198. ♀.

Zatypota arizonica Townes
Ariz.

Zatypota arizonica Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
271. ♂.

Zatypota bohemani (Holmgren)
Mont., B. C; Europe.

Polysphincta Bohemani Holmgren, 1860. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (ser. 4) 3: 30. ♀.
Polysphincta bohemanii Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 8, p. 401. Emend.

Zatypota cingulata Townes
N. S. s. to Ga., w. to Wis. and Colo.

Zatypota cingulata Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
270. ♂.

Zatypota crassipes Townes
S. C.

Zatypota crassipes Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
278. ♀.

Zatypota exilis Townes
Que., N. H.

Zatypota exilis Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
269. ♀.

Zatypota favosa Townes
Calif.

Zatypota favosa Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
269. ♀.

Zatypota luteipes Townes
Maine, Mass., Ont., Md., N. C.

Zatypota hiteipes Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
277. ♂, ♀.

Zatypota nigriceps (Walsh)
N. S. s. to Fla., w. to B. C. and Calif.

Polysphincta nigriceps Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 144. cJ, 9.

Polysphincta nigrita Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 144. 6 . Uncertain syn.

Clistopyga nigrocephala Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 369. ♂.

Polysphincta (Zatypota) braucheri Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 33. ♂, ♀.

Polysphincta (Zatypota) califortiiensis Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 34. ♀.

Polysphincta (Zatypota) crosbyi Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 35. ♂, ♀.




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parva (Cresson). Que. s. to N. C, w. to Wis.

Glypta parva Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 155. ♀.

Zatypota patellata Townes
B. C. s. to Calif.

Zatypota patellata Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
268. ♂, ♀.

Zatypota percontatoria (Mueller)
Que. and Ont. s. to N. Y. and Ohio, w. to Alaska and Calif.; Europe.
Host: Araneus cucurbitinus Clerck, Meta segmentata Clerck, Theridium denticulatum
Walck., T. varians Hahn. These hosts are recorded from Europe.

Ichneumon percontatorius Mueller, 1776. Zool. Danicae Prodromus, p. 154. 9. The
neotype designated by Aubert (1969) violates every provision in the Code regarding
neotype selection and is therefore invalid. Aubert (1972) contended that usage of the
name percontatoria by Townes (1960) and Oehlke (1967) violates the principle of first
revisor. However, Townes (1960) stated that he applied the name according to the
interpretation of Gravenhorst (1829), and certainly there is no logical basis for regarding
Schmiedeknecht (1907) as first revisor as did Aubert (1972).

Polysphincta gracilis Holmgren, 1860. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (ser. 4) 3: 32. ♂, ♀.

Polysphincta scntellaris Holmgren, 1860. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (ser. 4) 3: 33. ♂.

Polysphincta pidchrator Thomson, 1877. Opusc. Ent. 8: 757. S. The female lectotype
selected by Aubert is invalid, and therefore this synonymy remains uncertain.

Polysphincta theridii Howard, 1892. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 2: 292. ♂.

Polysphincta granulosa Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 369. ♀.

Lycorinopsis decorata Haupt, 1954. Deut. Ent. Ztschr. (N. F.) 1: 110. ♀.

Lycorinopsis rhombifer Haupt, 1954. Deut. Ent. Ztschr. (N. F.). 1: 110. ♀.

Taxonomy: Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 120-122. —Schmiedeknecht, 1907.
Opusc. Ichn., V. 3, p. 1172. —Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 2): 276. —Aubert, 1969. Ichn. Ouest-Pal. et leurs Hotes, pt. 1, p. 77. —Aubert,
1972. Ent. Scand. 3: 10.

Biology: Nielsen, 1923. Ent. Meddel. 14: 170-172.

Zatypota walleyi Townes
Que., Maine, Mass., Ont., Mich.

Zatypota walleyi Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
272. ♂, ♀.

Tribe ECHTHROMORPHINI

In addition to the three nearly worldwide genera which occur in North America, this tribe in-
cludes five others, the largest and best known of these being Xanthopimpla, of the Old- and
New-World tropics, and Echthromorpha, which is chiefly Indo-Australian. Species of
Echthromorphini are usually internal parasites of pupae of Lepidoptera, but species of Itoplectis
and, to a lesser extent, Coccygomimus sometimes parasitize Symphyta or Ichneumonoidea
which spin cocoons in leaf litter or exposed situations.

Revision: Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 327-362 (Nearctic spp.). —Townes, 1940.
Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 33: 283-323 (eastern Nearctic spp.). —Perkins, 1941. Roy. Ent. Soc,
London, Trans. 91: 637-659 (British spp.).

Biology: Townes, 1939. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 34: 29-30 (protective odors).

Morphology: Townes, 1940. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 33: 285-287. (tarsal claws). — Obrtel, 1960.
Brno Moravske Mus. Casopis, Vedy Prirodni 45: 195-202 (male genitalia and postgenital
sclerites).

Genus ITOPLECTIS Foerster

Itoplectis Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 164.

Type-species: Ichneumon scanicus Villers. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from two
species included by Woldstedt, 1877.
Nesopimpla Ashmead, 1906. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 30: 180.

Type-species: Nesopimpla naranyae Ashmead. Monotypic.
Exeristoides Uchida, 1928. Hokkaido Imp. Univ., Faculty Agr., Jour. 25: 51.




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Type-species: Pimpla spectabilis Matsumura. Monotypic and orig. desig. The
type-species is considered to be a subspecies of /. altemans (Gravenhorst).

Revision: Porter, 1970. Acta Zool. Lilloana 26 (6): 65-103 (S. Amer. spp.).

Itoplectis behrensii (Cresson)
Calif. Host: Phryganidia califomica Pack. /. bekrensii is not known to
occur north of Marin Co., Calif.

Pimpla bekrensii Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 377. ♂, ♀.

Itoplectis conquisitor (Say)
N. S. s. to Fla., w. to B. C. and Ariz. Host: Hyaloscotes pithopoera (Dyar),
Oiketicus abbotii Grt., Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haw.), Coleophora frischella
(L.), C. pruniella Clem., Epermenia cicutaella Kft., Anacampsis inocuella (Zell.),
Dichomeris marginella (F.), C horistoneura conflictana (Wlk.), C.fumiferana (Clem.),
Choristoneura lambertiana (Bsk.), C. pinus Free., Aphelia alleniana (Fern.), Archips
argyrospilus (Wlr.), A. cerasivoranus (Fitch), A. georgianus (Wlk.), A. rileyanus (Grt.),
Argyrotaenia cockerellana (Kft.) A. pinatubana (Kft.), A. velutinana (Wlk.), Acleris
hastiana (L.), A. mimita (Rob.), Cnephasia virgaureana Treit., Sparganothis pettitana
(Rob.), S. flavibasana (Fern.), Xenotemna pallorana Rob., Ancylis comptana (Froel.), A.
c.fragariae (W. and R.), Evora hemidesma (Zell.), Paralobesia viteana (Clem.),
Rhyacionia buoliana (D. and S.), R.fnistrana (Com.), R.frustrana bushnelli (Bsk.),
Spilonota ocellana (D. and S.), Pterophorus periscelidactylus Fitch, Acrobasis betulella
Hulst, A. caryvoriella Rag., A. juglandis (LeB.), A. kearf'ottella Dyar, A. rubrifasciella
Pack., Dioryctria reniculella (Grt.), Diaphania hyalinata (L.), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbn.),
Cingilia catenaria (Drury), Lambdina fervidaria athasaria (Wlk.), L. fiscellaria
fiscellaria (Gn.), Ennomos subsignariiis (Hbn.), Nematocampa filamentaria Gn.,
Rhetimaptera hastata (L.), Dryocampa nibicunda nibicunda (F.), Malacosoma
americanum (F.), M. disstria Hbn., M. calif omicum fragile (Stretch), Dasychira
plagiata (Wlk.), Lymantria dispar (L.), Orgyia antiqua (L.), 0. leucostigma (J. E. S.),
Alabama argillacea (Hbn.), Anomis erosa Hbn., Exyra semicrocea (Gn.), Simyra henrici
(Grt.), Trichoplusia ni (Hbn.), Lascoria ambigualis (Wlk.), Hyphantria cunea (Drury),
Hemileuca sp., Urbanus proteus (L.), Thymelicus lineola (Ochs.), Pieris rapae (L.),
Graphium marcellus (Cramer), Diprion similis (Htg.), Neodiprion abietis (Harr.),
Rogas stigrmator (Say), R. terminalis (Cr.), Dusona ellopiae (Wly.), Gambrus extrematus
(Cr.), Hyposoter fugitivus (Say), Phobocampe clisiocampae (Weed), P. pallipes (Prov.).

Ichneumon concitator (!) Harris, 1833. In Hitchcock, Rpt. Geol. Mineral. Bot. Zool. Mass. p.
587. Nomen nudum.

Cryptus conquisitor Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 232. ♀.

Cryptus pleurivinctus Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 235. (5,9.

Pimpla pictipes Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 135. ♀. Preocc. by
Gravenhorst, 1829.

Pimpla walshii Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 454. N. name for P. pictipes Walsh.

Pimpla conquisitrix Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 104. Emend.

Ephialtes (Itoplectis) temnopleuris Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 350. ♀.

Biology: Gorham, 1847. DeBow's Rev. 3: 539-541. — Comstock, 1879. Rpt. on Cotton Insects,
p. 198-200. —Riley, 1886. U. S. Dept. Agr., Ent. Comn. Rpt. 4: 111-113. —Weed and Fiske,
1900. U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent. Bui. 26: 33-34. -Fiske, 1903. N. H. Agr. Expt. Sta., Tech.
Bui. 6: 184-230. —Johnston, 1913. Jour. Econ. Ent. 6: 144-147. — Baird, 1918. Agr. Gaz.
Canada 5: 770-771. -Criddle, 1924. Ent. Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 54: 17-18. — Schedl, 1931.
Ztschr. f. Angew. Ent. 18: 258-260. -Haden, 1935. Del. Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 194: 20-35.
—Townes, 1940. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 33: 318-320. — Leius, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 369-376.
—Leius, 1961. Canad. Ent. 93: 771-780. -Arthur, 1962-1972. Canad. Ent. 94: 337-347
(1962); 95: 1078-1091 (1963); 97: 1000-1001 (1965); 98: 213-223 (1966); 104: 1251-1258 (1972).

Morphology: Peck, 1937. Canad. Jour. Res., Sect. D (Zool. Sci.) 15: 245, 452. —Pratt, 1939.
Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 32: 731.
curticauda brevacus Townes. Que., Maine, Ont., Vt., N. Y., Mich., Mont. /. curticauda
ctirticauda (Kriechbaumer) occurs in Europe.
Itoplectis brevacus Townes, 1940. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 33: 315. ♀.

Itoplectis evetriae Viereck
N. B. s. to n. Ga., w. to Alaska and Calif. Host: Barbara sp., B. colfaxiana
siskiyouana (Kft.), B. colfaxiana taxifoliella (Bsk.), B. mappana Free., Zeiraphera sp.




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on Picea glauca, C horistoneura fumiferana (Clem.), Dioryctria cambiicola (Dyar), D.

zimmermanni (Grt.), Rhyacionia buoliana (D. and S.).
Itoplectis evetriae Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 44: 565. ♂.
Itoplectis plesia Rohwer, 1914. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 15: 182. ♀.

Itoplectis fustiger Townes
Que., N. Y., Pa., Mich., Ohio, Minn., N. Dak., Calif. This species is related to

the European /. clavicomis Thomson, and for a number of years was identified as

clavicomis.
Itoplectis fustiger Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):

298. ♂, ♀.

Itoplectis maculator (Fabricius)
Eurasia, n. Africa. Ecology: Sometimes hyperparasitic. Introductions

were made in Ont. from 1948-1956 with the target species being the native

C horistoneura fumiferana (Clem.). Cnephasia longana was the target species for

introductions in Oreg. in 1949?, 1952, and 1954. Recoveries were made in Oreg. in 1950

and 1955, but maculator is not known to be established. Host: Cnephasia longana

(Haw.). Numerous other European hosts are known.
Ichneumon maculator Fabricius, 1775. Systema Ent., p. 337. ♀.
Ichneumon Plaesseus Geoffroy, 1785. In Fourcroy, Ent. Parisiensis. v. 1, p. 417. ♀.
Ichneumon arlequinatus Geoffroy, 1785. In Fourcroy, Ent. Parisiensis. v. 1, p. 427. Sex

not indicated.
Ichneumon scanicus Villers, 1789. Caroli Linnaei Ent., Faun. Suec. Descr. Aucta, v. 3, p.

190. 6 ?
Ichneumon lateratorius Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8:

279; 9: 362. ♂.
Pimpla vincta Snellen van VoUenhoven, 1873. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 16: 212. ♀.
Pimpla cruentata Rudow, 1883. Ent. Nachr. 9: 235. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla castaneiventris Kriechbaumer, 1894. Berlin. Ent. Ztschr. 39: 51. ♀.
Pimpla sexpunctata Perez, 1895. Soc. Ent. de France, Ann. 64: 200. ♀.
Pimpla maculatrix Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 104. Emend.
Itoplectis rufiventris Hellen, 1949. Finska Vetensk.-Soc, Comm. Biol. 8: 11. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Goidanich, 1931. R. 1st. Super. Agr., Lab. di Ent., Bol. 4: 151-153. —Hardy, 1938.

Bui. Ent. Res. 29: 356.

Itoplectis quadricingulata (Provancher)
Newfoundland s. to R. I., w. to Alaska and Calif.; Greenland.
Host: Hyaloscotes fragmentella (Hy. Edw.), Gracilaria sp., Euceratia castella Wlsm.,
Dioryctria reniculella (Grt.), Anthophila pariana (Clem.), Carcina quercana (F.),
Depressaria sp., Archips argyrospilus (Wlk.), A. rosayuis (L.), C horistoneura fumiferana
(Clem.), C. occidentalis Free., Cnephasia longana (Haw.), Acleris sp., Acleris variana
(Fern.), Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), Rhyacionia buoliana (D. and S.), R. busckana
Hein., Spilonota ocellana (D. and S.), Taniva albolineana (Kft.), Platyptilia sp.,
Lamdina fiscellaria lugubrosa (Hulst), Nepytia phantasmaria (Stkr.), Malacosoma sp.,
M. disstria Hbn., Orgyia pseudotsugata McD., Neodiprion sp., A^. tsugae Midd. /.

Itoplectis quadricingulata
***authority mismatch
is closely related to /. altertians (Gravenhorst) of Eurasia and future
study is likely to show that quadricingulata should be treated either as a synonym or as
a subspecies of altemans.

Pimpla i-cing7ilatus Provancher, 1880. Nat. Canad. 12: 38. ♀.

Pimpla (Itoplectis) Kolthoffi Aurivillius, 1890. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad., Bihang tU Handl.
(ser. 4) 15: 29. cJ, 9.

Pimpla kolthoffii Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 438. Emend.

Itoplectis obesus Cushman, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 53: 467. ♂, ♀.

Ephialtes (Itoplectis) latus Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 345. ♀.

Ephialtes (Itoplectis) leavitti Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 345. ♀.

Ephialtes (Itoplectis) pacificus Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 345. ♀. Preocc.
by Harrington, 1894.

Ephialtes (Itoplectis) montana Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 346. ♀.

Ephialtes cacoeciae Viereck, 1924. Canad. Ent. 56: 64. ♂, ♀.

Ephialtes (Itoplectis) esuchus Cushman, 1924. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 26: 221. N. name for
E. pacificus Cushman.




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Biology: Ryan, 1971. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 64: 205-208. —Ryan and Medley, 1972. Ent. Soc.

Amer., Ann. 65: 172-177.

Itoplectis vesca Townes
N. S., P. E. I., N. B., Maine, Colo., N. Mex., Ariz., Alaska, B. C, Calif. Host:
Acleris variana (Fern.), Coleophora laricella (Hbn.), Coleotec finite s milleri (Bsk.).

Itoplectis vesca Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
297.

Itoplectis viduata (Gravenhorst)
N. W. T. s. to N. Mex., w. to B. C. and Calif.; Eurasia. Host: Ancylis
comptana (Froel.), Autographa califomica (Spey.), Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris),
Colias eurytheme Bdv., Malacosoma sp., M. disstria Hbn., M. califomicum fragile
(Stretch), M. califomicum pluviale (Dyar), Orgyia pseudotsugata McD., Hemileuca
oliviae Ckll., Nymphalis califomica (Bdv.).

Pimpla viduata Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 214. ♂.

Pimpla atrocoxalis Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 145. ♀.

Pimpla ovalis Thomson, 1877. Opusc. Ent. 8: 748. ♀.

Pimpla meridionalis Kriechbaumer, 1877. Ent. Nachr. 8: 120. ♀.

Genus EPHIALTES Schrank

Ephialtes Schrank, 1802. Fauna Boica, v. 2, p. 316. Some authors regard Ephialtes Schrank
as an unavailable name by virtue of Opinion 159 of the Internatl. Comm. of Zool.
Nomenclature, but I do not regard Opinion 159 as valid for reasons discussed in the
introduction to the family.

Type-species: Ichneumon compunctor Linnaeus. Monotypic.
Apechthis Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 164.

Type-species: Ichneumon rufatus Gmelin. Desig. by Ashmead, 1900 (as "Pimpla
rubata [!] Gravenhorst") from two species included by Woldstedt, 1877.
Apechtis Thomson, 1889. Opusc. Ent. 12: 1410. Emend.
Taiwatheronia Sonan, 1936. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa, Trans. 26: 256.

Type-species: Taiwatheronia mahasenae Sonan. Monotypic and orig. desig. The
type-species is regarded as a synonym of Ephialtes taiwanus (Uchida).
Parapechthis Blanchard, 1936. Soc. Cient. Argentina, An. 122: 404.

Type-species: Parapechthis bazani Blanchard. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1957. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 59: 118-119.

Ephialtes annulicornis
***authority mismatch
annulicornis (Cresson). Que. s. to N. C, w. to Alta. and Tex. Host:

Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), C. rosaceana (Harris). Contrary to the description
and key in the revision of the Pimplinae by Townes and Townes (1960), a significant
proportion of the males of this subspecies have white marks on the mesoscutum.

Pimpla annulicornis Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 147. ♂, ♀.

Ephialtes annulicornis
***authority mismatch
componotus (Davis), n. status. Idaho, N. Mex., B. C, Oreg., Calif. Host: Orgyia
antiqua (L.), 0. leucostigma (J. E. S.), 0. pseudotsugata McD., Neophasia menapia (F.
and F.).

Pimpla componotus Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 367. ♂.

Apechthis pacificus Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 353. ♂, ♀. N. syn. Preocc. in
Ephialtes by Harrington, 1894; Cushman, 1920. Townes (1960) treated pacificus as a
species distinct from componotus on the basis of male color characteristics (he
considered the female of componotus unknown) which do not even work for Cushman's
type series of pacificus, which were from a single locality (Portland, Oreg.). Other
specimens in the U. S. Natl. Mus. collection further indicate the need for placing

Ephialtes pacificus
***authority mismatch
as a synonym of componotus and the need for placing componotus as a
subspecies of annulicornis.
Ontario (Cresson). Newfoundland (Labrador) s. to N. Y., w. to Alaska and Calif. Host:

Choristoneura conflictana (Wlk.), C. fumiferana (Clem.), C. pinus Free., Lambdina
fiscellaria (Gn.), Nepytia canosaria (Wlk.).

Pimpla Ontario Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 146. ♂.

Biology: Ryan, 1971. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 64: 205-208. —Ryan and Medley, 1972. Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 65: 172-177.

Morphology: Peck, 1937. Canad. Jour. Res., Sect. D (Zool. Sci.) 15: 248.




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Ephialtes picticornis (Cresson)
N. S. s. to N. C, w. to B. C. and Calif. Host: Choristoneura conjlictana
(Wlk.), C. rosaceana (Harris), Sciaphila sp., Spilonota ocellana (D. and S.).
Pimpla picticornis Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 146. ♂.
Apechthis omatulns Walley, 1929. Canad. Ent. 68: 190. ♂.

Ephialtes quadridentatus (Thomson)
Europe; n. Asia. Introduced, but not established, in Ont. and Que.

in 1948, 1949, and 1956 for control of the native Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.).
Ichneumon resinator (!) Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Bui. 8:

275; 9: 349. Lapsus for and misidentification of Ichneumon resinellae Linnaeus, which is

a braconid now placed in the genus Macrocentnis.
Pimpla quadridentata Thomson, 1877. Opusc. Ent. 8: 749. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1965. Polskie Pismo Ent. 35: 411.

Ephialtes rufatus (Gmelin)
Europe; n. Asia. Introduced, but not established, in Ont. in 1950 for control
of the native Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.).
Ichneiimon nifatus Gmelin, 1790. In Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. 13, v. 1, p. 2684. ♀.
Pimpla Jlavonotata Hohngren, 1860. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (ser. 4) 3 (10): 19. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla rufiihorax Strobl, 1901. Naturw. Ver. f Steiermark, Mitt. 38: 11. ♀.

Genus COCCYGOMIMUS Saussure

Coccygomimus Saussure, 1890. In Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar, v. 20, Hym. 1, pi. 14, fig.
12.

Type-species: Coccygomimus madecassus Saussure. Monotypic.
Habropimpla Cameron, 1900. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc, Mem. and Proc. 44: 96.

Type-species: Habropimpla bilineata Cameron. Monotypic.
Lissotheronia Cameron, 1905. Spolia Zeylanica 3: 139.

Type-species: Lissotheronia flavipes Cameron. Monotypic.
Phytodiaetoides Morley, 1913. Fauna Brit. India, ... Hym., v. 3, p. 221.

Type-species: Phtyodiaetoides megaera Morley. Monotypic and orig. desig. The
type-species is considered to be a synonym of Coccygomimus Jlavipalpis
(Cameron).
Pimplidea Viereck, 1914. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 83: 117.

Type-species: Pimpla pedalis Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Coelopimpla Brethes, 1916. Buenos Aires, Mus. Nac. de Hist. Nat., An. 27: 402.

Type-species: Coelopimpla amadei Brethes. Monotypic and orig. desig. The
type-species is considered to be a synonym of Coccygomimus sumichrasti
(Cresson).
Liotheronia Enderlein, 1919. Gesell. f. Naturf. Freunde z. Berlin, Sitzber. f 1919, p. 147.
Type-species: Liotheronia kriegeri Enderlein. Monotypic and orig. desig. The
type-species is considered to be a synonym of Coccygomimus aztecus (Cresson).
Dihyboplax Enderlein, 1919. Gesell. f. Naturf. Freunde z. Berlin, Sitzber. f. 1919, p. 148.

Type-species: Dihyboplax flavipennis Enderlein. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Neogabunia Brethes, 1927. Ent. Mitt. 16: 322.

Type-species: Neogabunia paulistana Brethes. Monotypic. The type-species is
considered to be a synonym of Coccygomimus tomyris (Schrottky).
Pimpla subg. Opodactyla Seyrig, 1932. Acad. Malagache, Mem. 11: 60.

Type-species: Pimpla (Opodactyla) waterloti Seyrig. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Pimpla subg. Oxypimpla Noskiewicz and Chudoba, 1951. Polskie Pismo Ent. 21: 42, 56.
Type-species: Ichneumon turionellae Linnaeus. Monotypic.

The name Pimpla has frequently been applied to this genus. My reasons for not doing so here
are given in the introductory discussion of the family.

Revision: Porter, 1970. Studia Ent. 13: 1-192. (S. Amer. spp.).

Coccygomimus aequalis (Provancher)
N. S. s. to Fla., w. to Minn, and Tex. Host: Thyridopteryx

ephemeraeformis (Haw.), Grapholitha molesta (Bsk.), Laspeyresia pomonella (L.),
Paralobesia viteana (Clem.), Coleophora fuscedinella ZelL, Acrobasis indiginella (Zell.),
Dichomerus "marginella" (F.), Coryphista meadi (Pack.), Tolype velleda (StolL).
Pimpla aequalis Provancher, 1880. Nat. Canad. 12: 36. ♀.




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Meniscus Ashmeadii Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 430. ♀.
Pimpla conquisitor var. mfiiscula Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 368. ♀.

Biology: Breakley, 1930. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 23: 187.

Coccygomimus annulipes (Brulle)
N. S. s. to Fla., w. to Minn, and Tex. Host: Podosesia syringae (Harris),

Syanthedon pictipes (G. and R.), S. pyri (Harris), Grapholitha molesta (Bsk.),

Laspeyresia nigricana (Steph.), L. pomonella (L.), Rhyacionia buoliana (D. and S.),

Gretchena boUiana (Sling.), Acrobasis caryae Grt., A. indiginella (Zell.), Salebriaria

tenebrosella (Hulst).
Pimpla anmdipes Brulle, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 102. ♀.
Pimpla inflata Townes, 1940. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 33: 306. ♂, ♀.

Coccygomimus aquilonius (Cresson)
Newfoundland (insular) s. to N. C, w. to Alaska and Calif.; Eurasia.

Host: Coleophora fuscedinella Zell., Psilocorsis cryptolechiella (Cham.), Lambdina

fiscellaria fiscellaria (Gn.), Spilonota ocellana (D. and S.), Rheumaptera hastata (L.).

Townes (1960) has recognized a number of subspecies which he separated very

unsatisfactorily and which do not make sense zoogeographically; therefore, they are not

recognized here.
Pimpla aquilonia Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 145. ♂.
Pimpla flavicoxis Thomson, 1877. Opusc. Ent. 8: 747. ♂.
Meniscus marginatus Provancher, 1883. Nat. Canad. 14: 15. ♀.

Bassus cylindricus Provancher, 1889. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 111. ♂, ♀.
Itoplectis exareolata Ashmead, 1901. Psyche 9: 147. ♀.
Pimpla yakutatensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 200. ♂.

Coccygomimus contemplator (Mueller)
Europe. Introduced in 1964 in N. S. without becoming established.

Host: Operophtera brumata (L.). Other European hosts are known, but 0. bnimata was

the target host for the release in N. S.
Ichneumon contemplator Mueller, 1776. Zool. Danicae prodromus ..., p. 158. Sex not

indicated.
Ichneumon geniculatus Geoffrey, 1785. In Fourcroy, Ent. Parisiensis, v. 2, p. 397. 9 ?
Cryptus insiffiiatorius Gravenhorst, 1807. Vergl. Uebers. Zool. Systeme, p. 264. ♀.
Pimpla bilineata Brulle, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 98. 9 . Syn.?

Coccygomimus dimidiatus Townes
Tex.

Coccygomimus dimidiatus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.

216 (pt. 2): 350. ♂.

Coccygomimus ellopiae (Harrington)
N. Mex., Ariz., B. C. s. to Calif. Host: Lambdina somniaria (Hulst),

Eucaterva variaria Grote.
Pimpla ellopiae Harrington, 1892. Canad. Ent. 24: 99. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1966. In Townes and Townes, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 8: 28.

Coccygomimus hesperus Townes
S. Dak.to N. Mex., w. to Alaska, Oreg. and Calif. Host: Rhyacionia

frustrana bushnelli (Bsk.), Anarsia lineatella Zell., Udea rubigalis (Gn.), Lambdina

fiscellaria lugubrosa (Hulst).
Coccygomimus hespenis Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 216

(pt. 2):338. ♂, ♀.
instig^ator (Fabricius). Eurasia; n. Africa. Introduced in 1906, 1907, and 1909 in New England

without becoming established. Host: Lymantria dispar (L.). Many other European hosts

are known, but L. dispar was the target host for attempts to establish instigator in

New England.
Ichneumon instigator Fabricius, 1793. Ent. System, v. 2, p. 164. ♀.
Pimpla processionae Ratzeburg, 1849. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 10: 133. ♂.
Pimpla intermedia Holmgren, 1860. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (ser. 4) 3 (10): 19. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla Aegyptica Schmiedeknecht, 1897. Illus. Wochenschr. f. Ent. 2: 633. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla instigatrix Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 104. Emend.
Apechthis jlavipes Matsumura, 1912. Thousand Ins. Jap., Sup. 4, p. 144. ♀.

Taxonomy: Masi, 1933. Soc. Ent. Ital., Bol. 65: 65.




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Biology: Howard and Fiske, 1911. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent., Bui. 91: 237. — Schevy, 1912.
Messager Ent. 1: 4. -Picard, 1921. [Paris] Acad, des Sci., Compt. Rend. 172: 1617-1619.
— Faure, 1926. Contrib. Etud. ... Pieride du Chou et ses Pars. Hym., p. 77-86. — Lepiney,
1927. Ann. des Epiphyt. 13: 164. — Seyrig, 1932. Soc. Ent. de France, Ann. 101: 114. — Cals
and Shaumar, 1965. Ann. des Sci. Nat. Zool. et Biol. Anim. 7: 768.

Coccygomimus marginellus
***authority mismatch
(BruUe). Southern Fla.; Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico.

Pimpla marginella Brulle, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 107. ♀.

Coccygomimus maurus (Cresson)
Ohio, N. C, Ga., Fla., Tex. Host: Hemerocampa leucostigma (J. E. S.).,
Orgyia sp.
Pimpla maiira Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 145. ♀.

Coccygomimus nudus
***authority mismatch
(Townes). N. S. s. to Va., w. to Minn, and Ind. Host: Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbn.),
Neodiprion sp.
Pimpla nuda Townes, 1940. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 33: 306. ♀.

Coccygomimus pedalis (Cresson)
Newfoundland (Labrador) s. to Va., w. to Alaska and Calif. Host: Archips

argyrospihis (Wlk.), Argyrotaenia mariana (Fern.), sciaphila duplex (Walsh), Lambdina
fiscellaria fiscellaria (Gn.), L. somniaria (Hulst), Protoboarmia porcelaria (Gn.),
Malacosoma americanum (F.), M. califomicum fragile (Stretch), M. disstria Hbn.,
Dasychira plagiata (Wlk.), Leucoma salicis (L.), Lymantria dispar (L.), Nygmia
phaeorrhea (Don.), Orgyia antiqua badia Hy. Edw., 0. leucostigma (J. E. S.),
Heterocampa gutivitta (Wlk.), Acronicta sp., A. americana (Harr.), Ctenucha virginica
(Charp.), Leucania linita Gn., Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haw.), Halisidota caryae (Harr.),
H. maculata (Harr.), Isia isabella (J. E. S.), Epargyreus clarus (Cramer), Neophasia
menapia (F. and F.), Gilpinia hercyniae (Htg.), Neodiprion sp.
Pimpla pedalis Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 268. ♂.

Biology: Howard and Fiske, 1911. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent., Bui. 91: 137-138, 144, 147-149,
237-239. -Schedl, 1931. Ztschr. f. Agnew. Ent. 18: 268-270. — Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent.
92: 925. -Campbell, 1963. Canad. Ent. 95: 337.

Coccygomimus punicipes (Cresson)
Tex.; Mexico s. to Peru; Hawaii. Host: Platynota sp., Pectinopkora

gossypiella (Sdrs.). Neither of these hosts was recorded in N. Amer.
Pimpla punicipes Cresson, 1874 (1873). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 25: 398. ♀.
Pimpla feralis Cresson, 1874 (1873). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 25: 399. ♂.
Pimpla Hawaiiensis Cameron, 1887. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc, Mem. and Proc. (3) 10: 239. ♂.
Pimpla puniceipes Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 446. Emend.

Coccygomimus sanguinipes
***authority mismatch
erythropus (Viereck). Idaho s. to N. Mex., w. to s. B. C. and Calif. Host:

Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), Tholeria reversalis (Gn.), Zophodia convolutella (Hbn.),

Coryphista meadi (Pack.), Encaterva variaria Grt., Prochoerodea forficaria catenulata

Grt., Malacosoma sp., M. califomicum fragile (Stretch), M. incumjum inctirvum (Hy.

Eds.), Hemileuca sp., Diacrisia virginica (F.), Orgyia pseudotsugata McD., 0. vetusta

(Bdv.).
Pimpla (Pimpla) erythropus Viereck, 1909. Ent. News 20: 291. ♀.

Biology: Pack, 1930. Utah Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 216: 10-11.

Coccygomimus sanguinipes
***authority mismatch
sanguinipes (Cresson). Tex.; Mexico s. to Peru. Host: Alabama argillacea (Hbn.).
Pimpla sanguinipes Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 165. ♀.
Ephialtes (Ephialtes) sanguineipes (!) Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 335.

Coccygomimus silvicola (Walley)
B. C, Wash., Oreg.

Pimpla silvicola Walley, 1941. Canad. Ent. 73: 164. ♂, ♀.

Coccygomimus sodalis
***authority mismatch
longigenalis (Cushman). Colo., Calif. Ecology: Occurs in drier grass or sedge covered
parts of high mountain meadows but is apparently not found in wet meadows.
Ephialtes (Ephialtes) longigenalis Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 332. ♀.

Coccygomimus sodalis
***authority mismatch
sodalis (Ruthe). Northern Man., N. W. T., Yukon, Alaska; Greenland; Iceland; Europe.
Pimpla sodalis Ruthe, 1859. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 20: 371. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla Nordenskioldii Holmgren, 1872. Svenska. Vetensk.-Adad., Ofvers. af ... Forhandl.

29 (6): 97. ♀.
Pimpla longiceps Thomson, 1877. Opusc. Ent. 8: 746. ♂, ♀.




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Strickland! Townes. Que., Ont., n. Mich., Sask., Alta.

Coccygomimus stricklandi Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 2): 340. ♂, ♀.

Coccygomimus tenuicornis (Cresson)
N. S. s. to N. Y., w. to e. B. C. and Colo. Host: Semiothisa sp.,
Synanthedon tipiiliformis (Clerk).

Pimpla tenuicornis Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 267. ♀.

Coccygomimus turionellae
***authority mismatch
turionellae (Linnaeus). Eurasia; n. Africa. Introduced in 1950, 1955 in N. S.; 1952
in Que.; 1935- 1937, 1950-1954, 1956, 1958 in Ont.; 1906-1909 in New England (probably
Mass.), 1935-1938 in Conn., N. Y., N. J.; 1937 in Minn, and Ida.; establishment has
apparently not occurred, although a few recoveries have been reported in Ontario. Host:
Rkyacionia buoliana (D. and S.), Lymantria dispar (L.), Laspeyresia pomonella (L.),
Operophtera brumata (L.). Many other hosts are known, but these are the introduced
pests which were target hosts for introductions of turionellae in North America; a
number of native pests were target hosts for some of the introductions, however. C.

Coccygomimus turionellae
***authority mismatch
moraguesi (Schmiedeknecht) occurs in northern Africa (Pimpla freyi Hellen
is probably a synonym of t. moraguesi).

Ichneumon turionellae Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, p. 564. ♀ (♂ misdet.).

Ichneumon variegatus Schrank, 1785. Neues Mag. Liebhaber Ent. 2: 327. ♀.

Cryptus examinator Fabricius, 1804. Systema Piezatorum, v. 2, p. 85. ♀.

Ichneumon cingulator Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8:
275; 9: 348. ♀.

Ichneumon turionator Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8:
275; 9: 348. Emend.

Pimpla opacellata Desvignes, 1868. Ent. Monthly Mag. 4: 174. ♀.

Pimpla examinatrix Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 104. Emend.

Pimpla padellae Torka, 1918. Ent. Rundschau 35: 33. cj, 9.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1932. Ent. Tidskr. 53: 14. — Oehlke, 1967. In Ferriere and Vecht, Hym.
Cat., pt. 2, p. 32. — Aubert, 1969. Ichn. Ouest-Pal. et Leurs Hotes, pt. 1, p. 94-95.

Biology: Jackson, 1937. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, Proc. 12: 81-91. — Sylvestri, 1941. Lab. Ent.
Agr. [Portici], Bol. 5: 27-31. — BronskUl, 1959. Canad. Jour. Zool. 37: 655-688. —Arthur and
Wylie, 1959. Entomophaga 4: 297-301. —Harris, 1960. Canad. Jour. Zool. 38: 766.

Coccygomimus varians Townes
Colo., N. Mex., Ariz., B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif. Host: Laspeyresia pomonella
(L.).
Coccygomimus varians Townes, 1960. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2): 333. 9 . The male of the species was not identified with certainty.

Tribe THERONIINI

Townes (1969) included the genera Peritkotcs, Delomerista, and Pseudorhyssa in this tribe.
Because the placement of these genera in the Theroniini was only provisional and because the
name Delomeristini (Hellen, 1915) has priority over the name Theroniini (Cushman and Rohwer,
1920), the aforementioned genera are here placed in the Delomeristini. The genera of Theroniini
occurring in North America are Theronia and Neotheronia, the latter being treated by Townes
(1969) as a subgenus of Theronia. Because the division between Neotheronia and Theronia is
not at all arbitrary, they are here treated as separate genera. The species of Neotheronia and
Theronia are usually primary or secondary parasites of the pupae of Lepidoptera.

Genus THERONIA Holmgren

Revision: Gupta, 1962. Pacific Ins. Monogr. 4: 1-142 (Indo- Australian spp.).
Genus THERONIA Subgenus THERONIA Holmgren

Theronia Holmgren, 1859. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad., Ofvers af ... Forhandl. 16: 123.
Type-species: Pimpla flavicans (Fabricius). Monotypic. The type species is
regarded as a synonym of Theronia atalantae (Poda).
Pseudacoenites Kriechbaumer, 1892. Ent. Nachr. 18: 219.

Type-species: Pseudacoenites moravicus Kriechbaumer. Monotypic. The
type-species is regarded as a synonym of T. hilaris laevigata (Tschek).




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atalantae fulvescens (Cresson). N. B. s. to Va., w. to B. C. and Calif. Ecology: Adult females
of this subspecies are known to hibernate, but it is not known that the subspecies
overwinters exclusively in this way. Host: Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), Ennomos
snbsignarius (Hbn.), Lambdina somniaria (Hulst), Nepytia phantasmaria (Stkr.), Oreta
rosea (Wlk.), Malacosoma americanum (F.), M. califominim fragile (Stretch), M.
disstria Hbn., Dasychira plagiata (Wlk.), Lymantria dispar (L.), Orgyia leucostigma (J.
E. S.), 0. pseudotsugata McD., Nygmia phaeorrhea (Don.), Leucoma salicis (L.),
Hyalophora cecropia (L.), Nymphalis califomica (Bdv.), Neophasia menapia (F. and
F.), Enicospihis americanus (Christ), Gambnis extrematis (Cr.), Hyposoter fugitivus
(Say), Itoplectis conquisitor (Say). T. atalantae atalantae (Poda) occurs in Europe.

Pimpla fulvescens Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 268. ♂.

Theronia nifescens (!) Taylor, 1884. Canad. Ent. 16: 92.

Theronia fulvescens var. mellipennis Viereck, 1903. In Skinner, Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 88. ♀.

Theronia atalantae var. americana Krieger, 1906. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 6: 240. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Weed and Fiske, 1900. U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent. Bui. 26: 33. — Fiske and
Thompson, 1909. Jour. Econ. Ent. 2: 455-457. —Howard and Fiske, 1911. U. S. Dept. Agr.,
Bur. Ent., Bui. 91: 137, 141, 142, 144, 147-149, 236-237, 304. — Aldrich, 1912. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 5: 87-88. — Evenden, 1924. Timberman 25 (May): 54. — Townes, 1940. Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 33: 286, 293. —Cole, 1956. U. S. Dept. Agr., Forest Serv., Intermountain Forest and
Range Expt. Sta. Res. Note 29: 1. —Campbell, 1963. Canad. Ent. 95: 337.

Morphology: Peck, 1937. Canad. Jour Res., Sect. D (Zool. Sci.) 15: 245, 246, 248, 251, 252.

Theronia hilaris
***authority mismatch
hilaris (Say). Southern Que. s. to N. C, w. to Minn, and Kans. Host: Halisidota caryae
(Harris), H. maculata (Harris), Heterocampa guttivitta (Wlk.), Symmerista canicosta
(Hbn.), Epargyreus clams (Cramer). T. (T.) hilaris laevigata (Tschek) is European and
T. (T.) hilaris nigra Uchida occurs in northern Asia.
Ichneumon hilaris Say, 1829. Contrib. Maclurian Lyceum to Arts and Sci. 1: 71. ♂.
Pimpla melanocephala Brulle, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 99. ♀.

Taxonomy: Gupta, 1965. Twelfth Internatl. Cong. Ent., Proc, p. 834.

Morphology: Peck, 1937. Canad. Jour. Res., Sect. D (Zool. Sci.) 15: 245, 246, 248, 251, 252.
—Pratt, 1939. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 32: 731, 737.

Genus NEOTHERONIA Krieger

Neotheronia Krieger, 1899. Naturf. Gesell. Leipzig, Sitzber. 14-15: 119.

Type-species: Theronia toltecta Cresson. Orig. desig. T. toltecta is regarded as a
subspecies of Neotheronia nigrolineata (Brulle).
Epimecoideus Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 52.

Type-species: Epimecoideus apicalis Ashmead. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Acrocremnus Brethes, 1926. Nunquam Otiosus-V (Buenos Aires), p. 7.
Type-species: Acrocremnus apicipennis Brethes. Monotypic.
bicincta floridana (Townes). Southern Ga., Fla. Host: Tromatobia nifopectus (Cr.).

Neotheronia bicincta bicincta (Cresson) occurs in Cuba, and a third subspecies, A^. b.
nubecularia (Dewitz), occurs in Puerto Rico.
Theronia bicincta floridana Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 2): 362. ♂, ♀.

Neotheronia septemtrionalis Krieger
Md. s. to Fla., w. to Mo., e. Okla., and La.

Neotheronia septemtrionalis Krieger, 1905. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 5: 305. ♂.
Neotheronia winnemannae Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 44: 567. ♀.

Tribe DELOMERISTINI

The genera in this tribe may be related to those in the Theroniini, but the evidence is not con-
clusive. Neither is there conclusive evidence that the genera here placed in the Delomeristini are
related to each other.




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Genus PERITHOUS Holmgren

The species of Perithous are parasites or hyperparasites of Sphecidae which nest in canes or
twigs.

Genus PERITHOUS Subgenus PERITHOUS Holmgren

Perithous Holmgren, 1859. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad., Ofvers af ... Forhandl. 16: 123.
Type-species: Ephialtes albicinctus Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.

Perithous divinator (Rossi)
Que. s. to Conn, and Pa., w. to Wis.; Europe. Adventive. Host: Pemphredon
lethifer (Shuck.), P. iugubris (F.), Passaloems gracilis (Curt), Psenulus pallipes (Pzr.),
Trypoxylon figulum (L.), Omalus auratus (L.). Except for Pemphredon lethifer, which
is recorded as a host in both North America and Europe, these hosts are recorded only
in Europe. P. (P.) divinator appears to have entered the northeastern U. S. A. before
1931.

Ichneumon divinator Rossi, 1790. Fauna Etrusca, v. 2, p. 48. ♀.

Pimpla ephippiatoria Dufour and Perris, 1840. Soc. Ent. France, Ann. 9: 47. ♂, ♀.

Pimpla marginellatoria Dufour and Perris, 1840. Soc. Ent. France, Ann. 9: 48. ♂, ♀.
Synonymy uncertain.

Itoplectis rubi Habermehl, 1917. Ztschr. f. Wiss. Insektenbiol. 13: 117. ♂, ♀.

Perithous pimplarius Haupt, 1938. Maerk. Tierwelt 3: 209. ♀.

Biology: Horstmann, 1964. Fauna Mitt. Norddeutschl. 2: 193-197. —Thomas, 1964. Mich.
Acad. Sci., Arts, and Letters; Papers 49: 199-201. —Horstmann, 1967. Zool. Anz. 178: 95-102.
mediator neomexicanus (Viereck). Western Alta. s. to N. Mex., w. to B. C. and Calif. Host:
Pemphredon confertim (Fox). P. (P.) mediator mediator (Fabricius) is European.
Pimpla neomexicana Viereck, 1903. In Skinner, Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 88. ♀.

Biology: Parker and Bohart, 1966. Pan-Pacific Ent. 42: 94.
mediator pleuralis (Cresson). Que. s. to S. C, w. to Sask., Kans., and La. Host: Pemphredon
concolor Say, P. inomatus Say, P. harbecki Roh.?
Pimpla pleuralis Cresson, 1868. Canad. Ent. 1: 36. ♀.

Biology: Champlain, 1922. Psyche 29: 97. — Rheinhard, 1929. Nature Mag. 13: 155-157.
— Krombein, 1960. Ent. News 71: 31.

Genus PERITHOUS Subgenus HYBOMISCHOS Baltazar

Peritho^is subg. Hybomischos Baltazar, 1961. Natl. Inst. Sci. Tech., Manila, Monog. 7: 49.
Type-species: Perithous (Hybomischos) galbus Baltazar. Grig, desig.

Perithous septemcinctorius (Thunberg)
Mich.; Europe. Adventive. Host: Pemphredon spp., Psen

(Mimumesa) dahlbomi (Wesm.), Psenulus fuscipennis (Dahl.). These hosts are recorded

in Europe. One female was recently found in a spider web in Ann Arbor, Mich, by

Torgerson (1972).
Ichneumon septemcinctorius Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg,

Mem. 8: 280; 9: 363. ♀.
Ephialtes varius Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 254. ♂, ♀.
Perithous bncrniesceyts Koornneef, 1951. Ent. Ber. 13: 249. 9. Synonymy uncertain.
Perithous exigiius Haupt, 1954. Deut. Ent. Ztschr. 1: 108. ♀.
Perithous septemcinctorius meridionator Aubert, 1963. Vie et Milieu 14: 849. d, 9. Syn.?

Taxonomy: Torgerson, 1972. Great Lakes Ent. 5: 99.

Genus DELOMERISTA Foerster

Delomerista Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 164.

Type-species: Pimpla mandibulars Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and desig.
by Schmiedeknecht, 1888.

Delomerista spp. have most often been reared from cocoons of sawflies, but they may also
parasitize Lepidoptera.




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Revision: Walkley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 362-367.

Morphology: Morris, Cameron, and Jepson, 1937. Bui. Ent. Res. 28: 360-361. (larvae).

Delomerista borealis Walkley
Que., Cole, N. W. T., Yukon, Alaska.

Delomerista borealis Walkley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 370. ♀.

Delomerista gelida Walkley
Que. s. to Pa., w. to Alaska and Calif.

Delomerista gelida Walkley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
366. ♀.
japonica diprionis Cushman. N. S. s. to N. C, w. to Alaska and Calif. Host: Diprion similis
(Htg.), Gilpinia frutetorum (F.), G. hercyniae (Htg.), Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch), N.
nanulus nanulus Schedl, N. pratti banksianae Roh., A^. sertifer (Geoff.), N. tsngae Midd.
The subspecies japonica Cushman occurs in Japan.
Delomerista diprionis Cushman, 1939. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 29: 398. cJ , 9 .

Biology: Fumiss and Dowden, 1941. Jour. Econ. Ent. 34: 49-51. —Griffiths, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 656.

Morphology: Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 25-26 (larva).

Delomerista laevis (Gravenhorst)
Que., Maine, N. H., N. W. T., Tex.?, Alaska; Europe. Aubert (1969, 1972)

stated that D. laevifrous (Thomson) is a species distinct from laevis, but gave no

indication that he had ever studied the holotype of laevis.
Pimpla laevis Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 180. ♀.
Pimpla texana Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 145. 9. The holotype is recorded

from Texas, probably in error.
Pimpla laevifrous Thomson, 1877. Opusc. Ent. 8: 750. ♂, ♀.
Pimpla laevifrons (!) Schmiedeknecht, 1888. Zool. Jahrb., Abt. f. System., Geog., u. Biol.

Tiere 3: 534.
Pimpla levifrons Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 438. Emend.
Pimpla levis Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym. v. 3, p. 439. Emend.

Taxonomy: Oehlke, 1966 (1965). Beitr. z. Ent. 15: 816. —Aubert, 1969. Ich. Ouest-Pal. et
Leurs Hotes, pt. 1, p. 98-99. —Aubert, 1972. Ent. Scand. 3: 10.

Delomerista lepteces Walkley
Que., Colo., Alaska.

Delomerista lepteces Walkley, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 368. ♀.

Delomerista novita (Cresson)
Que. s. to Va., w. to B. C. and Calif. Host: Macremphytns sp., Diprion similis
(Htg.), Acrobasis nibrifasciella Pack., Exartema olivaceanum Riley, Eublemma
minima (Gn.), Mononychus vulpeculus {¥.). Hosts other than sawflies need verification.
Pimpla novita Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 146. ♀.

Morphology: Finlayson, 1967. Canad. Ent. 99: 1247 (larva).

Delomerista pfankuchi Brauns
U. S. (unknown locality); Europe. The origin of the specimen bearing
Hopkins W. Va. No. 5928 is unknown.
Delomerista Pfankuchi Brauns, 1905. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 5: 131. ♀.

Genus PSEUDORHYSSA Merrill

Pseudorhyssa Merrill, 1915. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 41: 150.

Type-species: Pseudorhyssa stemata Merrill. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Revision: Kerrich, 1966. Entomologist 99: 44-46 (European spp.).

Pseudorhyssa maculicoxis (Kriechbaumer)
Que. s. to N. C, w. to Alta. and Calif.; Europe. Ecology: In North
America the species has been associated with Rhyssa howdenorum Townes and Rkyssa
persuasoria (L.) and is presumably cleptoparasitic on them. Kerrich (1966) has shown
that Townes (1960) misidentified the holotype o{ Rhyssa approximator var. mficoxis
Kriechbaumer, and Kerrich palaced mficoxis as a synonym of alpestris (Holmgren), a
species which does not occur in North America.
Rhyssa approximator var. mactilicoxis Kriechbaumer, 1889. Ent. Nachr. 15: 318. ♀.
Kerrich (1966) incorrectly considered the name maculicoxis invalid because it was
originally proposed as a varietal name that was "used in an aberrational sense."




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Pseudorhyssa stemata Merrill, 1915. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 41: 150. ♀.
Rhyssa praealpina Gyorfi, 1946. Fragm. Faunist. Hung. 9: 33. ♀.

Biology: Coutrier, 1949. Soc. Ent. de France, Bui. 54: 62-63. — Spradbury, 1969. Bui. Ent.
Res. 59: 291-297.

Morphology: Spradbury, 1970. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, Proc, Ser. A: Biol. 45: 21-23, 24-25. 26,
27.

Tribe DIACRITINI

This is a very small tribe erected by Townes, Momoi, and Townes (1965) to include only
Diacritus, a Holarctic genus including three species. A second monotypic Japanese genus was
added by Townes (1969).

Genus DIACRITUS Foerster

Diacritus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 191.

Type-species: Mesoleptus m^iliebris Cresson. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Davis, 1895.
Phidias Snellen van Vollenhoven, 1898. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 21: 164. Preocc. by Rafinesque,
1815.

Type-species: Phidias aciculatus Snellen van Vollenhoven. Monotypic.
Stenolabis Kriechbaumer, 1894. Ent. Nachr. 20: 58.

Type-species: Stenolabis cingulata Kriechbaumer. Monotypic. The type-species is
regarded as a synonym of D. aciculatus (Snellen van Vollenhoven).

Taxonomy: Townes, 1957. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 59: 16 (Townes here removed the genus
from the Neoxoridini [=Poemeniini Townes] and placed it provisionally in the Oxytorinae
[=Plectiscinae auct.], and the genus was also excluded from the Pimplinae in the Revision
by Townes and Townes [I960]).

Diacritus muliebris (Cresson)
Que. s. to Va. and apparently w. to northwestern U. S.
Mesoleptus^ muliebris Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 102. ♂.
Mesoleptus variabilis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (4): 115. 3. Barron (1975) rejected

the "lectotype" selected by Gahan and Rohwer (1918) and gave data for the specimen he

regarded as the holotype.
Mesostenus rufipes Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (8): 249; 7 (9): 263. ♀.
Echthrus pediculatus Provancher, 1880. Nat. Canad. 12: 99. ♀.
Mesostenus pluricinctus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 76. ♀.
Plectiscidea {Aperileptus^) contentionis Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat.

Hist. Survey Bui. 22: 276. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1917. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 19: 162-165. —Gahan and Rohwer, 1918.
Canad. Ent. 50: 101. —Momoi, 1966. Kontyu 34: 3. —Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 528,
534, 552, 580.

Tribe NEOXORIDINI

The name Neoxoridini Clement (1938) has priority over the names Eugaltini Townes (1949) or
Poemeniini Townes (1951).

Revision: Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 444-451 (as part of Xoridini). —Clement,
1938. Festschr. Embrik Strand, v. 4, p. 515-522 (western Palearctic spp.). — Oehlke, 1966
(1965). Beitr. z. Ent. 15: 881-892 (western Palearctic spp.).

Taxonomy: Townes, 1957. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 59: 15-20 (genera of world).

Genus POEMENIA Holmgren

Ophiodes Hartig, 1847. Naturw. Ver. Harz, Ber. 1846-1847, p. 18. Preocc. by Wagler, 1830;
Guenee, 1841.

Type-species: Ophiodes montanus Hartig. Monotypic. The type-species is regarded
as a synonym of P. hectica (Gravenhorst).




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Poemenia Holmgren, 1859. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad., Ofvers af ... Forhandl. 16: 130.

Type-species: Poemenia notata Holmgren. Monotypic.
Calliclisis Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 169.

Type-species: Ephialtes hecticus Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from three
species included by Schmiedeknecht, 1888.
Phthinodes Tschek, 1868. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien, Verb. 18: 272.
Type-species: Ephialtes hecticus Gravenhorst. Monotypic.
Euxorides Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 167.

Type-species: Euxorides americanus Cresson. Monotypic.
Ophiogastra Ashmead, 1900. Canad. Ent. 32: 368. N. name for Ophiodes Hartig.
Lisso7iotopsis Habermehl, 1917. Ztschr. f. Wiss. Insektenbiol. 13: 234, 306.
Type-species: Lissonotopsis rnfa Habermehl. Monotypic.
Members of this genus may all be parasites of aculeate Hymenoptera which nest in wood,
abandoned plant galls, and similar situations.

Revision: Habeck and Townes, 1960. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 376-387.

Poemenia albipes (Cresson)
N. S. s. to S. C. and La., w. to B. C. and Calif.

Ephialtes albipes Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 143. ♀.

Morphology: Pratt, 1939. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 32: 735.

Poemenia americana
***authority mismatch
americana (Cresson). N. S. s. to Fla., w. to Great Lakes. Host: Passaloecus
cuspidatus Sm.
Eiixorides americanus Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 167. ♀.

Poemenia americana
***authority mismatch
nebulosa Habeck and Townes. Ont., Cole, Ariz., B. C. s. to Calif. Ecology: This
subspecies has been associated with Passaloecus relativus Fox, Osmia sp., Paratimia
conicola Fisher, and Laspeyresia piperana (Bsk.) in rearings from cones of Pinus spp.
Poemenia americana nebulosa Habeck and Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S.
Natl. Mus., Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 383. ♂, ♀.

Poemenia pacifica Habeck and Townes
Wash. s. to Calif. Ecology: This species has been reared from
galls of Disholcaspis truckeensis (Ash.) and also from the galls of another cynipid from
which a "chrysid-Uke bee" also emerged. This species is closely related to Poemenia
notata Holmgren.
Poemenia pacifica Habeck and Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 385. ♂, ♀.

Poemenia thoracica (Cresson)
Sask. s. to Colo., w. to B. C. and Calif. Host: Osmia lingnaria propinqua

Cr.
Ephialtes thoracicus Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc 30: 377. ♀.
Euxorides Vancouveriensis Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p.

369. ♀.
Ephialtes vancouverensis Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 249. ♀.

Genus PODOSCHISTUS Townes

Podoschistus Townes, 1960. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 59: 18.
Type-species: Xorides vittifrons Cresson. Orig. desig.

Podoschistus vittifrons (Cresson)
Maine s. to Ga., w. to Oreg. and Tex. Ecology: One specimen of this
species was reared from Tetropinm velutinum in Larix occidentalis, but otherwise

Podoschistus vittifrons
***authority mismatch
has been associated with or reared from borers in hardwoods. Host:
Tetropium velutinum LeC, Graphisurus fasciatus (DeG.).

Xorides vittifrons Cresson, 1868. Canad. Ent. 1: 37. ♀.

Podoschistus vittifrons schlingeri Townes, 1960. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 388. 9 . N. syn.. The description of this synonym was based upon a single
female from Utah which shows a minor difference in the coloration of the hind tibia,
that difference not being found in the single male known to me from Oregon.

Morphology: Pratt, 1939. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 32: 735.




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Genus NEOXORIDES Clement

Neoxorides Clement, 1938. Festschr. Embrik Strand, v. 4, p. 517.
Type-species; Xorides nitens Gravenhorst. Orig. desig.
Members of this genus are parasites of wood-boring Coleoptera, and are often collected on
trunks of dead trees.

Neoxorides borealis (Cresson)
Southern Man. s. to Colo, and Ariz., w. to s. B. C. and Calif. Host:

Melanophila dnimmondi (kby.), Tetropium velutinum LeC, Hylotrupes bajulus (L.).
The holotype of this species is recorded from "Hudson Bay Territory". N. borealis is
closely related to the European N. collaris (Gravenhorst), and may prove only to be a
subspecies of it.
Xorides borealis Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 167. ♀.
Xorides occidentalis Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 380. ♀.

Neoxorides caryae (Harrington)
Que. s. to N. C, w. to Mich. Host: Saperda discoidea F.
Xorides caryae Harrington, 1891. Canad. Ent. 23: 132.
Biology: Harrington, 1891. Canad. Ent. 23: 132. — Blackman and Stage, 1924. N. Y. State Col.
Forestry, Syracuse Univ., Tech. Pub. 17: 182.

Neoxorides pilulus Townes
N. B. s. to N. C, w. to n. N. W. T., Yukon, Oreg., and Colo. Ecology: This
species appears to be a parasite of wood borers in both hardwoods and conifers. It is
anomalous in being the widest ranging, yet least collected, of the Nearctic spp. of
Neoxorides.
Neoxorides pilulus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2):
390. ♂, ♀.

Tribe RHYSSINI

The North American members of this tribe are all parasites of Siricoidea.

Revision: Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. MUS., Proc. 57: 418-428.

Genus RHYSSA Gravenhorst

Rhyssa Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 260.

Type-species: Ichneximon persuasorius Linnaeus. Desig. by Westwood, 1840.
Cryptocentrum Kirby, 1837. In Richardson, Swainson, and Kirby, Fauna Bor. Amer., v. 4,
p. 260.

Type-species: Cryptocentrum lineolatum Kirby. Monotypic.
Pararhyssa Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 109.

Type-species: Rhyssa persuasoria (Linnaeus). Desig. by Viereck, 1914.

Rhyssa alaskensis Ashmead
Alta. s. to N. Mex., w. to s. Alaska and Calif.

Rhyssa alaskensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 199. ♀.
Rhyssa skinneri Viereck, 1903. In Skinner, Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 87. ♀.

Rhyssa crevieri (Provancher)
N. S. s. to N. C, w. to Minn. Host: Urocerus albicomis (F.). It remains
to be proven that crevieri is distinct from lineolata (Kirby).
Epirhyssa Crevieri Provancher, 1880. Nat. Canad. 12: 17. ♂.

Rhyssa hoferi Rohwer
Colo., N. Mex., Ariz. Ecology: It appears that this species occurs in the lower
reaches of forests of Pinus ponderosa and in the pinyon-juniper forest type. Males
which are predominantly black with yellow markings (as opposed to red with yellow
markings) have been collected since the species was treated in the revision of Townes
and Townes (1960). Presumably, females with predominantly black ground color will also
be found.
Rhyssa hoferi Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 421. ♀.

Rhyssa howdenorum Townes
Md., Va., N. C, Ga., ala., Nebr. Ecology: This species parasitizes siricids
boring in Pinus spp.
Rhyssa howdenorum Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 398. ♂, ♀.

Rhyssa lineolata
***authority mismatch
(Kirby). N. S. s. to Ga., w. to B. C. and Oreg.; New Zealand, Australia. Host:

Urocerus albicomis (F.), U. gigas flavicomis (¥.), Sirex cyaneus F., S. edwardsii BruUe,




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S. noctilio F., Xeris sp. This species is adventive in New Zealand, there parasitizing

Sirex noctilio, which is adventive from Europe. Subsequently, R. lineolata was

introduced in Australia for control of S. noctilio.
Cryptocentnim lineolatum Kirby, 1837. In Richardson, Swainson, and Kirby, Fauna Bor.

Amer., v. 4, p. 260. ♂.
Rhyssa albomaculata Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 318. ♀.

Taxonomy: Morley, 1909. Entomologist 42: 133. — Morley, 1910. Entomologist 43: 243.
— Zondag and Nuttall, 1961. New Zeal. Ent. 2 (6): 40-44 (identity and origin of New
Zealand population).

Biology: Gardiner, 1966. Canad. Ent. 98: 95-97 (oviposition).

Morphology: Pratt, 1939. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 32: 733.

Rhyssa persuasoria
***authority mismatch
persuasoria (Linnaeus). Newfoundland (insular) s. to Ga., w. to B. C. and Calif.;
Eurasia; New Zealand, Australia. Host: Sirex areolatus (Cr.), S. noctilio F., Xeris sp.,
Syntexis libocedHi Rohwer. Sirex noctilio was the target species for the successful
introductions of R. p. persuasoria into New Zealand and Australia from Europe, but the
other host records are North American. Two Himalayan subspecies of R. persuasoria
are recognized by Kamath and Gupta (1971).

Ichnetimon persuasorius Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10, v. 1, p. 562. ♀.

Ichneumon camelus Scopoli, 1763. Ent. Cam., p. 282. sex ?

Rhyssa marginalis Brulle, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 79. ♀.

Rhyssa lineolata Kriechbaumer, 1887. Ent. Nachr. 13: 81. 9. Uncertain syn. which is
preocc. by Kirby, 1837.

Taxonomy: Kamath and Gupta, 1971. Oriental Ins. Monog. 2: 14 (key to subspecies).
— Spradbury and Radkowsky, 1974. Bui. Ent. Res. 64: 653-668 (geog. variation).

Biology: Franke, 1959. Photographie u. Forsch. 8: 1-9 (oviposition). — Ozols, 1962. Latvijas
Ent. 5: 29-40. —Klein, 1965. Ztschr. f. Angew. Ent. 56: 224. —Morgan and Stewart, 1966.
Roy. Soc. New Zeal. (Zool.), Trans. 8: 31-38 (habits and life history). —Hocking, 1968.
Australian Ent. Soc, Jour. 7: 1-5. —Spradbury, 1970. Animal Behavior 18: 103-114 (host
finding).

Rhyssa ponderosae Townes
Calif. Host: Sirex areolatus (Cr.).

Rhyssa ponderosae Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 401. ♂, ♀.

Genus RHYSSELLA Rohwer

Rhyssella Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 422.
Type-species: Rhyssa nitida Cresson. Orig. desig.

Members of this genus parasitize Siricoidea which bore in hardwood trees or bushes and may
be host specific to Xiphidriidae.

Rhyssella humida (Say)
Maine s. to Ga., w. to Minn, and Miss. Host: Xiphidria abdominalis Say, X.
tibialis Say.
Pimpla huyyiida Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 224. ♀.

Rhyssella nitida (Cresson)
Maine s. to Ga., w. to B. C. Host: Xiphidria canadensis Prov., X. maculata
Say.
Rhyssa nitida Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. PhDa., Proc. 3: 319. ♂.
Rhyssa canadensis Cresson, 1868. Canad. Ent. 1: 35. ♀.
Epirhyssa clavata Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 115.

Biology: Kaston, 1937. Conn. (State) Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 396: 359.

Morphology: Pratt, 1939. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 32: 733.

Genus MEGARHYSSA Ashmead

Thalessa Holmgren, 1859. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad., Ofvers af ... Forhandl. 16: 122. Preocc.
by Adams, 1853.




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Type-species: Ichneumon clavator Fabricius. Desig. by Ashmead, 1900. The
type-species is regarded as a synonym of M. gigas (Laxmann).
Megarhyssa Ashmead, 1900. Canad. Ent. 32: 368. N. name for Thalessa Holmgren.
Megalorkyssa Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 115. Emend.

Eurhyssa Derksen, 1941. Ztschr. f. Morph. U. Oekol. der Tiere 37: 721. Name invalid;
type-species not designated except subsequently by Townes and Townes, 1951 as
Ichneumon superbtis Schrank.

In eastern North America the three species of Megarhyssa which are common in hardwood
forests—a ira fa (Linnaeus), macrurus (Linnaeus), and greenei (Viereck)— all show rather marked,
more or less clinal, geographic variation in the coloration of the wings, particularly in the
females. Specimens from the northern range extremities often have wings which are nearly
clear, while the wings of those from the southern range extremities are most deeply or most
uniformly infuscate. In macnincs and greenei subspecific distinctions have been made near the
southern extremities of the ranges, and in the case of atrata a subspecific distinction has been
made near the northern extremity of the range. I do not believe it is meaningful to treat these
particular peripheral variants as subspecies.

Revision: Michener, 1939. Pan-Pacific Ent. 15: 126-131.

Biology: Heatwole, Davis, and Wenner, 1962. Ztschr. f. Tierpsychol. 19: 652-664. — Heatwole,
Davis, and Wenner, 1964. Amer. Midland Nat. 71: 374-381. —Cameron, 1965.
Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Control, Tech. Bui. 5: 22.

Megarhyssa atrata (Fabricius)
N. S. s. to Ga., w. to Wyo. and Tex. Host: Tremex columba (L.).
Ichneuvion atratus Fabricius, 1781. Species Insectorum, v. 1, p. 436. ♀.
Ichnetimon tenebrator Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8:

266; 9: 322. Unnecessarily proposed n. name for atratus Fabricius.
Rhyssa laevigata BruUe, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 78. ♂.
Megarhyssa atrata lineata Porter, 1957. Ent. News 68: 206. ♀. N. syn.

Biology: Harris, 1842. Rpt. Ins. Mass. Injurious to Veg., p. 391. —Walsh, 1867. Pract. Ent. 2:
118. -Walsh and Riley, 1868. Amer. Ent. 1: 77. —Harrington, 1882. Canad. Ent. 14: 82.
— Lintner, 1883. Cultivator and Country Gentleman 48: 561. —Harrington, 1883. Ent. Soc.
Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 13: 23-24. —Harrington, 1887. Canad. Ent. 19: 206-209. —Harrington,
1888. Ent. Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 18: 25. —Lintner, 1897. Cultivator and Country
Gentleman 62: 506. — Fyles, 1916. Ent. Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 46: 54, 57. — Macnamara,
1916. Ent. Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 46: 59. — Champlain, 1921. Ent. News 32: 241.
— Blackman and Stage, 1924. N. Y. State Col. Forestry, Syracuse Univ., Tech. Pub. 17: 178.
— Klugh, 1932. Amer. Photog. 26: 158. — Kaston, 1937. Conn. (State) Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui.
396: 359. —Proctor, 1938. Biol. Survey Mt. Desert Region, v. 6, p. 406. — Fattig, 1949. Ent.
News 40: 69-71.

Morphology: Snodgrass, 1933. Smithsn. Inst. Misc. Collect. 89 (8): 112-114.

Megarhyssa greenei Viereck
N. S. s. to Fla., w. to Minn., e. Kans., and Miss. Host: Tremex columba (L.).
Megarhyssa greenei Viereck, 1910. In Smith, N. J. State Mus., Ann. Rpt. for 1909, p. 627.

Nomen nudum.
Megarhyssa greenei Viereck, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 191. cJ, 9.
Megarhyssa greenei floridana Townes, 1960. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 424. 9. N.
syn.

Biology: Proctor, 1938. Biol. Survey Mt. Desert Region, v. 6, p. 406. —Townes, 1939.
Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 34: 29. -Fattig, 1949. Ent. News 40: 70-71.

Morphology: Pratt, 1939. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 32: 737.

Megarhyssa macrurus
***authority mismatch
icterosticta Michener. Colo., N. Mex., Utah, Ariz. Presumably, m. icterosticta

intergrades with the nominate subspecies in the Rocky Mountains, but intermediate
specimens are apparently unknown.
Megarhyssa lunator icterosticta Michener, 1939. Pan-Pacific Ent. 15: 130. ♂, ♀.

Megarhyssa macrurus
***authority mismatch
macrurus (Linnaeus). Maine s. to Fla., w. to w. S. Dak. and w. Tex.; n. Mexico. Host:
Tremex columba (L.).
Ichneumon macrurus Linnaeus, 1771. Mantissa Plantarum, v. 2, p. 540. ♀.
Ichneumon lunator Fabricius, 1781. Species Insectorum, v. 1, p. 430. ♀.




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Ichneumon Georgicus Megerle, 1802. Appendix ad Cat. Ins., Quae Mense Novembris 1802

Vienne Austriae Auctionis Lege Vendita Fuere, p. 16. ♀.
Thalessa/ histrio Kriechbaumer, 1890. Wien, Mus. der Naturgesch., Ann. 5: 487. ♂. Preocc.

in Megarhyssa by Ichneumon histrio Christ, 1791.
Megalorhyssa lunatrix Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 115. Emend.
Megarhyssa lunator phaeoptila Michener, 1939. Pan-Pacific Ent. 15: 129. ♀.

Biology: Harris, 1842. Rpt. Ins. Mass. Injurious to Veg., p. 391. —Emmons, 1854. Nat. Hist.
N. Y. (pt. 5) V. 5, p. 194. — D'Urban, 1865. Ent. Monthly Mag. 2: 71. —Riley, 1870. Amer.
Ent. 2: 96, 128. —Fletcher, 1881. Ent. Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 11: 67. —Harrington, 1882.
Canad. Ent. 14: 82. —Harrington, 1883. Ent. Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 13: 23-24. — Gade,
1884. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 7: 103. — Lintner, 1884. Cultivator and Country Gentleman
49: 331. —Riley, 1885. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 7: 123. —Smith, 1885. Brooklyn Ent. Soc,
Bui. 7: 124. —Riley, 1886. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc 1: 15. —Harrington, 1887. Canad. Ent. 19:
206-209. —Lintner, 1888. N. Y. State Mus. Nat. Hist., Rpt. 41: 35-42. —Harrington, 1888.
Ent. Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 18: 25-27. —Riley, 1888. U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 1:
168-179. —Lintner, 1889. N. Y. State Ent., Rpt. 4: 35-36. -Lintner, 1893. N. Y. State Mus.
Nat. Hist., Rpt. 45: 163-166. —Lintner, 1897. Cultivator and Country Gentleman 62: 506.
— Ashmead, 1900. N. J. State Bd. Agr., Ann. Rpt. 27 (sup.): 572. — Fyles, 1911. Ent. Soc.
Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 41: 80. —Douglas, 1912. State Ent. Ind., Ann. Rpt. 4: 105. —Baldwin,
1914. State Ent. Ind., Ann. Rpt. 6: 51. —Fyles, 1916. Ent. Soc Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 46: 54,
57. —Fyles, 1917. Ent. Soc Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 47: 28. —Barlow, 1921. Ent. News, 32: 291.
— Cushman, 1926. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 28: 32. — McDaniel, 1933. Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta.,
Spec Bui. 238: 37. -Woodbury, 1933. Ecol. Monog. 3: 191. -Abbott, 1934. N. Y. Ent. Soc,
Jour. 42: 127-133. -Abbott, 1934. Psyche 41: 238-240. -Abbott, 1937. Ent. News 47:
263-264. — Kaston, 1937. Conn. (State) Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 396: 359. — Kelley, 1939.
Nature Mag. 32: 379-380. — Townes, 1939. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 34: 29. — Fattig, 1949.
Ent. News 40: 69-71.

Morphology: Abbott, 1934. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 42: 127-133. —Abbott, 1934. Brooklyn Ent.
Soc, Bui. 29: 39-41. -Abbott, 1935. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 30: 10-13. —Peck, 1937.
Canad. Jour. Res., Sect. D (Zool. Sci.) 15: 237-240, 246, 247, 251.

Biology: Pratt, 1939. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 32: 733.

Morphology: Snodgrass, 1941. Smithsn. Inst., Misc. Collect. 99 (14): 33-34.

Megarhyssa nortoni (Cresson)
Newfoundland (Labrador) s. to n. Ga., w. to Alaska and Calif.; New

Zealand, Australia. Ecology: Occurs in coniferous forests. Host: Urocenis albicomis (F.),
Xeris niorrisoni (Cr.), Sirex sp., S. noctilio F. These host records are North American,
except in the case of Sirex noctilio, which was the target species for the successful
introductions into New Zealand and Australia. It seems very likely that nortoni will, at
best, prove to be only subspecifically distinct from the Eurasian M. gigas (Laxmann).

Rhyssa nortoni Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 317. ♀.

Thalessa Quebecensis Provancher, 1873. Nat. (ilanad. 5: 447. tJ, 9. Barron (1975) selected a
lectotype.

Megarhyssa nortonii Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 481. Emend.

Taxonomy: Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 542-543.

Biology: Essig, 1926. Ins. of West. N. Amer., p. 795-796. —Proctor, 1938. Biol. Survey Mt.
Desert Region, v. 1, p. 406. -Madden, 1968. Nature [London] 218: 189-190. — Nuttal, 1973.
New Zeal. Ent. 5 (2): 112-117 (mating behavior).

Genus EPIRHYSSA Cresson

Epirhyssa Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 39.

Type-species: Epirhyssa speciosa Cresson. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Rhyssonota Kriechbaumer, 1890. Wien. Mus. der Naturgesch., Ann. 5 (3): 489.

Type-species: Rhyssonota tristis Kriechbaumer. Monotypic. Except for the single
species occurring in the southwestern U. S., this genus is Neotropic




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Epirhyssa dietrichi Townes
Ariz.

Epirhyssa dietrichi Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 414.

Subfamily LABENINAE

Taxonomy: Townes, 1969. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 11: 194-207 (tribes and genera of world; as
Labiinae, =Labeninae).

Tribe LABENINI

This is a small tribe, including five genera, only one of which has Nearctic species.

Genus LABENA Cresson

Labena Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 399.

Type-species: Cryptus grallator Say. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Caryoecus Walsh, 1866. Pract. Ent. 1: 30.

Type-species: Mesochorus fuscipennis Brulle. Monotypic.
Microtritus Kriechbaumer, 1889. Ent. Nachr. 15: 307.

Type-species: Microtritus apicalis Kriechbaumer. Monotypic.
Dyseidopus Kriechbaumer, 1890. Wien. Mus. der Naturgesch., Ann. 5: 489.

Type-species: Dyseidopus sericeus Kriechbaumer. Monotypic.
Neonotus Parrot, 1955 (1954). Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Proc. 79:230.

Type-species: Neonotus chadwickii Parrot. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This is a large Australian, Neotropic, and Nearctic genus.

Revision: Townes and Townes, 1960. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 531-537.

Labena grallator (Say)
Mass. and s.e. Ont. s. to Fla., w. to Wis., Colo., and s.e. Calif.; Mexico? Ecology:
Has geen reared from insects infesting Pinus and Taxodium, but is more often reared
from borers in various angiosperms (trees, bushes, and vines). Host: Aneflomorpha sp.?
in Lycium belandieri, cerambycid in Baccharis halimifolia, Knulliana cincta (Drury),
Psyrassa unicolor (Rand.), Saperda puncticoUis Say, Stenosphenus notatus (Oliv.),
Agrilus sp., A. arcuatus (Say), Chrysobothris femorata (Oliv.), C. tranquebarica
(Gmelin), Thrincopyge alacris LeC, Lixus scrobicollis Boh., Pissodes strobi (Peck). The
geographic variation of grallator does not seem conducive to the recognition of
subspecies.

Cryptus grallator Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 236. ♀.

Mesochorus fuscipennis Brulle, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 250. ♀.

Labena apicalis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 402. ♂.

Labena grallatrix Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 116. Emend.

Labena confiisa Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 411. ♀.

Labena confusa var. minor Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 413. ♀.

Labena grallator xiitha Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2):535. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Labena grallator ochreata Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2): 535. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Labena grallator lutea Townes, 1960. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2): 536. ♂. N. syn.

Labena grallator balteata Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216(pt. 2): 536. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Labena tinctipennis Rohwer
Central Ariz., s. B. C, Calif. Host: Dicerca horni Crotch.

Labena tinctipennis Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 409. ♀.

Tribe GROTEINI

The members of this tribe are parasites of bees. Only one of the three genera is represented
by North American species.




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Genus GROTEA Cresson

Grotea Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 397.

Type-species: Grotea angidna Cresson. Monotypic.

This is a small Neotropic and Nearctic genus. The hosts are twig-nesting bees of the genus
Ceratina. More than one Ceratina larva is consumed by each Grotea larva, and the pollen loaves
in the cells of the consumed Ceratina larvae are also eaten by larvae of Grotea.

Revision: Townes and Townes, 1960. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 538-541 (Nearctic spp.).
— Slobodchikoff, 1970. Pan-Pacific Ent. 46: 50-60 (Nearctic and Neotropic spp.).

Grotea anguina Cresson
Que. w. to Wis. and w. Iowa, s. to n.w. S. C, n. Miss., and s. Tex. Host:
Ceratina calcarata Rbtsn., C. dupla Say, C. metallica H. S. S.
Grotea anguina Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 398. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Graenicher, 1905. Ent. News 16: 43-49. — Rau, 1922. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 24:
43. —Rau, 1928. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 21: 383. —Daly, Stage, and Brown, 1967. Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 60: 1275.

Grotea californica Cresson
Northern Idaho and s. B. C. s. to s. Calif. Host: Ceratina acantha Prov.,
C. dallatorreana Friese, C. gigantea H. S. S., C. nanula Ckll., C. ptinctigena Ckll.
Grotea californica Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 370. ♀.

Biology: Slobodchikoff. 1967. Pan-Pacific Ent. 43: 161-168. —Daly, Stage, and Brown, 1967.
Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 60: 1275-1277.

Grotea lokii Slobodchikoff
Colo., Ariz.; Mexico. This species was confused with anguina and

Grotea californica
***authority mismatch
in the revision of Grotea by Townes and Townes (1960).
Grotea lokii Slobodchikoff, 1970. Pan-Pacific Ent. 46: 60. ♂, ♀.

Tribe BRACHYCYRTINI

Revision: Walkley, 1956. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 106: 315-329.

Genus BRACHYCYRTUS Kriechbaumer

Brachycyrtus Kriechbaumer, 1880. Zool.-Min. Ver. Regensburg, Corresp. Bl. 34: 161.

Type-species: Brachycyrtus omatus Kriechbaumer. Monotypic.
Proterocryptiis Ashmead, 1906. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 30: 174.

Type-species: Proterocryptus nawaii Ashmead. Monotypic.
Xanthocharops Morley, 1912. Linn. Soc. London, Trans. 15: 173.

Type-species: Xanthocharops primus Morley. Monotypic.
Vakau Cheesman, 1928. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 1: 189.

Type-species: Vakau taitensis Cheesman. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Brachycyrtomorpha Blanchard, 1940. hi Kreibom de la Vega, Tucuman Estac. Expt. Agr.,

Rev. Indus, y Agr. 3: 170. Nomen nudum (figure only).
Brachycyrtomorpha Blanchard, 1942. Soc. Cient. Argentina, An. 134: 105.

Type-species: Brachycyrtomorpha crossi Blanchard. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This is a small genus of worldwide distribution. The hosts are pupae or prfepupae of
Chrysopidae.

Revision: Townes and Townes, 1960. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 542-544 (Nearctic spp.).

Brachycyrtus ornatus Kriechbaumer
Pa., Md., Ohio, Mich., Ariz., s. B. C; Mexico; Eurasia. Host: Chrysopid.
Brachycyrtus omatus Kriechbaumer, 1880. Zool.-Min. Ver. Regensburg, Corresp.-Bl. 34:

163. ♀.
Brachycyrtus chrysopae Walley, 1940. Canad. Ent. 72: 86. ♀.

Brachycyrtus pretiosus Cushman
Central and s. Fla. Host: Nodita pavida (Hagen), chrysopid pupae.
Brachycyrtus pretiosus Cushman, 1936. U. S. Nat. Mus., Proc. 84: 19. ♂, ♀.

Subfamily TRYPHONINAE

Species of this subfamily are external parasites of the larvae of sawflies or Lepidoptera. The
eggs of Tryphoninae are equipped with a holdfast which is often borne on a stalk or is derived




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from coiling of the stalk; it serves to fasten the eggs within the puncture the female makes in
the skin of the host larva. According to Mason (1967), in species which parasitize sawflies, eclo-
sion from the egg does not occur until after the host has spun its cocoon.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1969. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 11: 143-193 (genera of world).

Biology: Mason, 1967. Canad. Ent. 99: 376.

Tribe PHYTODIETINI

Members of this tribe are parasitic on larvae of Lepidoptera. The stalk of the egg is long,
slender, and loosely coiled; in newly deposited eggs the stalk is elastic, but later becomes rigid so
that its coiling serves to hold it firmly in the skin of the host.

Townes (1969) preferred to group the numerous species of this tribe into two genera, each
with a number of subgenera. His use of more subgeneric than generic names seems to make the
classification of this tribe discordant with his classification of the rest of the subfamily.

Genus PHYTODIETUS Gravenhorst

This genus is divided into four subgenera, two of which have North American species. The
North American species are currently being revised by Dr. C. C. Loan, and publication of his
revision may precede the appearance of this catalog.

Revision: Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 460-468.

Genus PHYTODIETUS Subgenus NEUCHORUS Uchida

Neuchorus Uchida, 1931. Insecta Matsumurana 5: 143.

Type-species: Neuchorus longicauda Uchida. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Doratistes Seyrig, 1932. Acad. Malgache, Mem. 11: 27. Described as a subgenus of
Phytodietus but treated nomenclaturally as a genus.

Type-species: Doratistes absyrtinus Seyrig. Orig. desig.

Taxonomy: Krebs, 1969. Canad. Ent. 101: 548-549 (key to Nearctic spp.).
rufipes pulcherrimus (Cresson). Atlantic to Cont. Divide in Transit, and U. Aust. Zones. Host:
Loxostege rantalis (Gn.), L. sticticalis (L.), Ostrinia ohliteralis (Wlk.), Phlyctaenia
coronata tertialis (Gn.). P. (N.) nifipes nifipes Holmgren is European.

Mesoleptus pulcherrimus Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 101. ♂.

Phytodietus distinctus Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 166. ♀.

Phytodietus zonatus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 79. ♀.

Mesostenus nobilis Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 363. ♀.

Mesoleius telarius Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 106. ♀.

Ctenopelma pulchra Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 198. ♂.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1969. Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 11: 147.

Biology: Balduf, 1929. Ohio Jour. Sci. 29: 233-234.

Phytodietus rutilus Krebs
Md., N. Y., Mich., Ky.

Phytodietus (Neuchorus) rutilus Krebs, 1969. Canad. Ent. 101: 549. cJ, 9.

Genus PHYTODIETUS Subgenus PHYTODIETUS Gravenhorst

Phytodietus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea 2: 928.

Type-species: Phytodietus astutus Gravenhorst. Desig. by Westwood, 1840.

Phytodiaetus Agassiz, 1846. Nomencl. Zool., Index Univ., p. 291. Emend.

Phytodietus burgessi (Cresson)
Atlantic to 100° W. in Transit, and U. Austr. Zones.

Tryphon Burgessi Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 105. ♂.

Tryphon biirgessii Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 293. Emend.

Phytodietus plesia Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 465. ♀.

Phytodietus californicus Cresson
Colo., Wash., Calif.

Phytodietus californicus Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 380. ♀.

clypearius Ashmead. Wyo., Alaska.

Phytodietus clypearius Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 195. ♂, ♀.




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Phytodietus flavifrons Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 196. ♂.

Phytodietus facialis Rohwer
N. J., La., Tex. Host: Acrobasis comptoniella Hulst.

Phytodietus facialis Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 47: 462. ♀.

Phytodietus fumiferanae Rohwer
Wyo., Colo., Ariz., B. C, Oreg. Host: C horistoneura lambertiana (Bsk.),
C. occidentalis Free.
Phytodietus fumiferanae Rohwer, 1922. Canad. Ent. 54: 155. ♂, ♀.

Phytodietus parvus Rohwer
Calif.

Phytodietus panms Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 463. ♀.

Phytodietus pleuralis Cresson
Atlantic to Tex., Colo., Ariz. Host: Acleris minuta (Rob.).
Phytodietus pleuralis Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 266. ♂.
Meniscus U-cinctus Ashmead, 1894. In Webster, Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist., Jour. 17: 50. ♂.
Dr. C. C. Loan found the heretofore lost holotype among specimens he borrowed from
the U. S. Natl. Museum and advised me of the present synonymy.

Phytodietus segmentator (Gravenhorst)
Eurasia. Introduced in Ontario in 1956 for control of the native
Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.). Only a small number of individuals (35 males and 39
females) were released, which would seem to have precluded establishment.
Phytodietus segmentator Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 944. 6,2.

Phytodietus vulgaris Cresson
Transcont. in Transit., Canad., Huds. Zones. Host: Argyrotaenia -pinatubana
(Kft.), Archips argyrospilus (Wlk.).
Phytodietus vulgaris Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 166. ♂, ♀.
Mesoleius annulatus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 106. ♀.
Preocc. by Brischke, 1871.

Biology: Femald, 1891. Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 12: 9.

Genus NETELIA Gray

Until 1939 the generic name Paniscus Schrank (1801) was universally applied to the majority
of species now placed in Netelia. The name Paniscus is now uniformly treated as an objective
synonym of Ophion, thus reversal of this unfortunate change would cause more confusion than it
would eliminate.

Members of this genus are nocturnal or crepuscular and are often attracted to lights. Because
of similar habits and general appearance casual observers often confuse them with species of
Ophioninae. Netelia females generally sting more painfully than those of Ophioninae, however.

Revision: Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 168-231.

Biology: Riley, 1869. Insects Mo., Ann. Rpt. 1: 89. — Cushman, 1913. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc.
15: 155-157. —Vance, 1927. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 20: 405-417. — Schaffner and Griswold,
1934. U. S. Dept. Agr., Misc. Pub. 188: 143-144.

Morphology: Whitmarsh, 1910. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 3: 198, 204-208.

Genus NETELIA Subgenus PAROPHELTES Cameron

Paropheltes Cameron, 1907. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Jour. 17: 1011.
Type-species: Paropheltes flavolineatus Cameron. Monotypic

Netelia alaskensis (Ashmead)
Alta., Wyo., Alaska.

Paniscus alaskensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 237. ♂.

Netelia albovariegata (Provancher)
Que., N. Y., Ohio, III, S. Dak.

Paniscus albovariegatus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 106. ♂.

Netelia barberi (Cushman)
N. S. s. to D. C, w. to B. C, Wash.

Paniscus pallens var. barberi Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64: 40. ♀, ♂.

Netelia ciliata Townes
Calif.

Netelia (Paropheltes) ciliata Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 180. ♂.

Netelia laticeps Townes
Ariz.

Netelia (Paropheltes) laticeps Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 181. ♂.

Netelia macroglossa Townes
B. C, Nev.

Netelia (Paropheltes) macroglossa Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 179. ♂.




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Netelia picta Townes
Nev.

Netelia (Paropheltes) picta Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 181. ♂.

Netelia radiata Townes
Kans., Ariz., Calif.

Netelia (Paropheltes) radiata Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 180. ♂.

Netelia rimata Townes
B. C, Calif.

Netelia (Paropheltes) rimata Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 180. ♂.

Netelia serrata Townes
N. Y., Ont., Iowa., S. Dak.

Netelia (Paropheltes) serrata Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 180. ♂.

Netelia tarsata (Brischke)
N. S. s. to S. C, w. to Alta.; Eurasia.

Paniscus tarsatus Brischke, 1880. Naturf. Gesell. Danzig, Schr. 4 (4): 138. ♂, ♀.

Parabatus terebrator Ulbricht, 1922. Konowia 1: 181. ♂, ♀.

Genus NETELIA Subgenus PARABATES Foerster

Parabates Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 150.

Type-species: Parabatus niffricarpus Thomson. Designated by Enderlein (1912)
from four species included by Thomson (1888).
Parabatus Thomson, 1888. Opusc. Ent. 12: 1194. Emend. See the discussion pertaining to

the subgenus Bessobates.
Opheltoideus Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 95.

Type-species: Opheltoideus johnsoni Ashmead. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This subgenus is small, having one Nearctic and one European species.

Netelia johnsoni (Ashmead)
N. H., N. C, Tenn., B. C.

Ctenacme monticola Ashmead, 1900. In Slosson, Ent. News 11: 320. Nomen nudum.
Opheltoideus johnsoni Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 95. Sex not specified. No

type specimen can be found in the U. S. Natl. Museum collection.
Opheltoideus johnsonii Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 83. Emend.
Parabates monticola Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 61 (8): 20. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1969. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 11: 151.

Genus NETELIA Subgenus TOXOCHILUS Townes

Netelia subg. Toxochilus Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 182.
Type-species: Paniscus clypeatus Cushman. Orig. desig.

This subgenus is known only from the Nearctic Region.

Netelia caviverticalis (Cushman)
Colo.

Paniscus caviverticalis Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 29. ♀.

Netelia clypeata (Cushman)
Va., W. Va., 111., Iowa, S. Dak., Colo., N. Mex.

Paniscus clypeatus Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 29. ♂.

Netelia glabra Townes
Kans.

Netelia (Toxochilus) glabra Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 183. ♂, ♀.

Netelia magniceps
***authority mismatch
Townes. S. Dak., Mo., Kans., Colo., Ariz.

Netelia (Toxochilus) magniceps Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 184. ♂, ♀.

Netelia mystace Townes
Ariz.

Netelia (Toxochilus) mystace Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 184. ♂.

Netelia pulchra (Cushman)
N. Mex.

Paniscus pulcher Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 25. ♀, ♂.

Netelia ultima Townes
S. Dak., N. Mex.

Netelia (Toxochilus) ultima Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 183. ♂, ♀.

Genus NETELIA Subgenus PROSTHODOCIS Enderlein

Prosthodocis Enderlein, 1912. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 73: 107, 141.

Type-species: Paniscus antefurcalis Szepligeti. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Netelia exserta (Cushman)
R. I., N. Y. s. to Ala., w. to Mo.

Parabates exsertus Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 47. ♀.




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Genus NETELIA Subgenus NETELIA Gray

Netelia Gray, 1860. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 5 (3): 341.

Type-species: Paniscus inquinatus Gravenhorst. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Bucheckerius Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 280.

Type-species: Bucheckerius perforatus Schulz. Monotypic.
Scammatonotum Enderlein, 1914. In Michaelsen, Beitr. z. Kennt. ... Fauna
Deut.-Sudwestafrikas, v. 1, p. 231.

Type-species: Scammatonotum herero Enderlein. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Amebachia Uchida, 1928. Hokkaido Imp. Univ., Fac. Agr., Jour. 21: 198.

Type-species: Amebachia baibarana Uchida. Orig. desig.

This subgenus includes three-fourths of the Netelia species, and they are distributed
throughout the world.

Netelia acuminata Townes
Mass. s. to Ala., w. to Minn., s. Calif.

Netelia (Netelia) acuminata Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 206. ♂, ♀.

Netelia affinis Townes
Wash., Nev.

Netelia (Netelia) affinis Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 206. ♂.

Netelia blantoni Townes
R. I., N. Y., Pa., Va.

Netelia (Netelia) blayitoni Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 214. ♂.

Netelia brevicornis
***authority mismatch
brevicornis (Cushman). N. S. s. to Ala., w. to Mont., Tex.

Paniscus brevicornis Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 27. ♂, ♀.

Netelia brevicornis
***authority mismatch
suturalis Townes. Alta. s. to Utah, w. to B. C, Oreg.

Netelia (Netelia) brevicornis suturalis Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 201. ♂, ♀.

Netelia brevicornis
***authority mismatch
temporalis (Cushman). Southwestern Calif.

Paiiiscus temporalis Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 30. ♀.

Netelia brunnea Townes
N. Y., Pa., Md., Va.

Netelia (Netelia) bnmnea Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 209. ♂.
caiifornica (Cushman). Southern B. C. to s. Calif. The species has not been collected more
than 80 miles from the Pacific Coast.

Paniscus califomicus Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 36. ♀.

Netelia calva Townes
Va.

Netelia (Netelia) calva Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 210. ♂.

Netelia cascadica Townes
Oreg.

Netelia (Netelia) cascadica Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 205. ♂.

Netelia caudata Townes
Va., 111., Okla.

Netelia (Netelia) caudata Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 216. ♂.

Netelia chloris (Olivier)
Que. s. to N. C, w. to Mont., Tex.

Ophion chloris Olivier, 1811. Encycl. Meth. Hist. Nat. Insectes, v. 8, p. 509. ♀.

Ophion geminatus Say, 1829. Contrib. Maclurian Lycium to Arts and Sci. 1: 76. Sex not
stated.

Pa7iiscus texanus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 425. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1961. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 63: 111.

Netelia cockerelli (Cushman)
N. Mex., Utah, Ariz., Calif.

Paniscus cockerelli Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 35. ♀.

Netelia cushmani Townes
B. C.

Netelia (Netelia) cushmani Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 206. ♂.

Netelia delicata Townes
Que. s. to Ala., w. to Minn., Kans.

Netelia (Netelia) delicata Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 212. ♂, ♀.

Netelia densa Townes
N. Mex., Ariz.

Netelia (Netelia) densa Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 204. ♂.

Netelia emorsa Townes
Fla.; Bermuda, W. Indies. This species may prove to be a syn. of subfusca
(Cresson), which was described from Cuba.

Netelia (Netelia) emorsa Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 197. ♂, ♀.

Netelia falcata Townes
Vt., N. Y., Pa.

Netelia (Netelia) falcata Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 210. ♂, ♀.




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Netelia heroica Townes
N. Y., Mich., Minn., Ariz.; Mexico.

Netelia (Netelia) heroica Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 213. ♂.

Netelia idioctenus Townes
N. Y., Va., S. C, Ala.

Netelia (Netelia) idioctenus Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 198. ♀.

Netelia inepta
***authority mismatch
Townes. N. J., N. C, S. C, Ga.

Netelia (Netelia) inepta Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 215. ♂.

Netelia ingrata Townes
Ariz.

Netelia (Netelia) ingrata Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 216. ♂.
iativectis Townes. N. Mex.

Netelia (Netelia) Iativectis Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 212. ♂.
Ico arizonensis (Cushman). N. Mex., Ariz., s. Calif.; Mexico.

Paniscus arizonensis Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 37. ♀.

Netelia leo
***authority mismatch
leo (Cushman). Mass. s. to Ga., w. to Iowa, Tex.

Paniscus leo Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 38. ♀.

Netelia ligata Townes
Ariz.

Netelia (Netelia) ligata Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 205. ♂.

Netelia lucens Townes
Colo.

Netelia (Netelia) lucens Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 205. ♂, ♀.

Netelia macra Townes
Md., Va., 111., Ariz.; W. Indies, Peru, Argentina.

Netelia (Netelia) macra Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 196. ♂.

Netelia microdon Townes
Va., S. C, Fla., Ala., Miss., Tex.

Netelia (Netelia) microdon Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 211. ♂, ♀.

Netelia microtylus Townes
Ariz.

Netelia (Netelia) microtylus Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 210. ♂, ♀.

Netelia mustela Townes
Ariz.

Netelia (Netelia) mustela Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 194. ♂, ♀.
nigjipectus (Ashmead). Tex.

Paniscus nigripectus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 425. ♀.

Netelia nitida Townes
N. Y.

Netelia (Netelia) nitida Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 215. ♂.

Netelia obrepta Townes
Pa., Mich.

Netelia (Netelia) obrepta Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 215. ♂.

Netelia ocellata (Viereck)
D. C. s. to Ga., w. to Sask., Ariz.; Bermuda, Peru. Host: Agrrotis orthogonia
Morr.

Paniscus ocellatus Viereck, 1909. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 11: 211. ♂, ♀.

Paniscus immaculatus Morley, 1913. Rev. Ichn. Brit. Mus., v. 2, p. 109. ♀.

Paniscus ocellatus var. microocellatus Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 36. ♂, ♀.

Netelia orba Townes
D. C, S. C.

Netelia (Netelia) orba Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 193. ♂.

Netelia ovalis Townes
R. I. s. to D. C, w. to Wis., Kans.

Netelia (Netelia) ovalis Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 212. ♂.

Netelia pallens
***authority mismatch
occidentalis Townes. Tex., N. Mex., Ariz., B. C, Nev.

Netelia (Netelia) pallens occidentalis Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 208. cJ, 9.

Netelia pallens
***authority mismatch
pallens (Cushman). Atlantic States from N. Y. s. to Ga.

Paniscus pallens Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 39. ♂, ♀.

Netelia palpalis Townes
Maine, Mass., N. Y., N. C.

Netelia (Netelia) palpalis Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 203. ♂.

Netelia pardalis (Cushman)
Wyo. s. to N. Mex. w. to B. C, Calif.

Paniscus pardalis Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 31. ♂.

Paniscus neomexicanus Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 33. ♀.

Netelia percurrens Townes
Colo.

Netelia (Netelia) percurrens Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 207. ♂.




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Netelia platypes (Cushman)
Mass. s. to Ala., s. to Wis. Host: Acroyiicta radcliffei (Harv.).
Paniscus platypes Cushman, 1930 (1929). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 76 (25): 6. ♀.

Netelia pluridens Townes
Wyo.

Netelia (Netelia) pluridens Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 202. ♂.

Netelia punctata Townes
Conn. s. to Va., w. to Mich., Tex.

Netelia (Netelia) punctata Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 208. ♂, ♀.

Netelia recta Townes
Ariz.

Netelia (Netelia) recta Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 193. ♂, ♀.

Netelia rectifascia Townes
Ariz.

Netelia (Netelia) rectifascia Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 216. ♂.

Netelia reflexa Townes
Tex.

Netelia (Netelia) reflexa Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 198. ♂.

Netelia sayi (Cushman)
Que. s. to N. C, w. to S. Dak., Tex. Host: Amathes badinodis (Grt.), Heliothis
zea (Bod.). This is the commonest species of the genus in the northeastern U. S.; it
occurs throughout the summer and autumn.

Paniscus gemiinatus var. sayi Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 41. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Vance, 1927. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 20: 405-415.

Netelia spinipes (Cushman)
Mass. s. to Ga., w. to Mont., Tex.; Mexico. Host: Heliothis zea (Bod.).
Paniscus spinipes Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 32. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Vance, 1927. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 20: 405-417.

Netelia stigmata Townes
N. Y., N. J.

Netelia (Netelia) stigmata Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 202. ♂, ♀.

Netelia strigilobus Townes
Calif. Host: Zale lunata (Drury).

Netelia (Netelia) strigilobus Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 207. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Hicks, 1933. Pan-Pacific Ent. 9: 49-52 (as Paniscus sp., possibly seminifus
Holmgren).

Netelia townesi (Uchida)
Calif.

Netelia (Netelia) unicolor Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 202. Preocc. in Netelia by Smith,

1874.
Payiiscus townesi Uchida, 1939. Insecta Matsumurana 14: 45. N. name for unicolor
Townes.

Netelia townsendi (Cushman)
N. Mex.

Paniscus townsendi Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 40. ♀.

Netelia trituberculata (Cushman)
Ariz., Calif.

Paiiiscus trituberculatus Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 26. ♀.

Netelia turbans Townes
Ariz., Colo.

Netelia (Netelia) turbans Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 209. ♂.

Netelia umbone Townes
Calif.

Netelia (Netelia) umbone Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 207. ♂.

Netelia unguicularis (Cushman)
R. L s. to N. C, w. to III., Ala. Ecology: This species occurs in moist
bottomland forests.
Paniscus unguicularis Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 33. ♂, ♀.

Genus NETELIA Subgenus BESSOBATES Townes

Netelia subg. Bessobates Townes, 1961. In Townes, Townes, and Gupta; Amer. Ent. Inst.,
Mem. 1: 93.

Type-species: Parabatus deceptor Morley. Orig. desig.

Because of careless bibliographic work, Bradley (1919) managed to find reason for applying
the names Parabates Foerster and Parabatus Thomson to separate subgenera, the latter to
what is now called Bessobates. It is evident that Bradley would not have wished to find reason
for doing so if he had been aware of Enderlein's (1912) designation of Parabatus nigricarpus
Thomson as the type-species of Parabates. Ironically, it is also quite obvious that if Viereck
(1914) had been aware of the Enderlein designation for parabates, he would also have




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designated nigricarpus as the type-species of Parabatus, which would have prevented sub-
sequent authors from applying these names to separate subgenera of Netelia, as did Townes for
more than 20 years (1939 to 1961). Apparently recognizing that it was no longer feasible to treat
some of the Thomson emendations of Foerster names as having been newly proposed for
separate taxa, Townes (1961) abandoned his earlier stance on the issue with the proposal of Bes-
sobates as a "new name for Parabatus as defined by Townes, 1939." Not only does it seem incor-
rect for Townes to have characterized his proposal of Bessobates in those terms, it is paradoxical
for him to have done so without a word calling attention to or explaining his designation of
Parabatus deceptor Morley as type-species instead of Ichneumon virgatus Geoffroy. Townes
(1969) attributes the name Bessobates to Townes, Townes, and Gupta, but the wording of the
proposal (yet alone the 1939 description) is clearly in the unadulterated style of the senior
author, and it seems inappropriate for him to place part of the blame for it upon the junior
authors.

Taxonomy: Enderlein, 1912. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 73: 106. — Viereck, 1914. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui.

83: 110. —Bradley, 1919. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) 3: 319-324. —Townes, 1969. Amer.

Ent. Inst, Mem. 11: 154.

Netelia deceptor (Morley)
N. S. s. to Pa., w. to Alaska, Calif. Host: Schizura concinna (J. E. S.), Polia
legitimata (Grt.).

Parabatus deceptor Morley, 1913. Rev. Ichn. Brit. Mus., v. 2, p. 129. ♂.

Parabates cristatoides Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 46. cJ, 9.

Parabates crassus Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 47. 9. Uncertain syn.

Netelia latungula (Thomson)
Que. s. to Va., w. to Ont., 111.; Eurasia.

Parabatus latungula Thomson, 1888. Opusc. Ent. 12: 1196. ♂, ♀.

Netelia longipalpus Townes
Que. s. to Ala., w. to Mich., III.

Parabatus smithi Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (20): 45. ♀. Preocc. in Netelia
by Dalla Torre (1902).

Netelia (Parabatiis) longipalpus Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 218. N. name for smithi
Cushman.
rogrersi Townes. N. Y., Pa., Md., Va., N. C.

Netelia (Parabatus) rogersi Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 219. ♂, ♀.

Netelia sinus Townes
Md., Va., 111.; Guatemala.

Netelia (Parabatus) sinus Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 220. ♂.

Netelia uncata Townes
D. C, S. C.

Netelia (Parabatus) uncata Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 218. cj, 9.

Unplaced Taxon of Netelia

Netelia appendiculata (Provancher)
Que.

Paniscus appendicxdatus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 105. 6. According to Barron
(1975) the holotype is lost.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1939 (1938). Lloydia 1: 222. —Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 427-428.

Tribe OEDEMOPSINI

This is a small tribe with nine genera, seven of which are represented by species in the Nearc-
tic Region. Most of the species are apparently parasitic upon larvae of Lepidoptera, but Eclytus
spp. parasitize sawfly larvae.

The names Thymarides (Thomson, 1883) and Eclytini (Townes, 1945) are junior synonyms of
Oedemopsini (Woldstedt, 1877).

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1945. Bol. Ent. Venezolana 4: 41-53 (out of date generic
revision with keys for Neotropic species).

Genus ECLYTUS Holmgren

Eclytus Holmgren, 1857 (1855). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (n. f.) 1: 127.

Type-species: Eclytiis omatus Holmgren. Desig. by Viereck, 1912.
Zapedias Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 206.




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Type-species: Mesoleptus exomattis Gravenhorst. Included and desig. by Townes,
Momoi, and Townes, 1965.
Anoplectes Kriechbaumer, 1896. Ent. Nachr. 23: 363.

Type-species: Anoplectes vuilticolor Kriechbaumer. Monotypic.

Eclytus ornatus Holmgren
Newfoundland (Labrador) s. to N. C, w. to Alaska, Colo.; Europe.

Eclytus ornatus Holmgren. 1857 (1855). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (n. f.) 1: 127. ♂, ♀.
Eclytus perennis Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 305. cJ, ?.
Spanotecnus Jlavopictus Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 204. ♂.

Genus HERCUS Townes

Hercus Townes, 1969. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 11: 157.

Type-species: Orthocentrus pleuralis Provancher. Orig. desig. There are three
Nearctic species, one of them undescribed.

Hercus fontinalis (Holmgren)
Alaska; Europe.

Eclytus fontinalis Holmgren, 1857 (1855). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (n. f.) 1: 128. ♂, ♀.
Eclytus yakutatensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 204. ♂.
Himertosoma schmiedeknechti Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 194. ♂.

Hercus pleuralis (Provancher)
N. S. s. to Va., w. to S. Dak. Host: Argyrotaenia pinatubana (Kft.), A.
velutinana (Wlk.), Platynota idaeusalis (Wlk.) Acrobasis kearf'ottella Dyar.
Orthocentrus pleuralis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 328. 9. The syntypes were not

located by Barron (1975).
Calliphrurusf taeniogaster Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mas., Proc. 43: 585. ♂.

Taxonomy: Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 533.

Genus NELIOPISTHUS Thomson

Neliopisthus Thomson, 1883. Opusc. Ent. 9: 907.

Type-species: Phytodietus elegans Ruthe. Monotypic.
Polysphinctomorpha Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 59.

Type-species: Polysphinctomorpha luggeri Ashmead. Orig. desig.

Revision: Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 56: 378-381. — Cushman, 1935. Wash. Acad.
Sci., Jour. 25: 553-555.

Neliopisthus densatus (Say)
Maine s. to Md., w. to S. Dak., Ariz.

Anomalon densatus Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 243. ♀.
Neliopisthus similis Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 56: 379. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cushman and Gahan, 1921. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 23: 155.

Neliopisthus niger Cushman
Colo., Idaho, Ariz., Wash.

Neliopisthus niger Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 60 (21): 12. ♀.

Neliopisthus longicauda Cushman, 1935. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 25: 554. ♀.

Neliopisthus piceae Cushman
Maine, Minn., Oreg. Host: Coleotechnites piceaella (Kft.).

Neliopisthus piceae Cushman, 1935. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 25: 555. ♂, ♀.

Neliopisthus semirufus (Provancher)
Que. s. to Va., w. to Minn. Host: Psilocorsis sp.

Hemiteles semirufus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 332. ♀.

Polysphincta erythropletira Ashmead, 1896; 1902. In Slosson, Ent. News 7: 264; 13: 321.
Nomen nudum.

Polysphinctomorpha luggeri Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 59. ♀.

Neliopisthus nigridorsum Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 56: 379. ♀.

Genus THYMARIS Foerster

Thymaris Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 151.

Type-species: Thymaris padchricomis Brischke. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Brischke, 1880. The Brischke types have been destroyed, and the
interpretation of pulchricomis is based upon Pfankuch's (1906) placement of it as
a synonym of Mesoleptus tener Gravenhorst (1829). Pfankuch later (1925) placed




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piilchricornis as a synonym of Hemiteles contaminatus Gravenhorst (1829), and
Perkins (1962) treated contaminatus as a junior synonym of tener by virtue of
page priority but did not state that he had examined the Gravenhorst types in
question.
Tkymarus Thomson, 1883. Opusc. Ent. 9: 908. Emend.

Townes (1969) says that there are two Nearctic species, one of them undescribed.

Taxonomy: Pfankuch, 1906. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 6: 82. — Pfankuch, 1925. Deut. Ent.
Ztschr. 4: 260. —Perkins, 1962. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 11: 458. —Townes, 1969.
Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 11: 158-159.

Thymaris negligere (Davis)
N. J. s. to Ala., w. to Kans.

Eusterinx negligere Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 246. ♀.
Callidiotes kansensis Brues, 1907. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 5: 55. ♀.
Thymaris americamis Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 56: 381. ♂, ♀.

Genus ZAGRYPHUS Cushman

Zagryphus Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 56: 377.

Type-species: Mesoleptus nasutus Cresson. Monotypic and orig desig.

The name Campothreptiis Foerster has been erroneously applied to this genus by Townes (e.
g. 1969) who has treated Mesoleptus nasutus Cresson as its type-species. Cushman (1919) cor-
rectly argued that it was Tryphon nasutus Cresson and not Mesoleptus nasutus that Davis
(1897) placed in Campothreptus. Therefore, Campothreptus is a synonym of Oedemopsis (which
see).

Taxonomy: Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 247. —Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus.,
Proc 56: 376-378. —Townes, 1969. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 11: 159.

Zagryphus nasutus (Cresson)
Pa. s. to Fla., w. to Minn, and Kans.; Mexico, Guatemala.

Mesoleptus? nasiitus Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 103. 6,9. The variant
spelling "nastutus" appears on p. 103, but it is anonymously rejected in the errata (p.
398 [1869]).
Synchnoleter americanus Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 196. ♂.

Genus OEDEMOPSIS Tschek

Oedemopsis Tschek, 1868. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien, Verb. 18: 276.

Type-species: Oedemopsis rogenhoferi Tschek. Monotypic. The type-species is
considered to be a synonym of 0. scabricularis (Gravenhorst).
Hybophanes Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 166.

Type-species: Tryphon scabricularis Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from
three species included by Schmiedeknecht, 1888.
Campothreptus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 201. N. syn.

Type-species: Tryphon nasutus Cresson. By subsequent monotypy from inclusion
by Davis, 1897. Although Davis (1897) treated Tryphon? nasutus Cresson as a
synonym of Mesoleptus nasidus Cresson, his description applies only to the
former (see discussion under Zagryphus). Davis' error in suppressing Tryphon
nasutus as a synonym of Mesoleptus nasutus could only have been inadvertent
—i.e. I do not see how it is possible that Davis' error could have been an error of
judgement and hence do not believe that it is reasonable to argue that he
misidentified Tryphon nasutus as Mesoleptus nasutus.
Zarhynchus Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 59. Preocc. by Oberholser, 1899.

Type-species: Tryphon nasutus Cresson. Monotypic and orig desig.
Rhynchothyreus Ashmead, 1900. Canad. Ent. 32: 368. N. name for Zarhynchus Ashmead.
Oedematopsis Morley, 1908. Brit. Ichn. 3: 268. Emend, of Oedemopsis.

Details regarding my resurrection of the name Oedemopsis and its priority over Hybophanes
wUl be given elsewhere.

Oedemopsis davisi Carlson
n. name. Conn. s. to Va., w. to B. C, N. Mex.

Tryphon? 7iasutus Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 107. ♀. Preocc. by
Gravenhorst, 1829.




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Genus ATOPOTROPHOS Cushman

Atopoffnathus Cushman, 1919. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 21: 116. Preocc. by Bigot, 1881.

Type-species: Atopognathns collaris Cushman. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Atopotroplws Cushman, 1940. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 88: 365. N. name for Atopognathus
Cushman.

There are two Nearctic species, one undescribed.

Atopotrophos bucephalus (Cresson)
Md., D. C, Va., N. C, Ala.; Mexico.

Mesoleptusf bucephalus Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 36. ♂.
Atopognathus collaris Cushman, 1919. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 21: 117. ♂, ♀.

Tribe TRYPHONINI

Nearly all members of this tribe are parasites of sawflies; Grypocentrus basalis Ruthe, a Eu-
ropean species, has been reared from an eriocraniid microlepidopteran. Most of the genera are
Holarctic.

Revision: Townes and Townes, 1949-1950 (1949). Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42 (3 and 4): 321-396,
397-447 {Grypocentrus and Boethus excluded). — Kasparyan, 1973. Akad. Nauk, SSSR,
Zool. Inst., Fauna SSSR, (n. s.) 106, Hym. v. 3, pt. 1, 320 pp.

Genus GRYPOCENTRUS Ruthe

Grypocentrus Ruthe, 1855. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 16: 52.

Type-species: Grypocentrus incisulus Ruthe. Desig. by Vierick, 1912.
Apimeles Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 205.

Type-species: Apimeles lusorius Davis. By subsequent monotypy from inclusion by
Davis, 1898 (1897).
Cyrtocentrus Provancher, 1883. Nat. Canad. 14: 6.

Type-species: Cyrtocentrus quebecensis Provancher. Monotypic.

Some members of this genus are known to parasitize larvae of Fenusa spp., but one European
species, G. basalis Ruthe, has been reared from an eriocraniid microlepidopteran.

Revision: Townes and Townes, 1951. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 53: 301-307.

Grypocentrus albipes Ruthe
Europe. Introduced in insular Newfoundland in 1973, but no recoveries have
been reported. Host: Fejiusa p^isilla (Lep.). The host listed was the target species for
the release in Newfoundland.
Grypocentrus albipes Ruthe, 1855. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 16: 56. ♂, ♀.

Grypocentrus barbatus Townes
Alta., Calif.

Grypoceyitnis barbatus Townes, 1951. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 53:
304. ♂, ♀.

Grypocentrus crassidens Townes
Idaho, Colo.

Grypocentrus crassidens Townes, 1951. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 53:

304. ♂, ♀.

Grypocentrus flavipes (Provancher)
Que. s. to N. C, w. to Wash., Calif.

Mesostenus flavipes Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 363. ♂.
Cyrtocentrus Quebecensis Provancher, 1883. Nat. Canad. 14: 6. ♂.
Apimeles lusorius Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 283.9.

Grypocentrus spatulatus Townes
Calif.

Grypocentrus spatulatus Townes, 1951. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 53:

305. ♂, ♀.

Grypocentrus truncatus Townes
N. Y.

Grypocentrus truncatus Townes, 1951. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 53:
305. ♂, ♀.

Genus POLYBLASTUS Hartig

Revision: Kasparyan, 1970. Ent. Obozr. 49: 852-868; 519-528 in Ent. Rev. (Palearctic spp.).




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Genus POLYBLASTUS Subgenus POLYBLASTUS Hartig

Polyblastus Hartig, 1837. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 3: 155.

Type-species: Tryphon varitarsus Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1912.

Polyblastus atrox Townes
Que.

Polyblastus (Polyblastus) atrox Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:335. ♂.

Polyblastus carbonarius (Gravenhorst)
N. H., Alta.; Europe.

Tryphon carbonarius Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea 2: 141. ♂.

Polyblastus fulvilinealis Hall
Que. s. to N. C.

Polyblastus fulvilinealis Hall, 1919. Psyche 26: 155. ♂, ♀.

Polyblastus palaemon Schiodte
Man., Alta.; Europe.

Polyblastus palaemon Schiodte, 1839 (1838). Rev. Zool. Soc. Cuv. 1: 140. ♀.
Polyblastus pyramidatus Holmgren, 1857 (1855). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (n. f.) 1:
219. ♀.

Polyblastus pedalis (Cresson)
N. S. s. to N. C, w. to N. W. T., B. C, Calif.; U. S. S. R. Host: Cladius
difformis (Panzer), Croesus latitarstis Nort., Apareophora dyari (Benson).
Tryphon pedalis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 273. ♂.
Bassus Bouleti Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 32.9.

Polyblastus tibialis (Cresson)
Que. s. to N. C, w. to N. W. T., B. C, CaUf.

Tryphon tibialis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 280. "♂"=♀.
Tryphon annulipes Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 108. ♀.
Prinopoda (!) media Hall, 1919. Psyche 26: 158. ♀.

Polyblastus varitarsus (Gravenhorst)
Que. s. to Mass., w. to Alaska, Calif.; Eurasia. Host: Dolerus sp. The
name "strobilator (Thunberg)" has been incorrectly used for this species; Ichneumon

Polyblastus strobilator
***authority mismatch
Thunberg is an emendation and misidentification of Ichneumon strobilellae
Linnaeus.
Tryphon varitarsus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea 2: 222. ♂, ♀.
Polyblastus subtilis Thomson, 1883. Opusc. Ent. 9: 900. ♀.
Polyblastiis variitarsus Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 320. Emend.
Erromenus annulipes Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 212. ♀.
wahlbergi rubescens Townes. N. S. w. to Alaska, w. to Pa., Ala., Sask., Alta. P. (P.) wahlbergi
wahlbergi Holmgren is Eurasian.
Polyblastus (Polyblastus) wahlbergi rubescens Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent.
Soc. Amer., Ann. 42: 336. ♂, ♀.

Genus POLYBLASTUS Subgenus COPHENCHUS Townes

Polyblastus subg. Cophenchus Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42: 338.

Type-species: Polyblastus (Cophenchus) flexus Townes. Orig. desig.

Polyblastus botrys Townes
Que., N. H., Mass., Mich., Man.

Polyblastus (Cophenchus) botrys Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:339. cJ, 9.

Polyblastus flexus Townes
Que., Alta., Utah, B. C.

Polyblastus (Cophenchus) flexus Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42: 339. ♀.

Genus POLYBLASTUS Subgenus LABROCTONUS Foerster

Labroctonus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 195.

Type-species: Tryphon articulatus Cresson. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Davis, 1897.
Nemioblastus Thomson, 1883. Opusc. Ent. 9: 901.

Type-species: Polyblastus albicoxa Thomson. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.

Polyblastus alatus Townes
N. Y., Pa., Md., D. C, Va.

Polyblastus (Labroctonus) alatus Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:345. ♂, ♀.




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Polyblastus articulatus (Cresson)
Man., Alta.

Tryplion articulatus Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 110. ♀.

Polyblastus bimacula Townes
Maine s. to N. C, w. to B. C, Wash.

Polyblastus (Labroctonus) bimacula Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 42: 343, 396. ♂, ♀.

Polyblastus buccatus Townes
Wash., Calif.

Polyblastus {Labroctonus) buccatus Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 42: 349. ♂, ♀.

Polyblastus expletus Townes
Newfoundland (Labrador), Que., Maine, Vt., N. Y., Colo. Host: Nematus
limbatus Cr.
Polyblastus {Labroctonus) expletus Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 42: 349. ♂, ♀.

Polyblastus galaphilus Townes
Que. s. to N. Y., w. to Wash., Oreg.

Polyblastus (Labroctonus) galaphilus Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 42: 347. ♂, ♀.

Polyblastus gloriosus (Davis)
Que., Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Phaestus gloriosus Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 292. ♀.

Polyblastus jugatus Townes
N. H.

Polyblastus (Labroctonus) jugatus Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42: 342. ♂.

Polyblastus peckae Townes
N. H.

Polyblastus (Labroctonus) peckae Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:348. ♀.

Polyblastus productus Townes
Wash.

Polyblastus (Labroctomis) productus Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 42: 345. ♂, ♀.

Polyblastus provancheri Kasparyan
N. S. s. to Conn., w. to B. C, Calif. Host: Pontania sp., Pristiphora
sycophanta Walsh.
Tryphon dorsalis Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 253. ♀. Preocc. by Gravenhorst, 1829.
Polyblastus (Labroctonus) provancheri Kasparyan, 1970. Ent. Obozr. 49: 853. N. name for
dorsalis Provancher.
rutilus Townes. Calif.

Polyblastus (Labroctonus) rutilus Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:344. ♂, ♀.

Polyblastus stenocentrus Holmgren
Colo., Alaska; Eurasia.

Polyblastus stenocentrus Holmgren, 1957 (1855). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (n. f.) 1:
215. ♂, ♀.

Genus CTENOCHIRA Foerster

Ctenochira Foerster, 1855. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 12: 226.

Type-species: Ctenochira bisinuata Foerster. Monotypic.
Ctenacme Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 196.

Type-species: Polyblastus scutellaris Thomson. Desig. by Morley, 1913 (as
scutellatus Thomson [1888], which replaced the preoccupied scutellaris Thomson
[1883] from four species species included by Thomson, 1883.
Scopiorus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Reinlande, Verh. 25: 196.

Type-species: Polyblastus marginatus Holmgren. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from four
species included by Thomson, 1883.
Gemophaga Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 211.

Type-species: Gemophaga rufa Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from inclusion
by Ashmead, 1902.
Ctenacmus Thomson, 1883. Opusc. Ent. 9: 901. Emend.
Ctenacma Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 99. Emend, of Ctenacme.
Pauroctenus Cameron, 1909. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Jour. 19: 726.

Type-species: Pauroctenus pallipes Cameron. Monotypic.
Exochoblastus Schmiedeknecht, 1912. Opusc Ichn., v. 5, p. 2401, 2468.




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Type-species: Exoclioblastus oreophilus Schmiedeknecht. Monotypic.
Scopimenus Roman, 1937. Ent. Monthly Mag. 74: 64.

Type-species: Scopimenus pygobarbus Roman. Monotypic.
Coeloprosopon Bauer, 1958. Beitr. z. Ent. 8: 181.

Type-species: Coeloprosopon pectinatiim Bauer. Monotypic.

Ctenochira adeps Townes
N. Y.

Ctenochira adeps Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. See. Amer., Ann. 42: 356. ♀.

Ctenochira analis (Cresson)
Maine s. to N. C, w. to Oreg.

Tryphon analis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 279. ♂.
Tryphon occidentalis Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 109. ♀.

Ctenochira debilis Townes
Colo., Alta., Mont., Wash.

Ctenochira debilis Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42: 354. ♂, ♀.

Ctenochira deplanata Townes
Mich., Colo.

Ctenochira deplanata Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42: 372. ♂, ♀.

Ctenochira dilatata (Provancher)
Que. See discussion of Ctenochira niveicola (Ashmead).
Catocentms dilatatus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 316. "♂"=♀.

Taxonomy: Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 461-462.

Ctenochira extricata (Davis)
Colo., Alta., Wash., Oreg.

Scopiorus extricatus Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 259. ♀.

femigata Townes. Wash.

Ctenochira femigata Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42: 370. ♀.

Ctenochira frigida (Cresson)
Mich., Man., N. W. T., s. to Colo., w. to Alaska, Oreg. Host: Nematus
oligospilus Foerster.
Bassus friffidus Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 111. ♀.

Ctenochira gagates Townes
Sask. w. to S. Dak., Colo., w. to Alaska, Wash.

Ctenochira gagates Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42: 359. ♂, ♀.

Ctenochira gillettei (Davis)
Que. s. to Pa., w. to Colo., Alta., Oreg.

Scopionis gillettei Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 258. ♀.
Scopiorus expansa Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 258. ♂.
Polyblastus scopioroides Hall, 1919. Psyche 26: 156. ♀.

Ctenochira infans Townes
Man., Colo., Alaska.

Ctenochira infans Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc Amer., Ann. 42: 366. ♂, ♀.

Ctenochira inflata Townes
N. Y.

Ctenochira injiata Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42: 363. ♀.

Ctenochira melina Townes
Que., Sask.

Polyblastus annuliconiis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 108. "♀"=♂.Preocc by Giraud, 1871.

Ctenochira melina Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42: 358.
N. name for annulicomis Provancher.

Ctenochira niveicola (Ashmead)
revised status. Que. w. to s.e. Alaska, s. to D. C, w. N. C, s. Alta., and n.
Calif. In their tribal revision, Townes and Townes (1949) treated niveicola as a
subspecies of dilitata (Provancher) (which see). However, Dr. H. K. Townes said
(personal commun., 1976) that Townes and Townes (1949) based their treatment on the
"lectotype" selected by Gahan and Rohwer (1918). Barron (1975) rejected the Gahan and
Rohwer "lectotype" in favor of the specimen which he regarded as the holotype.
According to Barron, the latter specimen does not agree with dilitata dilitata
(Provancher) sensu Townes and Townes (1949). Therefore, niveicola is here raised to
species status; its distribution is a composite of the distributions of the two subspecies
of dilitata sensu Townes and Townes (1949).

Scorpiorusd) alaskensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc 4: 214. ♀.




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Scorpiorus([) niveicola Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 214. ♂, ♀.
Scopiorus phgosus Hall, 1919. Psyche 26: 159. ♀.

Taxonomy: Gahan and Rohwer, 1918. Canad. Ent. 50: 168. —Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102:
461-462.

Ctenochira pectoralis Townes
Que., Ont., N. C.

Ctenochira pectoralis Townes, 1949. hi Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42: 364.
d, 9.

Ctenochira picta Townes
N. Y., N. C, B. C, Wash.

Ctenochira picta Townes, 1949. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42: 370. ♀.

Ctenochira pikonematis Townes
Newfoundland (insular), Que., Mich., Oreg. Host: Piko7iema alaskensis
(Roh.), P. dim7nockii (Cr.).
Ctenochira pikonematis Townes, 1949. hi Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42:
365. ♂, ♀.

Ctenochira potens Townes
Alaska, B. C.

Ctenochira potens Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42: 364. ♀.

Ctenochira quebecensis (Provancher)
Que., Mass., Ont., Kans., Colo. Host: Nematus li^nbatiis Cr., N.
ventralis Say.
Euceros quebecensis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 30. ♀.
Tryphonjlavifrons Fyles, 1893. Canad. Ent. 25: 107. ♀.
Scopionts monticola Brues, 1907. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 5: 56. ♀.

Ctenochira rubicunda Townes
N. B.

Ctenochira rubicunda Townes, 1949. hi Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42:
369. ♀.

Ctenochira rufa (Ashmead)
N. H. s. to Pa., w. to Colo., Alaska, Wash.

Trophoctonus insularis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 215. ♂.
Gemophaga rufa Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 223. ♂.

Ctenochira subcrassa (Cresson)
Mass., N. Y., N. J., Alta., B. C, Oreg.

Tryphon subcrassus Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 109. ♂, ♀.

Ctenochira tetrica Townes
Colo.

Ctenochira tetrica Townes, 1949. hi Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42: 355. ♀.

Genus ERROMENUS Holmgren

Erromenns Holmgren, 1857 (1855). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (n. f.) 1: 221.
Type-species: Tryphon brunnicans Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1912.
Aniarophron Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 162.

Type-species: Aniarophron niger Szepligeti. Desig. by Perkins, 1962 from three
species included by Szepligeti, 1901.
Trichocalymma Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 196.

Type-species: Trichocalymma bipimctatum Woldstedt. Desig. by Viereck, 1914
from three species included by Woldstedt, 1877.
Trichocalymmus Thomson, 1883. Opusc Ent. 9: 903. Emend.
Currania Viereck, 1924. Canad. Ent. 56: 300.

Type-species: Currania mirabilis Viereck. Monotypic and orig desig.

Erromenus analis Brischke
Que., N. Y., Ont., S. Dak., Colo., Alaska, B. C, Wash.; Europe.

Erromenus analis Brischke, 1871. Phys.-Oekon. Gesell. Koenigsberg, Schr. 11: 95. ♂.
Currania mirabilis Viereck, 1924. Canad. Ent. 56: 301. ♀.

Erromenus brevipes Townes
Wash.

Erromenus (Erromenus) brevipes Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:377. cJ, 9.

Erromenus caelator Townes
N. Y., Ont.

Erromenus (Erromenus) caelator Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:388. ♀.

Erromenus defrictus Townes
Md.

Erromenus (Erromenus) defrictus Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:383. ♀.




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Erromenus dimidiatus (Cresson)
N. S. w. to Alaska, s. to N. J., Kans., Calif. Ecology: Occurs in grassy
areas. This is the most commonly collected Nearctic species of Erromenus.
Tryphon dimidiatus Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 108. ♂.
Tryphon atricoxus Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 104. 9 ?
Scopiorus hiaUis Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 258. ♂, ♀.

Erromenus dolichops Townes
Que. s. to Md., w. to Alaska, Ariz.

Erromenus (Erromenus) dolichops Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 42: 391. ♀, ♂.

(^labrosus Davis. Man., Wyo., Colo., Oreg., Calif.

Erromenus glabrosus Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 260. ♂.

Erromenus labratus Townes
Calif.

Erromenus (Erromenus) labratus Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:390. ♀.

Erromenus levis Townes
N. Y.

Erroynenus (Erromenus) levis Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:378. ♂, ♀.

Erromenus marginatus Provancher
Que. s. to Pa., w. to B. C. and Wash. Host: Pristiphora bivittata
(Nort.).
Erronemus (!) marginatus Provancher, 1883. Nat. Canad. 14: 10. ♀.
nasalis Townes. Que., N. H., R. I., N. Y., Ohio, Colo., Wash.

Erromenus (Erromenus) nasalis Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:389. ♂, ♀.

Erromenus planus Townes
N. Y., Sask., Alta., Calif.

Erromenus (Erromenus) planus Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:387. cj, 9.

Erromenus proteus Townes
Minn., Sask., Alta., Wash., Calif.

Erromenus (Erromenus) proteus Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:384. ♂, ♀.

Erromenus punctulatus Holmgren
Que. s. to N. Y., w. to N. Mex., Alaska, and Greg.; Eurasia.

Erromenus punctulatus Holmgren, 1857 (1855). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (n. f.) 1:

222. ♂.
Tryphon crassus Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 107. ♂, ♀.
Tryphon tejonicus Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 372. ♂.
Polyblastus leviculus Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 263. ♂.
Aniarophron niger Szepligeti, 1901. In Mocsary and Szepligeti, Zool. Erg. drit. asiat.
Forschungsreise Grafen E. Zichy, v. 2 (Hym.), p. 141. "♂"=♀.

Erromenus scorteus Townes
Colo., Wash.

Erromenus (Erromenus) scorteus Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:379. ♂, ♀.

Erromenus tonto Townes
Ariz.

Erromenus (Erromenus) tonto Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc Amer.,
Ann. 42:390. ♂, ♀.

Erromenus ungulatus Townes
N. Y., N. C, Ont., Wash.

Erromenus (Erromenus) ungulatus Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 42: 386. ♂, ♀.

Erromenus variolae Townes
N. Y., N. J., Va., Kans.

Erromeyius (Erromenus) variolae Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42: 393. ♂, ♀.

Genus ADERAEON Townes

Erromenus subg. Aderaeon Townes, 1949. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann.
42: 394.

Type-species: Erromenus bedardi Provancher. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Taxonomy: Kasparyan, 1971. Zool. Zhur. 50: 1586-1589 (Russ., Eng. summ.).




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Aderaeon bedardi (Provancher)
N. S., N. B., Que., Ont., B. C. Host: Pikonema alaskensis (Roh.), P.
dimmockii (Cr.).
Erroneimisd) Bedardi Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 266. ♀.

Genus MONOBLASTUS Hartig

Mo7ioblastus Hartig, 1837. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 3: 155.

Type-species: Monoblastus caudatus Hartig. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Otoblastus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 201.

Type-species: Tryphon luteomarginatus Gravenborst. By subsequent monotypy
from inclusion by Thomson, 1883.
Coeloconus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 203.

Type-species: Ichnetimon brachyacanthus Gmelin. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Morley, 1911.
Catocentrus Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 89.

Type-species: Tryphon philanthoides Cresson. Monotypic.
Cerda Cameron, 1904. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 30: 255.

Type-species: Cerda Juscipennis Cameron. Monotypic.
Idothrichus Schmiedeknecht, 1907. Hym. Mitteleuropas, p. 619.

Type-species: Phaestus sericeus Brischke. Monotypic.
Pseudopsilage Gregor, 1929. Tsechech. Realgym. Neu Titschein in Maehren, Jahresber.
1928-1929: 6.

Type-species: Pseudopsilage romani Gregor. Monotypic.

Monoblastus atroferia Townes
N. Y., Pa., N. C, Mich.

Monoblastus atroferia Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann.
42:413. ♂, ♀.

Monoblastus davisi (Townes)
N. Y., Ont., Mich., Ill, Iowa.

Tryphon nigrum Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 281. ♂. Preocc. by

Gravenborst, 1829.
Tryphon davisi Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 155. N. name for nigrum Davis.

Monoblastus dionnei (Provancher)
N. S., s. to Pa., w. to Minn.

Tryphon Dionnei Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 256. ♀.

Monoblastus eurus Townes
Md.

Monoblastus eurus Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc Amer., Ann. 42:
410. ♂.

Monoblastus favonius Townes
Calif.

Monoblastus favonixis Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc Amer., Ann.
42:409. ♂, ♀.

Monoblastus feria
***authority mismatch
feria (Davis). Que. s. to Fla., w. to Man. and Colo.

Otlophonis innumerabilis \&r. feria Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 276. ♂, ♀.
EpachtesV.) basilicus Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 283. ♂, ♀.

Monoblastus feria
***authority mismatch
rossi Townes. Colo., B. C, Oreg., Calif.

Monoblastus feria rossi Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:412. ♂, ♀.

Monoblastus fuscipennis (Cameron)
Tex.; Mexico.

Cerda fuscipennis Cameron, 1904. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 30: 255. ♂.
Monoblastus phaeopteris Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:415. ♂.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1966. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 8: 46 (syn.).

Monoblastus innumerabilis (Davis)
Nev., Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Otlophonis innumerabilis Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 278. cJ, 9.

Monoblastus kaniacensis (Hall)
Minn., Man., Mont., Wyo., Colo., Idaho, Utah, Ariz., Wash., Oreg. Ecology:
On two separate occasions this species has been collected on Symphoricarpos bushes; m
one instance the bushes were infested with sawfly larvae thought to be of the genus
Blennocampa. Because Blennocampa is not known in N. Amer., it may have been a
related genus in Blennocampinae.
Polyblastus kaniacensis Hall, 1919. Psyche 26: 156. ♀.




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Monoblastus macer Townes
N. Y., N. J., Pa., Md., Va., Ohio.

Monoblastus macer Townes, 1950 (1949). hi Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann.
42:405. ♂, ♀.

Monoblastus montezuma (Cameron)
Que. s. to N. C, w. to B. C. and Calif.; Mexico.

Tryphon montezuma Cameron, 1886. Biol. Cent.- Amer., Hym., v. 1, p. 286. ♂.

Otlophonis affinis Ashmead, 1901. Psyche 9: 148. ♂.

Monoblastus philanthoides (Cresson)
N. H., N. Y., 111.

Tryphon philanthoides Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 110. ♀.

Monoblastus proximus Townes
Idaho, Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Monoblastus proximus Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 42:403. <5, 9.

Genus THIBETOIDES Davis

Thibetoides Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 205.

Type-species: Thibetoides flosamoris Davis. Monotypic

Revision: Viktorov, 1964. Ent. Obozr. 43: 182-184; 91-92 in Ent. Rev. (Palearctic spp).

Thibetoides flosamoris Davis
Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Thibetoides flosamoris Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 205. ♂.

Genus LAGOLEPTUS Townes

Lagoleptus Townes, 1969. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 11: 173.

Type-species: Lagoleptus palans Townes. Orig. desig.

Lagoleptus palans Townes
N. Y., Pa., N. C, S. C.

Lagoleptus palans Townes, 1969. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 11: 174.

Genus BOETHUS Focrster

Boethus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 210.

Type-species: Boethus howardi Davis. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from three species
included by Davis, 1898 (1897).
Diplomorpkus Giraud, 1872. Soc. Ent. de France, Ann. 1: 409.

Type-species: Diplomorphus thoracicus Giraud. Monotypic.
Aethalodes Kriechbaumer, 1890. Schweiz. Ent. Gesell., Mitt. 8: 207. Preocc. by Gahan, 1888.

Type-species: Aethalodes mesomelas Kriechbaumer. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.

Members of this genus parasitize the larvae of Argidae.

alain^ens Davis. Calif.

Boethus alaingens Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 291. ♀.

Boethus glabranotus Davis
Mont.

Boethus glabranotus Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 291. ♀.

Boethus nigripennis Cushman
N. Y., Ky., Ala. Host: Arge pectoralis (Leach).

Boethus nigripennis Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 60 (21): 12. ♂, ♀.

Boethus schizoceri (Riley and Howard)
N. J. s. to Fla., w. to Minn, and La. Host: Sphacophilus
celhilaris (Say).

Eubadizon schizoceri RUey and Howard, 1888. U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 1: 44. 9 ?

Eubadizon schizoceratis Riley and Howard, 1889. U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 1: XXXI
(errata). Emend.

Boethus howardi Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 290. ♂, ♀.

Boethus aenigmaticus Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19: 314. ♂.

Boethus daeckei Viereck, 1909. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 11: 210. ♂.

Genus DYSPETES Foerster

Dyspetes Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 201.

Type-species: Tryphon praerogator Gravenhorst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Thomson, 1883. Tryphon praerogator Gravenhorst is a




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misidentification of Ichneumon praerogator Linnaeus, the available names for
which are Dyspetes arrogator Heinrich (1949) and Dyspetes fracticeps Townes
(1950 [1949]).
Dyspetus Thomson, 1883. Opusc. Ent. 9: 899. Emend.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1950 (1949). Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42: 422. —Perkins, 1962.
Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 11 (8): 419. —Townes, Momoi, and Townes, 1965. Amer.
Ent. Inst., Mem. 5: 105.

Dyspetes rufus (Provancher)
Que.

Exetastes rufus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 78. ♂, ♀.

Genus COSMOCONUS Foerster

Cosmoconus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 203.

Type-species: Ichneumon elongator Fabricius. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Woldstedt, 1877.

Revision: Kasparyan, 1971. Vses. Ent. Obsh., Trudy 54: 286-307 (Palearctic spp.).

Cosmoconus arcticus (Brues)
Alaska, Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Polyblastus arcticus Brues, 1919. Rpt. Canad. Arctic Exped. 1913-18, v. 3G, p. 22. ♀.

Cosmoconus canadensis (Provancher)
N. S. s. to N. C, w. to Sask. and Colo.

Tryphon Canadensis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 117. ♂, ♀.

Cosmoconus vallis Townes
n. status. Que., Md., 111., Iowa, Tex.

Cosmoco7ius canadensis vallis Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 42: 425. ♂, ♀.

Genus TRYPHON Fallen

There are five subgenera, three being strictly Palearctic (including Tryphon), one being
Holarctic (Symboethus), and one being strictly Nearctic (Noemon). Species of this genus are
chiefly parasitic upon sawflies of the subfamily Dolerinae.

Revision: Kasparyan, 1969. Ent. Obozr. 48: 639-662 and 899-918; 407-419 and 572-584 in Ent.
Rev. (Palearctic spp.).

Genus TRYPHON Subgenus NOEMON Foerster

Noemon Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 207.

Type-species: Noemon palmaris Davis. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from three species
included by Davis, 1898 (1897).

Tryphon californicus Cresson
Calif.

Tryphon californicus Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. PhUa., Proc. 30: 373. ♂, ♀.

Tryphon coquilletti Townes
Calif.

Tryphon (Noemon) coquilletti Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 42: 432. ♂, ♀.

Tryphon hamatus Townes
Calif.

Tryphon (Noemon) hamatus Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 42: 432. ♂, ♀.

Tryphon lusorius Cresson
Calif.

Tryphon lusorius Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. PhCa., Proc. 30: 373. ♂.

Tryphon machaerus Townes
Calif.

Tryphon (Noemon) machaerus Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 42: 431. ♂, ♀.

Tryphon palmaris (Davis)
Southern Calif.

Noemon palmaris Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 287. ♂, ♀.

Genus TRYPHON Subgenus TRYPHON Fallen

Tryphon Fallen, 1813. Spec. Nov. Hym. Disp. Meth., p. 16.

Type-species: Ichneximon rutilator Linnaeus. Desig. by Curtis, 1832.
Psilosage Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 203.




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Type-species: Tryphon ephippmm Holmgren. By subsequent monotypy from

inclusion by Morley, 1911.
Otitochilus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 203.

Type-species: Tryphon trochanteratus Holmgren. By subsequent monotypy from

inclusion by Woldstedt, 1877 (1876).

This subgenus is Palearctic.

Genus TRYPHON Subgenus SYMBOETHUS Foerster

Symboethus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 204.

Type-species: Tryphon exclamationis Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from
two species included by Morley, 1911.
Quadrigana Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. See, Trans. 24: 280.

Type-species: Tryphon americanus Cresson. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Davis, 1898 (1897), p. 281.

Tryphon alaskensis Ashmead
Sask., Alta., Alaska, Wash.

Polyblastus glacialis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 213. ♀.
Tryphon alaskensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 215. ♀.

Tryphon americanus Cresson
Que. s. to Pa., w. to Minn, and Kans.

Tryphon americanus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 276. ♂.
Tryphon affinis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 277. ♀.

Tryphon communis Cresson
N. S. s. to Pa., w. to Alaska, Alta., and N. Mex. Two or more species may
be confused under this name.
Tryphon communis Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 103 3,9.
Tryphon clypeatus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 309, 311. 6. The alternate spelling

"clypealis" appeared on p. 309.
Tryphon pedic2ilahis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 102. ♂.
Tryphon communis var. atripes Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 282. ♂, ♀.
Grypocentnis nifiterminalis Hall, 1919. Psyche 26: 157. ♀.

Tryphon foraminatus Townes
N. status. S. D. s. to Colo., w. to B. C. and Calif. The egg of this species
is more elongate than that of communis.
Tryphon (Symboethus) communis foraminahis Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and
Townes, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42: 442. ♂, ♀.

Tryphon illotus Townes
Wash.

Tryphon (Symboethus) illotus Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc
Amer., Ann. 42: 443. ♂.

Tryphon mystax Townes
N. B. w. to Alaska, s. to N. H., Colo., and Wash.

Tryphon (Symboethus) mystax Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 42: 437. ♂, ♀.

Tryphon rempeli Townes
Sask., Wash., Oreg.

Tryphon (Symboethus) rempeli Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 42: 435. ♂, ♀.

Tryphon seminiger Cresson
N. S. w. to Alaska, s. to Md., III., N. Mex., and CaUf.
Tryphon seminiger Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 278. ♀.
Metopius terminalis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 438. ♂.

Tryphon townesi Walkley
Que., Maine, N. H., Vt., Mich., Colo.

Tryphon (Symboethus) humeralis Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc.

Amer., Ann. 42: 438. cJ, 9. Preocc. by Gravenhorst, 1829.
Tryphon (Symboethus) townesi Walkley, 1958. In Krombein, et al., U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr.
Monog. 2, Sup. 1, p. 41. N. name for humeralis Townes.

Tryphon viator Townes
Que. w. to Alta., s. to Pa., Mo., and Colo.

Tryphon (Symboethus) viator Townes, 1950 (1949). In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 42: 443. cJ, 9.




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Tribe EXENTERINI

The name Cteniscini Woldstedt (1877) is often used for this tribe, but Exenterini Foerster
(1868) seems to be favored as much by recent authors; because the latter name has the addi-
tional advantage of being oldest, it is used here.

Revision: Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 227-240. — Kerrich, 1952. Brit. Mus. (Nat.
Hist.) Ent., Bui. 2: 307-459. (Old World spp.).

Genus ORTHOMISCUS Mason

Orthomiscus Mason, 1955. Canad. Jour. Zool. 33: 63.

Type-species: Orthomiscus platyura Mason. Orig. desig.

Taxonomy: Mason, 1962. Canad. Ent. 94: 1273-1274.

Orthomiscus leptura Mason
Que., N. H., Vt., Ont., Calif.

Orthomiscus leptura Mason, 1955. Canad. Jour. Zool. 33: 64. ♂, ♀.

Orthomiscus platyura Mason
Que. w. to Mich., s. to Md. and Alta.

Orthomiscus platyura Mason, 1955. Canad. Jour. Zool. 33: 66. ♂, ♀.

Genus EXCAVARUS Davis

Excavanis Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 233.

Type-species: Cteniscus annulipes Cresson. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.

Taxonomy: Mason, 1962. Canad. Ent. 94: 1293-1296.

Excavarus annulipes (Cresson)
N. B. w. to Minn., s. to S. C. and 111. Host: Croesus latitarsus Nort.

Cteniscus annulipes Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 112. "

Excavarus etrocaulus
***authority mismatch
etrocaulus Mason. Alta., Colo., B. C, Oreg.

Smicroplectnis etrocaulus etrocaulus Mason, 1956. Canad. Jour. Zool. 34: 149. ♂, ♀.

Excavarus etrocaulus
***authority mismatch
eurus Mason. N. B., Que., Mass., Mich., Minn.

Smicroplectnis etrocaulus eiinis Mason, 1956. Canad. Jour. Zool. 34: 150. ♀.

Excavarus velox (Walley)
Que., Maine, Ont., Sask., N. Mex., Alta., B. C. Host: Pikonema alaskensis
(Roh.), P. dimmockii (Cr.).

Smicroplectnis velox Walley, 1937. Canad. Ent. 69: 132. ♀.

Genus EXYSTON Schiodte

Exyston Schiodte, 1839. Mag. Zool., sect. 3, (ser. 2) 1 (pi. 6-9): 12.

Type-species: Ichneumon cinctulus Gravenhorst. Monotypic
Tricamptus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 194.

Type-species: Exentenis pratonim Woldstedt. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Woldstedt, 1877.
Diabonis Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 195.

Type-species: Cteniscus {Diabonis) sedulus Woldstedt. Desig. by Viereck, 1912
from two species included by Woldstedt, 1877. The type-species is regarded as a
synonym of Exyston pratonim (Woldstedt).
Anecphysis Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 195.

Type-species: Ariecphysis curvineura Davis. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Davis, 1897.
Parexyston Kerrich, 1952. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 2: 392.

Type-species: Exyston calcaratus Thomson. Monotypic and orig. desig.

According to Mason (1959) most of the species are found in grassy places. He presumed that
they are mainly parasitic upon "sod-feeding" Dolerinae, but the only North American species so
far reared (mactilosum [Provancher]) parasitizes Pristiphora spp. (Nematinae) on Salix and
Vaccinium.

Revision: Mason, 1959. Canad. Jour. Zool. 37: 1067-1115.

atnim Mason. B. C, Wash., Oreg.

Exyston (Anecphysis) ater Mason, 1959. Canad. Jour. Zool. 37: 1095. ♂, ♀.




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Exyston austelli Mason
Mass. s. to N. C.

Exyston {Anecphysis) austelli Mason, 1959. Canad. Jour. Zool. 37: 1078. ♂, ♀.

Exyston boreotis Davis
N. Y., Mich., Sask., Wyo., Colo., N. Mex., Alta.

Exyston boreotis Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 238. ♂.
Exyston nigro scutum Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 237. ♂.
Exyston contracta Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 238. 6. Uncertain syn.; Mason
(1959) suggested that contracta might alternatively prove to be a senior synonym of
spinulosiim Mason.

Taxonomy: Mason, 1959. Canad. Jour. Zool. 37: 1082-1084, 1112-1113. — Townes, 1969. Amer.

Ent. Inst, Mem. 11: 186.

Exyston californicum Mason
Alta. s. to Colo., w. to Alaska and Calif.

Exyston (Anecphysis) califomicus Mason, 1959. Canad. Jour. Zool. 37: 1093. ♂, ♀.

Exyston chamaeleon Mason
Ont., N. W. T. w. to Yukon, s. to S. Dak., N. Mex. and Calif.

Exyston (Exyston) chamaeleon Mason, 1959. Canad. Jour. Zool. 37: 1099. ♂, ♀.

Exyston clavatum (Cresson)
N. S. w. to B. C, s. to Va., Ill, Kans., and Calif.

Cteniscus clavatus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 284. ♂.

Cteniscus abdominalis Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 264. ♀.

Exyston abdominalis Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 197. ♂. Preocc. by above
synonym, abdominalis Cresson, 1865.

Rhimphalea erythrogaster Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey
Bui. 22:296. ♀.

Exyston excelsum (Cresson)
Wyo., Colo.

Cteniscus excelsus Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. PhUa., Proc. 4: 262. ♀.

Exyston flavens Davis
Mass., N. J., Ga., Tex.

Exyston flavens Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 237. ♀.

Exyston hadrum Mason
Mich., Minn., Sask., Colo., Alta.

Exyston (Anecphysis) hadros Mason, 1959. Canad. Jour. Zool. 37: 1080. ♂, ♀.

Exyston humerale Davis
Newfoundland (insular) w. to Sask., s. to Minn., Kans., and Mont.

Exyston humeralis Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 239. ♂.

Exyston articulatus Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 239. ♂.
Illinois Mason. Que., Ont, Mich., 111., Iowa.

Exystoyi (Exyston) illinois Mason, 1959. Canad. Jour. Zool. 37: 1103. cj, 9.

Exyston lophotum Mason
N. W. T., Sask., Alta., B. C, Wash., Calif.

Exyston (Anecphysis) lophotos Mason, 1959. Canad. Jour. Zool. 37: 1091. ♂, ♀.

Exyston maculosum (Provancher)
N. S. w. to B. C, s. to N. C, III, Ariz., and Calif. Host: Pristiphora
bivattata (Nort.), P. citicta Newman, P. sycophanta Walsh.

Mesoleptus maculosus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 114. "♀"=♂.

Exyston (Anecphysis) tectiis Mason, 1959. Canad. Jour. Zool. 37: 1073. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 502 (syn.).

Exyston marginatum (Provancher)
Northern Que. w. to Alaska, s. to N. C, Mich., Colo., and Calif.

Exystoyi marginatum Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 99. ♀.

Anecphysis curvineura Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 234. ♀.

Exyston nigreo Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 236. ♂.

Exyston politum Davis
Mont., Wyo., Calif.

Exyston politus Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent Soc, Trans. 24: 240. ♀.

Exyston reniforme Mason
Colo., Alta., B. C, Oreg., Calif.

Exyston (Anecphysis) reniformis Mason, 1959. Canad. Jour. Zool. 37: 1089. ♂, ♀.

Exyston speciosum Davis
Alta. s. to Colo., w. to B. C. and Calif.

Exyston speciosus Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 237. ♂.

Exyston spinulosum Mason
N. W. T. w. to Alaska, s. to Iowa, Kans., Wyo., and Wash.; Kamchatka.

Exyston (Anecphysis) spinulosus Mason, 1959. Canad. Jour. Zool. 37: 1086. ♂, ♀.

Exyston variatum Provancher
N. S. w. to B. C, s. to N. C, 111., and N. Dak. Ecology: Occurs at forest
edges and along woodland paths, but not in grasslands or meadows.

Exyston variatus Provancher, 1877. Nat Canad. 9: 15. ♀.




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Exyston variatus Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 249. ♀. Preocc. by Provancher, 1877.
Contrary to the discussion of Barron (1975), Provancher indicated this as being a
description of a new species. The variant spelling "vaiatus" also appears on p. 249.

Exystoti abdominalis var. rnfinus Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 239. ♀.

Taxonomy: Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 581 (discussion of lectotype).

Exyston venustum (Cresson)
S. Dak., Sask., Colo., Utah, B. C, Wash.

Cteniscus venustus Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 263. ♀.

Genus SMICROPLECTRUS Thomson

Microplectron Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 195. Preocc. by Streubel,
1842 and Dahlbom, 1857.

Type-species: Exenterus erosus Holmgren. By subsequent monotypy from inclusion
by Woldstedt, 1877 (1876).
Smicroplectuis Thomson, 1883. Opusc. Ent. 9: 888.

Type-species: Exenienis jucuvdus Holmgren. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Anderis Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 233.

Type-species: Cteniscus albilineatus Walsh. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Auderis Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 348 (errata). Emend.

Revision: Mason, 1956. Canad. Jour. Zool. 34: 124-151 (including Excavanis).

Smicroplectrus apicatus (Provancher)
Que., Maine, N. Y., Ont., Colo., Alta., B. C. Host: Nematus currani
Ross.

Cte7iiscus apicatus Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 263. "♂"=♀.

Smicroplectrus californicus (Cresson)
Que. w. to B. C, s. to N. C, Minn., Ariz., and Calif.

CtenistesH) califoniiciis Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 374. ♂.

Smicroplectrus disseptus Walley, 1933. Canad. Ent. 65: 256. ♀.

Smicroplectrus eburneus Mason
Ont., Tex.

Smicroplectrus eburneus Mason, 1956. Canad. Jour. Zool. 34: 141. ♀.

Smicroplectrus incompletus Walley
N. S. w. to Alta., s. to Pa. and Ariz. Host: Pikonema sp.

Smicroplectrus incompletus Walley, 1937. Canad. Ent. 69: 134. ♀.
jucundus albilineatus (Walsh). Que. w. to Alaska, s. to Colo, and Calif. S. jucundus jucundus
(Holmgren) is Palearctic

Cteniscus albilineatus Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 107. "♂"=♀.

Smicroplectrus robustus Walley
Que. w. to Alta., s. to N. Y., Mich., and Nev. Ecology: Observed on Populus
ovipositing on Nematus sp. Host: Nematus sp.

Smicroplectrus robiistus Walley, 1937. Canad. Ent. 69: 135. ♀.

Smicroplectrus takomae Mason
N. W. T., Alaska, Wash.

Smicroplectrus takomae Mason, 1956. Canad. Jour. Zool. 34: 131. ♂, ♀.

Smicroplectrus walleyi Mason
Que., N. Y., Pa., Md., Va., Ont., Ohio, Ky., Nebr.

Smicroplectrus walleyi Mason, 1956. Canad. Jour. Zool. 34: 132. $, 9.

Genus ACROTOMUS Holmgren

Acrotomus Holmgren, 1857 (1855). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (n. f.) 1: 222.

Type-species: Tryphon lucidulus Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1912.
Delotomus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 194, 215. Unnecessary n.
name for Acrotomus Holmgren.

Taxonomy: Mason, 1962. Canad. Ent. 94: 1285-1287.

Acrotomus succinctus (Gravenhorst)
N. Y., Ont., Mich.; Europe. Adventive.

Tryphon succinctus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 166. ♂, ♀.

Genus CTENISCUS Haliday

Cteniscus Haliday, 1832. In Curtis, Brit. Ent., v. 9, no. 399.

Type-species: Tryphon sexilituratus Gravenhorst. Monotypic. The type-species is
regarded as a synonym of Cteniscus pedatorius (Panzer).
Eudiaborus Kerrich, 1952. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent, Bui. 2: 415.




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Type-species: Diaborus pallitarsis Thomson. Orig. desig. The type-species is
regarded as a synonym of Cteniscus scalaris (Gravenhorst).

The name Cteniscus has not traditionally applied to this genus, the change in application being
made by Townes, Townes, and Gupta (1965) in compliance with the fact that Tryplion sexilitu-
ratus Gravenhorst was the only species originally included; (see Townes, 1969); other names
mentioned in the original description (e.g. Cteniscus aurijhius) were then nomina nuda. Prior
to the description of Eudiaborns, the name Diaborus Foerster had been incorrectly applied to
this genus.

Revision: Mason, 1955. Canad. Jour. Zool. 33: 21-63 (as Eudiabonis).

Taxonomy: Kerrich, 1952. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 2: 314-316, 415-416. —Townes,
Townes, and Gupta, 1965. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 5: 113. —Townes, 1969. Amer. Ent. Inst.,
Mem. 11: 188-190. -Kerrich, 1975. Polskie Pismo Ent. 40: 125-126.

Cteniscus devius (Mason)
Man., Colo., Alaska; Europe.

Eudiabonis devius Mason, 1955. Canad. Jour. Zool. 33: 34. ♀.

Cteniscus dorsalis Cresson
N. S. w. to Alaska, s. to N. Y., 111., Colo., and Calif.

Cteniscus dorsalis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 282. "♂"=♀.
Cteniscus mediatus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 282. ♂.

Cteniscus eximius (Mason)
N. Y.

Eudiabonis exinmis Mason, 1955. Canad. Jour. Zool. 33: 33. ♀.

Cteniscus flavicircus (Mason)
Ont., Ohio, S. C, Ind. Host: Pristiphora sp.

Eiidiabonis Jlavicircus Mason, 1955. Canad. Jour. Zool. 33: 27. ♂, ♀.

Cteniscus glutiniatus (Roman)
Maine, B. C, Alaska; N. Eurasia.

Diaboms glutiniatus Roman, 1909. In Hamburg, Naturw. Unters. Sarekgebirges, v. 4, p.
282. ♂, ♀.

Cteniscus leptonyx (Mason)
Newfoundland (Labrador) w. to Alaska, s. to Man., Colo., Ariz., and Calif.

Eiidiabonis leptonyx Mason, 1955. Canad. Jour. Zool. 33: 37. ♂, ♀.

Cteniscus luminosus (Mason)
N. Y.

Eudiabonis luminosus Mason, 1955. Canad. Jour. Zool. 33: 40. ♀.

Cteniscus maculiventris
***authority mismatch
maculiventris (Ashmead). Newfoundland (Labrador) w. to B. C, s. to Mass. and
Colo.
Diaboms maculiventris Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 197. ♂.
Diaboms ignipes Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 231. ♀.

Cteniscus maculiventris
***authority mismatch
sexmaculatus (Ashmead). N. W. T., N. Man., Alaska. More northwestern than
the nominate subspecies, m. sexmaculatus probably having decended from a
Palearctic-Beringian glacial refugium. A third subspecies, m. borioalpinus Kerrich,
occurs in Europe and is rather similar to m. sexmaculatus.
Diaboms sexmaculatus Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 212. ♂.

Cteniscus nigrocephalus (Davis)
Conn., Md., Ga.

Diaboms nigrocephalus Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 232. ♀.

Cteniscus promediatus
***authority mismatch
arizonicus (Mason). N. Mex., Ariz.

Eudiabonis promediatus arizonicus Mason, 1955. Canad. Jour. Zool. 33: 60. ♀.

Cteniscus promediatus
***authority mismatch
cressoni (Mason). N. Y. w. to s. Ont. and Mich., s. to Va. Host: Nematiis
salicisodoratus Dyar.

Eudiabonis promediatus cressoni Mason, 1955. Canad. Jour. Zool. 33: 59. ♂, ♀.

Cteniscus promediatus
***authority mismatch
promediatus (Mason). Newfoundland (insular) w. to Alaska, s. to N. S., s. Ont.,
Minn., Colo., and B. C. Host: Nematus currani Ross, Hemichroa crocea (Geoff.).

Eudiabonis promediatus promediatus Mason, 1955. Canad. Jour. Zool. 33: 56. ♂, ♀.

Cteniscus pulchellus (Mason)
Mass., N. J., Pa., Md., Mich.

Eudiabonis pulchellus Mason, 1955. Canad. Jour. Zool. 33: 50. ♂, ♀.

Cteniscus pyelechus (Mason)
Mass., N. J., Pa., Md., Mich.

Eudiabonis pyelechus Mason, 1955. Canad. Jour. Zool. 33: 25. ♂, ♀.

Cteniscus scaphuloides (Mason)
Que., Maine, R. I., Md., Ont., Mich., Idaho.

Eudiabonis scaphuloides Mason, 1955. Canad. Jour. Zool. 33: 40. ♂, ♀.




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Cteniscus similis (Davis)
Que. w. to Alaska, s. to N. H., Nebr., Colo., and Calif. The division of this
species into four subspecies by Mason (1955) is rather unconvincing.
Diabonis similis Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 231. ♀ (♂ misdet.).
Diaborus iiebraskensis Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 232. ♂.
Diaborus citrifrons Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 212. ♂.
Cteniscus vitticollis Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 113. "♂"=♀.

Genus SCAPNETES Townes

Scapietes Townes, 1969. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 11: 190.

Type-species: Exenterus oniatus Walsh. Orig. desig. Enigmatically, Townes (1969)
added the qualifying phrase "as interpreted by Mason, 1956" to his type-species
designation, but then went on to point out, in effect, that Mason (1956) had
confused two species under the name omatus.

Scapnetes ornatus (Walsh)
N. S., N. B., Que., N. H., Conn., S. C, Ga., Fla., Ont., Mich.
Exenteron (!) omatus Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 105. ♂.

Taxonomy: Mason, 1956. Canad. Jour. Zool. 34: 120-124.

Scapnetes rufus (Provancher)
Que.

Cteniscus nifus Provancher, 1876. Nat. Canad. 8: 318. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1969. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 11: 190.

Genus EXENTERUS Hartig

Exentenis Hartig, 1837. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 1: 156.

Type-species: Ichneumon marffinatorius Fabricius. Monotypic
Actenonyx Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 195. Preocc. by White, 1846.
Type-species: Ichneumon marginatorius Fabricius. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Viereck, 1911.
Picroscopus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 195.

Type-species: Tryphon ictericus Gravenhorst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Thomson, 1883.

Members of this genus are parasitic upon the larvae of Diprionidae.

Revision: Cushman, 1940. U. S. Dept. A^. Misc. Pub. 354: 1-14. — Cushman, 1943. Canad.
Ent. 75: 169-174 (additions and corrections to 1940 revision).

Taxonomy: Finlayson, 1963. Canad. Ent. 95: 468-488 (key to final-instar larvae). —Mason,

1967. Canad. Ent. 95: 375-384 (egg structure specializations).

Exenterus abruptorius (Thunberg)
Que., Ont.; Eurasia. Introduced. Host: Neodiprion sertifer (Geoff.), A^.
lecontei (Fitch), N. pratti banksianae Roh. Dowden (1960) stated that E. abruptorius is
known to be established in N. J., but no specimens of abruptorius from N. J. can be
found in the U. S. Natl. Museum collection; lacking evidence to the contrary, I assume
that the N. J. record for abruptorius is based upon incorrectly identified specimens.

Ichneumon abruptorius Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8:
279; 9: 360. d ( 9 misdet.).

Exenterus cingulatorius Holmgren, 1857 (1855). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (n. f.). 1:
229. ♀.

Exenterus coreensis Uchida, 1930. Hokkaido Imp. Univ., Faculty Agr., Jour. 25: 270. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 28 (larva).

Biology: Morris, 1937. Bui. Ent. Res. 28: 525-534. —Salt, 1941. Cambridge Phil. Soc, Biol.
Rev. 16: 256. —Wilkes, 1942. Ent. Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rpt. for 1941, p. 41-44. — Guryanova,
1972. Zool. Zhur. 51: 845-854 (Russ. with Ent. sum.).

Exenterus adspersus Hartig
Eurasia. Introduced in N. B. in 1938 and possibly in mixture with other

Exenterus spp. at other Canadian localities between 1933 and 1939, apparently without
becoming established. The target host for introductions in Canada was Gilpinia
hercyniae (Htg.), but I find no record of adspersus having been reared from hercyniae




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during the period in which hercyniae has been resurrected from snonymy with Gilpinia

polytoma (Htg.) (i.e. since 1939).
Exentenis adspersus Hartig, 1838. Jahresber. Fortschr. Forstwiss. Forstl. Naturk. 1: 271. ♂, ♀.
Exentenis lepidus Holmgren, 1857 (1855). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (n. f.) 1: 231. ♂.
Exeyiterua laricinnn Thomson, 1888. Opusc. Ent. 12: 1254. ♀.
Exenterus oleaceus Uchida, 1931. Insecta Matsumurana 5: 146. ♀.

Taxonomy: Beirne, 1941. Soc. Brit. Ent., Trans. 7: 180-181 (final-instar larva). — Iwata, 1958;
1960. Acta Hym. 1: 69; 163 (egg and ovary).

Biology: Morris, Cameron, and Jepson, 1937. Bui. Ent. Res. 28: 375-376.

Exenterus affinis Rohwer
Que., Maine, Ont. Host: Gilpinia hercyniae (Htg.), Neodiprion abietis (Harris).
Exentenis affinis Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 225. ♀.

Taxonomy: Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 928 (final-instar larva).

Exenterus amictorius (Panzer)
N. S. s. to n. W. Va., w. to N. Dak.; Europe. Introduced. Host: Gilpinia
hercyniae (Htg.), Diprion siinitis (Htg.), Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch), A^. nannlus
nanulus Schedl, N. sertifer (Geoff.), A^. sivainei (Midd.).
Ichneumon marginatorius Fabricius, 1793. Ent. System., v. 2, p. 145. (female). Preocc. by

Rossi, 1790.
Ichneumon amictoriHS Panzer, 1801. Faunae Ins. German., fasc. 80, pi. 14. ♀.
Ichneumon sulcatorius Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8:
279; 9; 359. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 28-30 (final-instar larva).

Biology: Scheidter, 1934. Ztschr. f. Pflanzenkrank. 44: 369, 500-502. —Wilkes, 1924. Ent. Soc.
Ontario, Ann. Rpt. for 1941, p. 41-44. — McLeod, 1972. Canad. Ent. 104: 1313-1330.

Exenterus canadensis Provancher
Que. s. to Fla., w. to Wis. and La. Host: Neodiprion abietis (Harris),

A^. excitans Roh., A'^. lecontei (Fitch), N. pinetum (Nort.), N. swainei Midd., N.

virginiana Roh. For many years the name canadensis has been erroneously applied to

Exenterus nigrifrons Rohwer
(which see).
Exentenis Canadensis Provancher, 1883. Nat. Canad. 14: 9. ♂, ♀.
Exenterus diprion i Rohwer, 1915. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 49: 222. 9. Synonymy according

to Barron (1975).
Exenterus diprionis Cushman, 1940. U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 354: 4. Unjustified emend.

Taxonomy: Finlayson, 1963. Canad. Ent. 95: 489-490 (final-instar larva, as diprionis).
—Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 440.

Biology: Barclay, 1938. Ent. Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 69: 29-31 (as diprioni). —Griffiths, 1969.
Canad. Ent. 101: 673-713.

Exenterus confusus Kerrich
N. B., Que., Ont.; Eurasia. Introduced. Host: Gilpinia hercyniae (Htg.),
Neodiprion nanulus nanulus Schedl. This species was misidentified as Exentenis

Exenterus claripennis Thomson
in the revision by Cushman (1940).
Exentenis confusus Kerrich, 1952. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 2: 361. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 926-927 (final-instar larva).

Biology: Reeks, 1952. Canad. Ent. 84: 79-85 (as claripennis).

Exenterus hullensis Provancher
Que., N. H., Ont, Mich.

Exentenis Hullensis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 104. ♂, ♀.

Exenterus lophyri Viereck
Nebr., Ariz. Host: Zadiprion townsendi (Ckll.).

Exenterus lophyri Viereck, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 39: 404. ♀.

Biology: Swenk, 1911. Nebr. Agr. Expt. Sta., Ann. Rpt. 24: 26-28.

Exenterus nigrifrons Rohwer
N. S. to Fla., w. to Minn, and Tex. Host: Gilpinia hercyniae (Htg.),

Neodiprion abbotii (Leach), A^. abietis (Harris), A^. excitans Roh., N. lecontei (Fitch), N.
nanulus nanulus Schedl, N. pratti banksianae Roh., A^. rugifroyis Midd., N. sertifer
(Geoff.), A^. swainei Midd., A^. taedae linearis Ross. Preceding the work of Barron (1975)




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on the Provancher types, authors (most importantly Cushman, 1940) have incorrectly
applied the name canade)isis Provancher to this species; Cushman (1940) based his
usage upon the erroneous assertion that there had been a male holotype of canadensis,
and he applied the name according to the first-revisor principle because only a female
specimen had then been found in the Provancher collection under the name canadensis.

Exenterus nigrifrons Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 225. "♀"=♂.

Exentenis flavissimus Cushman, 1940. U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 354: 12. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Short, 1959. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 110: 425 (final-instar larva, as canadensis).
— Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 26-28 (final-instar larva, as canade7isis). —Barron,
1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 440.

Biology: Barclay, 1938. Ent. Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 69: 29-31 (as "canadensis Auct").

— Bobb, 1965. Jour. Econ. Ent. 58: 925 (as caitadensis).

Exenterus pini Cushman
Nebr., Mont., Colo., Idaho, Ariz., Nev., Calif. Host: Neodiprion edidicolus Ross.

Exenterus pini Cushman, 1940. U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 354: 13. ♀.

Exenterus platypes Cushman
Que., N. C, Ont., Minn. Host: Neodiprion pratti banksianae Roh.

Exentenis platypes Cushman, 1943. Canad. Ent. 75: 173. ♀.

Taxonomy: Finlayson, 1963. Canad. Ent. 95: 489-490 (final-instar larva).

Biology: Griffiths, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 654.

Exenterus tricolor Roman
Europe. Introduced in N. B. (1937-1939), Que. (1936-1940), N. H. (1938), and
Vt. (1939); a 1946 recovery in N. B. indicates that the species may be established there.
Host: Gilpinia hercyniae (Htg.). The host listed was the target species for introductions
in North America.
Exenterus tricolor Roman, 1913. Ent. Tidskr. 34: 127. cj, 9.

Taxonomy: Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 928-929 (final-instar larva).

Biology: Morris, Cameron, and Jepson, 1937. Bui. Ent. Res. 28: 369-375. —Barclay, 1938. Ent.
Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 69: 29-31.

Exenterus tsugae Cushman
Mont., B. C, Idaho, Oreg., Calif. Host: Neodiprion tsugae Midd., N.
sciitellatiis Roh.
Exenterus tsugae Cushman, 1940. U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 354: 13. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Fumiss and Dowden, 1941. Jour. Econ. Ent. 34: 49.

Exenterus vellicatus Cushman
Newfoundland (insular), N. S., P. E. I., N. B., Que., Maine, N. Y., Ont.
Introduced. Host: Gilpinia hercyniae (Htg.).
Exenterus vellicatus Cushman, 1940. U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 354: 7. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 928-930 (final-instar larva).
Biology: Morris, Cameron, and Jepson, 1937. Bui. Ent. Res. 28: 377 (as Exenterus sp.).

Exenterus walleyi Cushman
N. B., Ont., Ind. Host: Neodiprion abietis (Harris), N. nanuhis nanulus
Schedl, A^. sertifer (Geoff.).
Exenterus walleyi Cushman, 1943. Canad. Ent. 75: 171. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 29-30 (final-instar larva).

Genus ERIDOLIUS Foerster

Anisoctenion Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 194.

Type-species: Acroto^nus xanthopus Holmgren. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Schmiedeknecht, 1907. The type-species is considered to be a
synonym of Eridolius alacer (Gravenhorst).
Eridolius Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 195.

Type-species: Exenterus pygmaeus Holmgren. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Thomson, 1883.

Until recently the name Cteniscus was applied to this genus because Eridolius aurifhms
(Haliday) was incorrectly regarded as the type-species of Cteniscus (see discussion under
Cteniscus). Eridolius is Holarctic with many species of boreal distribution. Many of the species
occurring in the Nearctic Region are undescribed.




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Taxonomy: Mason, 1962. Canad. Ent. 94: 1291 (generic limits, as Cteniscus). — Townes, 1969.

Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 11: 191-192.

Eridolius clypeatus (Cresson)
Que. w. to Alaska, s. to Pa., Colo., and Oreg.

Cteniscus clypeatus Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 113. ♀.

Eridolius consors (Cresson)
Que., N. H., Conn., Md., Ont, Tex., Nev.

Cte7iiscus consors Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 113. ♀.

Eridolius flavicoxae (Cresson)
Mass., Del.

Cteniscus flavicoxae Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 283. ♀.

Taxonomy: Mason, 1962. Canad. Ent. 94: 1291.

Eridolius gnathoxanthus (Gravenhorst)
Que., Alaska; Europe.

Tryphon gnathoxayitlins Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 147. ♀.

Eridolius marginatus (Thomson)
Transcont. in Huds. Zone; Europe.

Cteniscns marginatus Thomson, 1883. Opusc. Ent. 9: 892. ♂, ♀.

Ctenisc%is nigrofemoralis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 211. S ■

Taxonomy: Roman, 1909. In Hamburg, Naturw. Unters. Sarekgebirges, v. 4, p. 286. —Mason,
1951. In Muesebeck, Krombein, and Townes, U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 227 (syn.).

Eridolius orbitalis (Cresson)
Que., Maine, N. Y., Pa., Ont.

Cteniscus orbitalis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 293. "♂"=♀.

Eridolius praeustus (Holmgren)
Alaska, Wash.; Eurasia.

Exentenis praeustus Holmgren, 1857 (1855). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (n. f.) 1: 245. ♀.

Eridolius pygmaeus (Holmgren)
Transcont. in Arctic (s. part) and Huds. Zones; n. Europe.

Exentenis pygmaeus Holmgren, 1857 (1855). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Hand!, (n. f.) 1: 245. ♀.
Microplectron alaske7isis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 212. ♂.

Taxonomy: Mason, 1951. In Muesebeck, Krombein, and Townes, U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr.
Monog. 2: 228 (syn.).

Tribe IDIOGRAMMATINI

This tribe includes Idiogramma and the fossil genus Urotryphon described by Townes (1973)
from Cretaceous amber (80 to 90 million years old) collected in the U. S. S. R.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1973. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 75: 282-287.

Genus IDIOGRAMMA Foerster

Idiogramma Foerster, 1867. In Kirchner, Cat. Hym. Europae, p. 67. Nomen nudum. The

nomen nudum Idiogramma euryops Foerster also appears on p. 67.
Idiogramma Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 163.

Type-species: Idiogramma euryops Schmiedeknecht. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Schmiedeknecht, 1868.
Macrochasmus Thomson, 1888. Opusc. Ent. 12: 1279.

Type-species: Macrochasmus alysiinus Thomson. Monotypic.
Lysiognatha Ashmead, 1895. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 3: 276.

Type-species: Lysiognatha comstockii Ashmead. Monotypic.

Members of this Holarctic genus parasitize larvae of Xyela in the staminate cones of Pimis.
Oviposition occurs at about the time when the Xyela larval development is nearing completion,
which apparently just precedes the time the host pine sheds its pollen. The eggs of Idiogramma
hatch after the host has dropped to the ground and formed its earthen pupal cell.

Revision: Cushman, 1937. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 27: 438-444. —Townes and Townes, 1951.
Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 53: 308-313.

Taxonomy: Perkins, 1940. Entomologist 73: 55. —Cushman, 1942. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 44:
54 (generic syn.).

Biology: Burdick, 1961. Calif. Univ., Pubs. Ent. 17: 319-320.




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Idiogramma bridwelli (Cushman)
Md., Va., Fla. Ecology: Associated with Pbms virginiana. Host: Xyela
sp.
Lysiognatha bridwelli Cushman, 1937. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 27: 444. ♂, ♀.

Idiogramma comstockii (Ashmead)
Ont., N. Y., Md., D. C, Va. Ecology: Associated with Finns divaricata
and P. virginiana.
Lysiognatha comstockii Ashmead, 1895. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 3: 276. ♂, ♀.
Lysiognatha sulcata Cushman, 1937. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 27: 442. ♂, ♀.

Idiogramma contortae Townes
Utah, Ariz., Calif. Ecology: Associated with Finns contorta, P. mnricata,
and F. ponderosa.
Idiogramma contortae Townes, 1951. In Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 53:
310. ♂, ♀.

Idiogramma fraterna Townes
Utah, Ariz., Calif. Ecology: Associated with Finns contorta and F.
ponderosa.
Idiogramma fratemns Townes, 1951. Ln Townes and Townes, Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 53:
312. ♂, ♀.

Idiogramma longicauda (Cushman)
Md., Va., Ga., Ala. Ecology: Associated with Fi^ius taeda and P.
virginiana. Host: Xyela sp.

Lysiognatha longicanda Cushman, 1937. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 27: 443. ♂, ♀.

Idiogramma titana Burdick
Calif. Ecology: Associated with Finns conlteri.

Idiogramma titana Burdick, 1958. Pan-Pacific Ent. 34: 159. ♂, ♀.

Subfamily EUCEROTINAE
Genus EUCEROS Gravenhorst

Euceros Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 368.

Type-species: Euceros crassicomis Gravenhorst. Monotypic.
Eumesius Westwood, 1840. Introd. Mod. Classif. Ins., v. 2, p. 153. Unnecessary n. name for

Euceros Gravenhorst, which is not preocc. by Eucera Scopoli, 1770.
Omaloceros Giraud, 1857. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien, Verh. 7: 163. Unnecessary n. name for

Euceros Gravenhorst.
Tautozelus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 212.

Type-species: Euceros egregius Holmgren. Included and desig. by Perkins, 1962.
The type species is regarded as a synonym of E. serricomis Haliday.
Encerusd) Verhoeff, 1892. Ent. Nachr. 18: 4.

Pseudasthenara Uchida, 1930. Hokkaido Imp. Univ., Faculty Agr., Jour. 25: 276.
Type-species: Asthenara rufocincta Ashmead. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This is the only genus in the Eucerotinae; it is moderate sized, and its distribution is Holarctic,
Australian (one undescribed sp.), and Ethiopian (one Madagascan sp.). The genus was placed in
the Tryphoninae (as tribe Eucerotini) by Townes (1969), apparently based upon the similarities
between the final instar larvae of Euceros and Exentenis (cf. Finlayson [1960, p. 34]), but the
egg, the early larval instars, the adult, and the biology of Euceros differ so greatly from those of
Tryphoninae or any other Ichneumonidae that the genus is here placed in a subfamUy of its own,
as was done by Perkins (1959). Barron (1977) has published a revision of the Nearctic species; I
regret that it was not feasible for me to revise the present treatment of Euceros accordingly.

Euceros eggs are stalked and greatly resemble those of Chrysopidae; they are deposited on
foliage near early-instar larvae of a carrier host (defoliating sawflies or Lepidoptera). The
planidial first larval instar of Euceros remains upon its empty chorion at the top of the egg stalk
until it is able to attach to a passing carrier host. Although a Euceros planidium obtains enough
fluid from the carrier host to sustain itself, it is an obligate hyperparasite and cannot develop
further on the carrier host; its chance for completing its development depends upon the host
being parasitized (presumably most often subsequently) by another ichneumonid (it seems
reasonable to expect rearings from larger Braconidae also). The time at which a Euceros planidi-
um enters its true host is not known for certain and may vary according to the true host's mode
of parasitism (true hosts include external as well as internal parasites). When the true host is an
internal larval parasite (e.g. Phobocampe or Olesicampe), it appears likely that the first-instar
Euceros planidium remains externally attached to the carrier host until the mature larva of the




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true host has killed the carrier host and emerged from it. When the true host is an internal lar-
val-pupal parasite (a species of Anomaloninae being recorded as a host of Eiiceros frigid is Cres-
son) it would be necessary for the Euceros planidium to bore through the integument of the car-
rier host in order to reach the true host. There appear to be seven or eight larval instars; during
the first four stadia, the Euceros larvae are internal parasites, but during the last three or four
stadia they are external parasites.

Revision: Barron, 1977 (1976). Nat. Canad. 103: 285-375.

Taxonomy: Perkins, 1959. Handb. Ident. Brit. Ins., v. 7, pt. 2 (ai), p. 14. — Townes, 1969.
Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 11: 193-194.

Morphology: Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 34, 37 (final-instar larva). —Tripp, 1961. Canad.
Ent. 93: 41-43, 45-48, 49, 56, 57 (ovariole, egg, first-instar larva, final-instar larva).
— Varley, 1965 (1964). Ent. Monthly Mag. 100: 114, 115-116 (first-instar larva).

Euceros albomarginatus Cushman
N. H., N. Y., Pa., Ohio.

Sco7-pioms{l) albomarginatus Ashmead, 1902. In Slosson, Ent. News 13: 320. Nomen

nudum.
Euceros albomarginatus Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 61 (8): 12. ♀.

Euceros angulicornis Walley
B. C.

Euceros angulicornis Walley, 1932. Canad. Ent. 64: 246. ♂, ♀.

Euceros canadensis Cresson
Que., N. H., Vt., N. Y., Ont., Ohio, Mich.

Euceros Canadensis Cresson, 1869. Canad. Ent. 1: 103. ♀.

Euceros digitalis Walley
Ont.

Ettceros digitalis Walley, 1932. Canad. Ent. 64: 242. ♂.

Euceros faciens Davis
Wash., Oreg. Ecology: Reared from a parasite of Neodiprion tsugae Midd.

Euceros faciens Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 256. ♂.

Euceros flavescens Cresson
Conn., W. Va.

Euceros flavescens Cresson, 1869. Canad. Ent. 1: 105. ♂, ♀.

Euceros frigidus Cresson
Que., Maine, Ont., Man., B. C. Host: Casinaria semiothisae Wly.?, E7idasijs
subclavatus (Say), Lamachus sp., Olesicampe lophyri (Riley), sp. of Anomaloninae near
Therion, Tryphoninae.

Euceros frigidus Cresson, 1869. Canad. Ent. 1: 105. ♀.

Biology: Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 34, 36. -Tripp, 1961. Canad. Ent. 93: 40-58.

Euceros medialis Cresson
Que. s. to N. C, w. to Alta.

Euceros medialis Cresson, 1869. Canad. Ent. 1: 105. ♀.

Euceros neodiprioni Walley
Que., Md. Ecology: Reared from a parasite of Neodiprion sp.

Euceros neodiprioni Walley, 1932. Canad. Ent. 64: 245. ♂, ♀.

Euceros obesus Davis
N. Y., 111.

Euceros obesus Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 255. ♀.

Euceros sanguineus Davis
Colo.

Euceros sanguineus Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 255. ♂, ♀.

Euceros thoracicus Cresson
Que., Maine, N. H., Conn., N. Y., Pa., Ont., Man. Ecology: Reared from
parasites of Caripeta divisata Wlk., Hydriomena divisaria (Wlk.), Semiothisa
"granitata" auct., Neodiprion sp., N. swainei Midd., N. sp. in virginiana complex, and
Pristiphora (Htg.).

Euceros Couperii Cresson, 1869. Canad. Ent. 1: 104. ♂.

Euceros thoracicus Cresson, 1869. Canad. Ent. 1: 105. ♂.

Euceros couperi Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 326. Emend.

Scorpiorus(l) flavopictus Ashmead, 1902. In Slosson, Ent. News 13: 6. Nomen nudum.

Euceros vierecki Hertzog, 1909. Ent. News 20: 245. "♂"=♀.

Euceros decorus Walley, 1932. Canad. Ent. 64: 244. ♂, ♀.

Subfamily ADELOGNATHINAE
Genus ADELOGNATHUS Holmgren

Adeloffiiathus Holmgren, 1857 (1855). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (n. f.) 1: 196.




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Type-species: Adelognathus brevicomis Holmgren. Desig. by Viereck, 1912.
Pammicra Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 181.

Type-species: Hemiteles dorsalis Gravenborst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Tbomson, 1883.
Synaema Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 201.

Type-species: Adelognathus brevicomis Holmgren. Monotypically included and
desig. by Viereck, 1914. Perkins (1962) incorrectly stated that species had been
included by Szepligeti (1911), but Szepligeti merely placed Syyiaeina as a
synonym of Adelogyiatlius, which does not constitute inclusion of species.
Notomeris Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 201.

Type-species: Adelogiiathus difformis Holmgren. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Thomson, 1888. According to Perkins (1943) the species identified as
A. difformis Holmgren by Thomson is A. thomsoyii Schmiedeknecht.
Cnemischys Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 201.

Type-species: Adelognathus (Cnemischus) pilosus Thomson. Desig. by Townes, 1944
from two species included by Thomson, 1888.
Pammicrus Thomson, 1883. Opusc. Ent. 9: 880. Emend.
Cnemischus Thomson, 1888. Opusc. Ent. 12: 1277. Emend.

Townes (1969) treated Adelognathus as the only genus in the Adelognathinae; the genus is
Holarctic and of moderate size. Several species have been reared from larvae or savvflies; in one
case the Adelognathus larvae are known to have fed externally and gregariously.

Taxonomy: Szepligeti, 1911. In Wytsman, Gen. Ins., fasc. 144, p. 50. —Perkins, 1943. Roy.
Ent. Soc. London, Trans. 93: 95-97. —Townes and Townes, 1951. In Muesebeck et a/., U. S.
Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 209-210. -Perkins, 1962. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 11:
414, 439, 442, 455. -Townes, 1969. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 11: 207-208.

Adelognathus americanus Cushman
N. H. Ecology: The holotype was collected on the alpine region of Mt.

Washington, N. H.
Trachyporthus(l) americamis Ashmead, 1897. In Slosson, Ent. News 8: 237. Nomen

nudum.
Adelognathus americanus Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 61 (8): 2. ♀.
brevicomis Holmgren. Que., N. Y.; Europe.

Adelognathus brevicomis Holmgren, 1857 (1855). Svenska Vetesk.-Akad. Handl. (n. s.) 1:

197. ♂, ♀.
Adelognathus limbatus Thomson, 1888. Opusc. Ent. 12: 1275. ♀.

Adelognathus dorsalis (Gravenhorst)
Que., Maine, N. H., Md., N. C, Ohio, Mich.; Europe.
Hemiteles dorsalis Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 838. ♂, ♀.
Hemiteles tener Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 333. "♂"=♀.
Notomirisd) glabrosus Davis, 1896. hi Slosson, Ent. News 7: 264. Nomen nudum.
Notomeris glabrosus Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 242. ♀.
Adelognathus deganti Cushman, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (14): 14. ♀.

Adelognathus flavopictus Davis
N. Y., W. Va., Mich., 111., Minn., s.w. B. C, Oreg. Host: "Nematus" sp. The

male syntype in the collection of the U. S. Natl. Museum, which bears Hopkins W. Va.

no. 3494, was reared by Hopkins (1893) from larvae of "Neynatus sp. a" collected in

Monongalia Co., W. Va. on "Yellow Locust" {=Gleditsia triacanthosf); it emerged on

May 30.
Adelognathus briviceps Ashmead, 1893. In Hopkins, W. Va. Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 32: 216.

Nomen nudum.
Adelognathus flavopictus Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 242. ♂, ♀.

Adelognathus pallipes (Gravenhorst)
Que., N. H., N. Y., Md., D. C, N. C, Minn.; Europe. Host:

Macremphytus testaceus (Nort.), sawfly larvae.
Plectiscus pallipes Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 981. ♀.
Adelognathus Ruthei Holmgren, 1857 (1855). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. (n. f.) 1: 198. ♂, ♀.
Catalytus /xillipes Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 12: 419. 6,9. Prtocc. in

Adelognathus by Gravenborst, 1829 and Holmgren, 1857.
Plectiscus pallidipes Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 24. Emend, of P. pallipes

Gravenhorst.




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Hemiteles pallidipes Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 660. Emend, of C. pallipes
Ashmead; preocc. in Adelognathus by Dalla Torre, 1901, p. 24 and p. 31.

Adelognathus persimilis Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 61 (8): 3. N. name for C.

Adelognathus pallipes
***authority mismatch
Ashmead.

Taxonomy: Thomson, 1883. Opusc. Ent. 9: 878-879 (syn.). — Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc,
Mem. 11: 144 (syn.).

Subfamily XORIDINAE
There are four genera, all of which have Nearctic species.
Revision: Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 428-444, 451-460.

Genus ISCHNOCEROS Gravenhorst

Ischnoceros Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 949.

Type-species: Ichneumon nisticus Geoffroy. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Mitroboris Holmgren, 1859. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad., Ofvers. af ... Forhandl. 16: 131.

Type-species: Xorides {Odontomenis) comutus Ratzeburg. Monotypic. The
type-species is regarded as a synonym of Ischnoceros nisticus (Geoffroy).

This is a small Holarctic genus.

Ischnoceros clivulus Townes
Northeastern Calif.

Ischnoceros clivulus Townes, 1957. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 59: 21. ♀.

Genus APLOMERUS Provancher

Platysoma Provancher, 1885. Canad. Ent. 17: 115. Preocc. by Leach, 1817; Lienard, 1832;

and Brandt, 1835.

Type-species: Platysoma tibialis Provancher. Monotypic.
Aplomerus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 119. N. name for

Platysoma Provancher.
Anodontomenis Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 61, 163. Unnecessary n. name

for Aplomerus Provancher; Ashmead did not state his reason for proposing his n. name

for Aplomerus (on page 61 he erroneously indicated that he was describing a "new

genus"), and one can only suppose that he may have thought Aplomerus to be preocc.

by Aplomera Macquart, 1839.
Haplomerus Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 392. Invalid name proposed in

synonymy.

This is a small Holarctic and Neotropic (one undescribed Mexican sp.) genus.

Revision: Townes (H.) and Townes (G.), 1960 In Townes (H.) and Townes (M.), U. S. Natl.
Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 439-447.

Aplomerus arugosus
***authority mismatch
Townes and G. Townes. Northwestern Wyo. Ecology: The unique holotype was
collected at an elevation of 6500 ft. in Shoshone Canyon, Wyo.
Aplomerus arugosus Townes (H.) and Townes (G.), 1960. In Townes (H.) and Townes (M.),
U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 446. ♀.

Aplomerus buprestivorus Rohwer
Northwestern Ariz., s.w. Oreg., n.e. and s.w. Calif. Ecology: The

holotype and paratype were collected as cocooned pupae or prepupae in a buprestid
gallery in Cercocarpus parvifolius at Ashland, Oreg.
Aplomerus buprestivorus Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 453. ♀.

Aplomerus lineatulus (Say)
Que. s. to e. N. C, w. to Wis., Iowa, and n.e. Kans.
Anoynalon lineatulus Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 244. ♂.
Aplomerus foutsi Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 454. ♀.
Aplomerus decorus Viereck, 1926. Canad. Ent. 58: 55. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cushman and Gahan, 1921. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 23: 157 (syn.). —Townes, 1944.
Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 115 (syn.).




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Aplomerus robustus
***authority mismatch
Townes and G. Townes. Southwestern B. C, w. Wash., w. Oreg., n. Calif. Ecology:
Specimens have been reared from dead coniferous trees infested with Buprestidae and
Cerambycidae.
Aplovierus robustus Townes (H.) and Townes (G.), 1960. hi Townes (H.) and Townes (M.),
U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 443. ♂, ♀.

Aplomerus tibialis (Provancher)
Southern B. C, Oreg., n. Calif. Ecology: A large series was collected on
fallen trunks oi Pinus contorfa which had been killed by Dendroctonus and had
disintegrated to the point of losing nearly all their bark.
Platysoma tibialis Provancher, 1885. Canad. Ent. 17: 115. ♀.

Genus ODONTOCOLON Cushman

Odontomerus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 851. Preocc. by Leach, 1819.

Type-species: Ichneumon dentipes Gmelin. Desig. by Westwood, 1840.
Odontocolon Cushman, 1942. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 44: 179. N. name for Odontomerus
Gravenhorst.

This is a large Holarctic genus.

Revision: Townes and Townes, 1960. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 448-489.

Odontocolon abdominale
***authority mismatch
abdominale (Cresson). Southeastern Wyo., Colo., n.w. Mont., n. Idaho, n.e. Utah,
Ariz.
Odontomems abdominalis Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 289. ♀.

Odontocolon abdominale
***authority mismatch
fergusoni Townes. Southwestern Alta., s.e. B. C, n.e. Wash.

Odontocolon abdominale fergusoni Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 464. ♂, ♀.

Odontocolon aethiops (Cresson)
Colo., s.w. Alta., n.w. Mont., s.e. B. C, n. Idaho, n. Calif. Host: Cerambycid
in Piyius contorta.
Odontomerus aethiops Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 289. ♂, ♀.

Odontocolon alaskense (Rohwer)
South-coastal Alaska. Closely related to the European 0. punctulatum.
(Thomson); alaskense had been suppressed as a synonym of punctnlatum by Townes
(1944) but was removed from synonymy by Townes and Townes (1960).
Odontomerus alaskensis Rohwer, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 45: 360. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 112-113. —Townes and Townes, 1960. U.
S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 460.

Odontocolon albotibiale (Bradley)
N. S. s. to n. Fla., w. to Minn, and Iowa.

Odontomems albotibialis Bradley, 1918. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 13: 103. ♀.
Odontomerus striatns Cushman, 1930. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 77 (3): 14. ♀. Preocc. by

Brulle, 1846.
Odontocolon aciculatus Cushman, 1942. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 44: 182. N. name for
Odontomems striatus Cushman.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1942. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 44: 182 (misidentification corrected).

Odontocolon atripes (Rohwer)
N. S. w. to w. Alta., s. to e. N. C, n.e. Ala., and n. 111.

Odontomerus atripes Rohwer, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 45: 358. ♂, ♀.

Odontocolon bicolor (Cresson)
Pa., n. Va., n.w. S. C, n. Ga., n.e. Ala., e. Tex. Ecology: Two specimens from
Call, Texas were apparently collected as cocooned pupae or prepupae from beneath the
bark of logs and stumps of Pinus palustris which had been cut several years before.
Odontomems bicolor Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 169. ♀.

Odontocolon brevicaudum (Cushman)
Southwestern Alta., n.w. Mont., n. Idaho, s. B. C, Wash.

Odontomerus brevicaudus Cushman, 1930. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 77 (3): 7. 9. Because
Cushman used the spelling brevicaudus instead of brevicauda, the name is to be
regarded as an adjective rather than a noun.

Odontocolon canadense (Provancher)
N. S., Que., Maine, N. H., N. Y., w. N. C, Ont., Mich., n.e. Minn. Host:
Serropalpus sp. in Eraser fir.
Odontomerus Ca7iade7isis Provancher, 1877. Nat. Canad. 9: 16. ♀.
Odontomems tibialis Cushman, 1930. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 77 (3): 11. ♂, ♀.




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Taxonomy: Cushman, 1942. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 44: 182 (syn. and correction of
misidentification of canadense).

Odontocolon cilipes Townes
Southeastern Ariz. Ecology: Known only from the holotype which was
collected in the Chiricahua Mts., Ariz.
Odoniocolon cilipes Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 454. ♀.

Odontocolon curtum Townes
Northwestern Calif. Ecology: Two of the paratypes emerged from "Laurel,"
presumably Umbellaria califoniica.
Odonfocolon curtum Townes, 1960 In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 470. ♂, ♀.

Odontocolon depressum Townes
Colo. Ecology: Known only from the holotype which was collected at an
elevation of 9400 ft. in Rocky Mt. Natl. Park, Colo.
Odontocolon depressum Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2): 459. ♀.

Odontocolon dichroum (Rohwer)
Northern Idaho, s. B. C, Wash., Oreg., n. Calif.

Odontomerus diclirous Rohwer, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 45: 361. ♀.

Odontocolon dreisbachi Townes
Northwestern Mich. Ecology: Known only from the holotype which was
collected on Isle Royale, Mich.
Odontocolon dreisbachi Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2): 480. ♀.

Odontocolon formicoides Townes
Northern Ariz. Ecology: Known only from the holotype which was
collected in a stand of Populus, Picea, and Abies at an elevation of 9700 ft. on
Humphreys Peak, Ariz.
Odontocolon formicoides Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2): 458! 6.

Odontocolon mellipes (Say)
Mass. w. to S. Dak., s. to e. and w. N. C, n.w. S. C, and n.e. Kans. Host:
Parandra (Neandra) brunnea (F.).
Anomalon mellipes Say, 1829. Contrib. Maclurian Lyceum to Arts and Sci. 1: 75. ♀.
Odontomerus ei-rans Rohwer, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 45: 360. ♀.

Odontocolon ochropus Townes
Que. w. to s. B. C, s. to n.w. S. C, e. Tenn., s. Minn., Ariz, and n. Idaho.
Ecology: Three paratypes from Falls Church, Va. emerged from pine infested with
Anoplodera rubrica (Say) and A. vagans (Oliv.); one paratype from Inglenook, Pa.
emerged from hemlock infested with A. rubrica and Metacmaeops vittatus (Swed.); one
paratype from D. C. was collected as an adult in its cocoon, which was extracted from
rotten beech wood.
Odontocolon ochropus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 482. ♂, ♀.

Odontocolon parvum Townes
Northwestern Wyo., n. Colo., n. Idaho, s. B. C, Wash., n.w. Oreg.

Odontocolon jxirvum Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 472. ♂, ♀.

Odontocolon polymorphum Cushman
Southwestern B. C, n.w. Wash., w. Oreg. Ecology: Thirteen

paratypes were reared from a branch of Ahius (presumably rubra) infested with
Anobiidae, and two other specimens emerged from a board of Umbellaria californica
infested by Lyctus caricollis LeC. and the anobiid, Ptilinus basilis LeC. The adults can
be wingless, brachypterous (brachypterous male not known), or fully winged.
Odontocolon polymorphum Cushman, 1942. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 44: 180. ♂, ♀.

Odontocolon pullum Townes
Southern B. C, e. Calif. The four type specimens included one wingless
female.
Odontocolon pullum Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 456. ♂, ♀.

Odontocolon punctatum (Cushman)
Northwestern Wyo., n. Idaho, s. B. C, w. Wash., e. Oreg., and e. Calif.
Ecology: Notes in the U. S. Natl. Museum indicate that the holotype was "emerging?
from [a] wood wasp? burrow in [a] dead grand fir," from which Leptura obliterata Hald.
also emerged (cf. Cushman, 1930); one specimen was extracted from Abies along with



Superfamily ICHNEUMONOIDEA " 391

two immature adults and a larva of a siricid {="Tremex") and is labeled (incorrectly?) as
being a parasite of "Tremex."
Odontomerns punctatus Cushman, 1930. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 77 (3): 12. ♀.

Odontocolon sierrae Townes
Eastern Calif.

Odontocolon sierrae Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 471. ♂, ♀.

Odontocolon strangaliae (Rohwer)
Que. s. to N. C, w. to e. Minn, and central Ala. Host: Strangalina
litteicomis (F.) in grape, "Leptiira" sp. in rotten oak branch.
Odontomerns strangaliae Rohwer, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 53: 158. ♀.

Odontocolon vicinum (Cresson)
Que. w. to s.e. B. C, s. to n. Va., s. Ohio, n. Colo., and e. Oreg. Host:

Dicerca divaricata (Say) in Alnus sp., D. divaricataf in Betula nigra, D. obscura F. in
hackberry.
Odontomerns vicinus Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 168. ♂.

Genus XORIDES Latreille

There are ten subgenera, only two of which have Nearctic species.

Revision: Townes and Townes, 1960. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 489-530 (subgenera of
world and Nearctic spp.).

Genus XORIDES Subgenus EXOMUS Townes

Xorides subg. Exomus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2): 496.

Type-species: Anomalon humerale Say sensu Townes and Townes (1960). Grig,
desig.

A single variable species in known.

Xorides humeralis (Say)
Newfoundland (Labrador) w. to B. C, s. to Fla., Tex., s.e. Ariz., and s. Calif.;

Mexico. Host: Neoclytus acuminatus (F.) in Ilex opaca, Phymatodes testaceous (L.) in

red oak, Xylotrechus undulatus (Say)? in Abies lasiocarpa. The six "subspecies" of

Townes and Townes (1960) are too poorly defined and based upon too few specimens to

be worth recognizing.
Anomalon humerale Say, 1829. Contrib. Maclurian Lyceum to Arts and Sci. 1: 74. ♀.
Xylonomus australis Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 167. ♀.
Xylonomns Lavallensis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 59. ♀.

Xylonomus (Moerophora) piceatus Rohwer, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 45: 357. N. syn.
Xorides (Exomus) humeralis mexicanus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S.

Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 497. ♀. N. syn.
Xorides (Exoinus) humeralis sierrae Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.

Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 500. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Xorides (Exo^nus) humeralis excomptus Townes, 1960. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.

Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 500. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Xorides (Exomus) humeralis chiricensis Townes, 1960. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.

Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 501. ♀. N. syn.

Genus XORIDES Subgenus Xorides Latreille

Xorides Latreille, 1809. Gen. Crust. Ins., v. 4, p. 4.

Type-species: Ichneumon indicatorius Latreille. Monotypic.
Xylonomus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 819.

Type-species: Ichneumon irrigator Fabricius. Desig. by Curtis, 1831.
Sterotrichus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 169.

Type-species: Xylonomus pilicomis Gravenhorst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Brischke, 1880. The type-species is regarded as a synonym of X.
fuligator (Thunberg).
Sichelia Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 169.

Type-species: Xylonomus filiformis Gravenhorst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Schmiedeknecht, 1888.




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Rhadina Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 170. Preocc. by Billberg, 1828.
Type-species: Xylonomus ater Gravenborst. Monotypically included and desig. by
Scbmiedeknecbt, 1888.
Rhadhiopimpla Scbulz, 1906. Zool. Ann. 4: 23. N. name for Rhadina Foerster.
Xylonomimus Clement, 1938. Festscbr. Embrik Strand, v. 4, p. 539.

Type-species: Xylonomus gracilicomis Gravenborst. Orig. desig.
Neoxylonomus Clement, 1838. Festscbr. Embrik Strand, v. 4, p. 566. Preocc. by Szepligeti,
1914.

Type-species: Neoxylonomus strandi Clement. Monotypic.
Amphixylonomus Benoit, 1952. Soc. Ent. de Belg., Bui. et Ann. 88: 136. Described as a
subgenus, but treated nomenclaturally as a genus.

Type-species: Amphixylonomus konduensis Benoit. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This is a large subgenus of Holarctic, Oriental, Australian? (one sp. described as being from
New Guinea), and Ethiopian (one sp.) distribution.

Xorides albopictus (Cresson)
Que. s. to n. Ga., w. to central N. Dak., e. Nebr., and n.e. Tex. Ecology:
Parasite of Coleoptera which bore in hardwoods. Host: Saperda discoidea F., S.
tridentata Oliv., Scolytus multisfriatns (Mar.)?
Xyolonomus albopictus Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 168. ♀.
Xorides Canadensis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 248. ♂.

Xylonomus {Moerophora) duplicatus Rohwer, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 45: 356. ♂.

Xorides atrox Townes
Southeastern B. C. Known only from the holotype.

Xorides (Xorides) atrox Townes, 1960. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2): 520. ♀.

Xorides boharti Townes
Northwestern Calif.

Xorides (Xorides) boharti Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2):508. ♂, ♀.

Xorides calidus (Provancher)
Que. w. to s.e. Sask., s. to e. N. C. and Tex. Host: Amiiiscus macula

(Say) in Castanea dentata, Curius dentatus Newm. in juniper, cerambycid in Castanea
dentata.
Xylonomus calidtcs Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 119. ♀.
Xylonomus pulcher Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 450. ♀.
Aplomenis nasonii Davis, 1895. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 22: 32. ♂.
Xorides callid7is(l) Townes and Townes, 1951. U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 205.

Xorides californicus (Cresson)
Colo., n. N. Mex., n. Ariz., w. Mont., n. Idaho, s. B. C, Wash., Oreg., n.
Calif. Host: Buprestis viridisuturalis N. and W. in Populus trichocarpa, Chalcophora
angulicollis (LeC.) in Pinus ponderosa, Alaus oculatus (L.)?, sesiid? in Pinus
ponderosa.
Xylonomus californicus Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 380. ♀.
Xylonomus catomus Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 372. ♀.

Xorides cincticornis
***authority mismatch
cincticornis (Cresson). Southwestern Alta. and s. B. C, s. to n. N. Mex., n. Idaho,
and e. and n.w. Oreg. Host: Anoplodera chrysocoma (Kby.)? in Pinus ponderosa
scopidorum.
Xylonomus cincticornis Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc 4: 288. ♀.
Xyloyiomus (Moerophora) modestus Rohwer, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 45: 358. ♂.

Xorides cincticornis
***authority mismatch
rufus Townes. Central Oreg., n.e. Calif.

Xorides (Xorides) cincticornis rufus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.
Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 530. ♂, ♀.

Xorides eastoni (Rohwer)
Mass., Conn., Wis., s. B. C.

Xylonomus (Moerophora) eastoni Rohwer, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 45: 356. ♀.

Xorides frigidus (Cresson)
Que., Maine, Vt., Colo., n. Idaho, interior Alaska, s. Yukon, s.w. B. C, n.e.
Wash.
Xylonomus frigidus Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 168. ♀.
Xylonomus (Xylonomus) plesius Rohwer, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 45: 354. ♀.
Xylonomus (Moerophora) yukonensis Rohwer, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 45: 355. ♀.




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Xorides harringtoni Rohwer
Que., Vt., N. Y., Ont. Host: Dicerca divaricata (Say).

Xylo7iomus canadeyisis Harrington, 1891. Canad. Ent. 23: 133. ♂, ♀. Preocc. in Xorides by

Provancher, 1875.
Xorides harringtoni Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 443. N. name for Xylonomus
canadensis Harrington.

Xorides insularis (Cresson)
Que., Colo., s. N. Mex., s.w. Alta., n. Idaho, n. Utah., s. Ariz., Interior
Alaska, s. B. C, Wash., Oreg., n. Calif. Host: "Hylotrupes" sp. in Thuja plicata,
Semayiotiis amethystinus (LeC), S. liffyiens aynplus (Casey), Tetropium sp. in Larix
occidentalis, T. sp. in Picea, cerambycid in Abies, cerambycid in Pinus monticola,
Melanophila sp.?, M. drummondi (Kby.), buprestid in Pseudotsuga menziesii,
"Temnochila virescens [F.]" in redwood, "scolytid" in Pseudotsuga menziesii.
PoemeriaC) insularis Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 380. ♀.

Xorides maudae (Davis)
Western Wash., w. Oreg., n.w. Calif. Ecology: One specimen emerged from
Pseudotsuga menziesii.
Xylonomus maudae Davis, 1895. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 22: 32. ♀.
tnedius Townes. Northern Idaho, n.w. Calif.

Xorides (Xorides) medius Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2):511. ♂, ♀.

Xorides neoclyti (Rohwer)
Colo., N. Mex., Ariz. Host: Neoclytus caprea (Say), Semanotus ligneus
conformis (Casey), Chrysobothris femorata (Oliv.).
Moerophora neoclyti Rohwer, 1915. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 49: 223. ♂.

Xorides peniculus Townes
N. Y., N. J., Pa., e. S. C, e. Tex. Ecology: One paratype was extracted from
the wood of Celtis occidentalis, and another paratype and the holotype emerged from
the same host material.
Xorides (Xorides) peniculus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 2): 506.

Xorides pictus Townes
Western Calif.

Xorides (Xorides) pictus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2): 505. ♀.

Xorides planus Townes
Colo., Ariz.

Xorides (Xorides) plaiius Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2):511. ♂, ♀.

Xorides rileyi (Ashmead)
N. Y. s. to n. Fla., w. to Minn, and Mo. Host: Anoplodera nitens (Forster)?,
Phymatodes aereus (Newm.), P. testaceus (L.), Physocnemum andreae (Hald.),
Xylotrechus colonus (¥.), buprestid? in black oak, borer under willow bark.
Xylonomus rileyi Ashmead, 1889. In Fox, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 2: 197. Nomen

nudum.
Xylo7iomus rileyi Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 450. 9. The
type-locality is presumably Kirkwood, Mo. because notes in the U. S. Natl. Museum
pertaining to the number on the label of the holotype (Bureau of Entomology no. 2384)
say: "parasite (and its cocoon) border [sic; presumably borer] under willow bark, April
20, 1880, from Miss Murtfeldt."
Xylonomus (Xylonomus) nificoxis Rohwer, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 45 (no. 1986): 354. ♀.
Xylonomus (Xylonomus) lepturae Rohwer, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 45 (no. 1991): 534. ♀.

Xorides rudis Townes
Eastern Calif. Known only from the holotype.

Xorides (Xorides) rudis Townes, 1960. bi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 2): 510. 9..

Xorides semirufus Townes
Northern Fla. Known only from the holotype.

Xorides (Xorides) semirufus Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 2): 506. ♀.

Xorides stigmapterus
***authority mismatch
floridanus (Ashmead). Northwestern S. C, s.e. Ga., n. Fla., s.e. Tex.
Xylonomus floridanus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 451. ♀.




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Xorides stigmapterus
***authority mismatch
stigmapterus (Say). Newfoundland (Labrador), n. Man., n. B. C, and s. Alaska s.

to n.w. S. C, Iowa, e. N. Dak., and central Alta. Host: Anoplodera proximo (Say),

Dryobms sexnotatus Linsley?
AcoeniUis stigmapterus Say, 1824. In Keating, Narr. Long's 2nd Exped., v. 2 (App.), p.

325. ♀.
Xylonomiis tartarus Morley, 1913. Fauna Brit. India, Hym., v. 3, p. 78. 9. According to

Townes (1961) the holotype is erroneously labeled "India," which is presumed to be an

error for Indiana.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1961. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 63: 113, 175.

Subfamily CRYPTINAE

This is the largest of ichneumonid subfamilies. Townes (1970) recognized 307 genera which he
divided among three tribes, the Hemitelini (= Gelini), the Aptesini (=Echthrini), and the Cryp-
tini (= Mesostenini). Most Cryptinae are external parasites.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12, 537 pp. (genera of world).

Tribe HEMITELINI

This tribe includes most of the smaller Cryptinae. Many of the species oviposit into the egg
cocoons of spiders or cocoons of beneficial insects such as Chrysopidae, Braconidae, or other
Ichneumonidae. Species of a number of genera attack the puparia or larvae of cyclorrhaphous
Diptera.

Subtribe CHIROTICINA

Most of the species of this subtribe occur in the tropics or subtropics. There are 18 genera, but
only the worldwide genus Chirotica has Nearctic species.

Genus CHIROTICA Foerster

Chirotica Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 173.

Type-species: Hemiteles insigiiis Gravenhorst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Schmiedeknecht, 1897.
AUocota Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 173. Preocc. by Motschoulsky,
1860.

Type-species: AUocota confederatae Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Ashmead, 1896.
Spinolia Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 173. Preocc. by Dahlbom,
1854; Costa, 1858; and Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863.

Type-species: Hemiteles maculipennis Gravenhorst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Schmiedeknecht, 1897.
Syneches Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 173. Preocc. by Walker, 1852.
Type-species: Hemiteles thyridopteryx Riley. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Ashmead, 1900^
Diaglypta Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 176.

Type-species: Diaglypta radiata Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from inclusion
by Ashmead, 1895.
Deuterospinolia Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym. v. 3, p. 678. N. name for Spinolia Foerster.
Hymenosyneches Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 42: 149. N. name for Syneches

Foerster.
Aphadnus Cameron, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 20: 26.

Type-species: Aphadnus rufipes Cameron. Monotypic. A. rufipes is regarded as a
synonym of Chirotica decorata (Tosquinet), which is one of the intermediate
species tending to merge Chirotica and Paraphylax Foerster (see Townes, 1970).

Between 1944 and 1962 the name Phobetes Foerster was used for this genus in North Amer-
ica. Perkins' (1962) correction of the type-species of Phobetes from Phobetes albinopennis Davis
to Tryphon fuscicomis Holmgren transferred the name Phobetes to the Ctenopelmatinae, Eu-




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ryproctini. A similar correction also made by Perkins (1962), regarding the type-species of
Chirotica, resulted in Cliirutica being removed from synonymy with Gelis to take its present ap-
plication.
Members of this genus parasitize Psychidae.

Taxonomy: Perkins, 1962. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 11: 389, 413-414, 445. -Townes,
1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 12: 21.

Chirotica confederatae (Ashmead)
Fla., Mo., La.; Cuba, Guatemala, Honduras. Host: Astala confederata
(Grt.), Cryptothelea mgrita (B. and M.).
Hemiteles alaefasciatus Riley, 1890. In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3:

153. Nomen nudum.
Allocota confederatae Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 208. ♀.

Chirotica conspicua (Cresson)
N. C, Tex. Host: Psychid.

Hemiteles conspicuus Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 161. ♀.

Taxonomy: Walley, 1941. Canad. Ent. 73: 165.

Chirotica sheppardi (Walley)
Que., Ont., Fla., Idaho, B. C, Wash. Host: Hyaloscotes pithopoera (Dyar).

Allocota sheppardi Walley, 1941. Canad. Ent. 73: 165. ♀.

Chirotica thyridopteryx (Riley)
Mass. s. to Fla., w. to S. Dak. and s. Calif.; Mexico. Host: Astala

edwardsii (Heyl.), Cryptothelea gloveri (Pack.), C. nigrita (B. and M.), Oiketicus abbotii
Grt., Thyridopteryx ephemeraeforr)iis (Haw.). Three to six individuals emerge from a
single host.
Hemiteles^ thyridopteryx Riley, 1869. Mo. State Ent., Ann. Rpt. 1: 150. ♀, ♂.
Hemiteles thyridopterigis Riley, 1881. U. S. Ent. Comn., Bui. 6: 65. Emend.
Phobefes albinopennis Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 311. ♂.
Hemiteles thyridopterigis var. lencozonatus Ashmead, 1890. In Riley and Howard, U. S.

Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3: 152. Nomen nudum.
Hemiteles thyridopterigis v&r.fnscns Riley, 1890. In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr.,
Insect Life 3: 152. Nomen nudum.

Biology: Balduf, 1937. Ent. Soc Wash., Proc 39: 177-178.

Subtribe ACROLYTINA

Some members of this subtribe commonly oviposit into the cocoons of Braconidae or other
Ichneumonidae. It is possible that some species may at least occasionally be primary parasites of
cocoon spinning Lepidoptera, but I am not aware of information establishing this as fact.

Genus CORMOBIUS Townes

Cormobius Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 32.

Type-species: Cormobius tenuis Townes. Monotypic and orig. desig.

There are two undescribed Nearctic species.

Cormobius tenuis Townes
Md., S. C. Ecology: Two females (holotype and one paratype) were found
crawling over the bark of a large standing dead Quercus.
Cormobius tenuis Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 32. ♀.

Genus ENCRATEOLA Strand

Encrates Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 180. Preocc. by Gistel, 1848.
Type-species: Hemiteles (Encrafis[!]y) sHbi7npressus Brischke. By subsequent
monotypy from inclusion by Brischke, 1892. The type-species is considered to be a
synonym of Encrateola laevigata (Ratzeburg).
Encrateola Strand, 1916. Arch. f. Naturgesch. (Abt. A) 81 (5): 77. N. name for Encrates
Foerster.
laevigata longicornis (Provancher). Que., N. H., N. Y., Wash., Oreg. E. laevigata laevigata
(Ratzeburg) occurs in Europe.
Hemiteles longicornis Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 361. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 12: 34. —Barron, 1975. Nat Canad.
102: 498 (lectotype selection).




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Genus EUDELUS Foerster

Eudelvs Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 179.

Type-species: Hemiteles scabriculus Thomson. Monotypically included and desig. by
Perkins, 1962.
Idemum Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 179.

Type-species: Hemiteles (Idemum) crassiformis Viereck. By subsequent monotypy
from inclusion by Viereck, 1917.
Calliphrunis Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 210.

Type-species: Calliphnirus ffraimlostis Davis. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Davis, 1898.

Eudelus crassiformis (Viereck)
Conn.

Hemiteles (Idemum) crassiformis Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.
Survey Bui. 22: 339-340. ♂.

Eudelus granulosus (Davis)
111.

Calliphnirus granulosus Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 290. ♂.

Genus ISDROMAS Foerster

Phatnacra Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 179.

Type-species: Hemiteles (Phat^iacra) Monterai Lima. By subsequent monotypy
from inclusion by Lima, 1948.
Isdromas Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 179.

Type-species: Acrolyta aletiae Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from inclusion
by Ashmead, 1900.
Larsephna Cameron, 1903. Entomologist 36: 97.

Type-species: Larsephna varipes Cameron. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Daictimorpha Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 42: 636.

Type-species: Daictimorpha peruviana Viereck. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Isdromas lycaenae (Howard)
Pa. s. to Ala., w. to Iowa and Tex. Host: Apanteles aletiae Riley, A.
congregatus (Say), Meteorus sp., Campoletis sp., Hyposoter fugitivus (Say).
Hemiteles lycaenae Howard, 1889. In Scudder, Butterflies East. U. S. and Canada, v. 3, p.

1880. ♀.
Hemiteles aletiae Riley, 1890 (1889). In Ashmead, U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 401. Nomen

nudum.
Hemiteles bticculatHcis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 401. ♀.
Hemiteles gracilariae Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. : 401. ♀.
Orthopelma bedelliae Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 415. ♂.
Hemiteles selmae Riley, 1890. In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3: 153.

Nomen nudum.
Acrolyta aletiae Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 209. ♀, ♂.
Sychnoporthusd) tuckeri Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19: 315. ♀.

Genus ACROLYTA Foerster

Acrolyta Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 174.

Type-species: Acrolyta empretiae Ashmead. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from three
species included by Ashmead, 1896.
Rhadinocera Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 177.

Type-species: Hemiteles (Rhadinocera) algonquinus Viereck. By subsequent
monotypy from inclusion by Viereck, 1917.
Mosia Seyrig, 1952. Acad. Malgache, Mem. 39: 69.

Type-species: Mosia crassicomis Seyrig. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Parhemiteles Seyrig, 1952. Acad. Malgache, Mem. 39: 82.

Type-species: Parhemiteles flaviger Seyrig. Orig. desig.

Acrolyta alticola (Ashmead)
Colo., Wash. Host: Apanteles sp.

Hemiteles alticola Ashmead, 1890. Colo. Biol. Assoc, Bui. 1: 22. ♀.




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Acrolyta mesochori Ashmead
Conn., Pa., N. C, S. C, Ark. Host: Apanteles congregatus (Say).

Ashmead gave D. C. as the type locality, but the syntypes were actually sent to Riley

from Norwalk, Conn, by D. N. Couch.
Hemiteles mesoclioridis Riley, 1890. In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3:

153. Nomen nudum.
Acrolyta ynesoclwri Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 208. ♀.

Acrolyta nigricapitata (Cook and Davis)
Que. s. to Tenn., w. to Iowa. Host: Apanteles melanoscelus

(Ratz.), Meteorus communis (Cr.).
Hemiteles minutus Riley, 1890. In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3: 153.

Nomen nudum.
Hemiteles laticinctus Riley, 1890. In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3:

153. Nomen nudum.
Mesocho-nis microgasteris Riley, 1890. In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life

3: 156. Nomen nudum.
Ischnocems nigricapitatus Cook and Davis, 1891. Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 73: 11. 2.
Acrolyta empretiae Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 209. ♀.
Hemiteles laticinctus Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 210. ♂.
Hemiteles (Rhadinocera) algonquinus Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat.

Hist. Survey Bui. 22: 340. ♂.

Biology: Muesebeck and Dohanian, 1927. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 1487: 15.

Acrolyta washingtonensis (Cushman)
Maine, N. H., N. Y., Mich. Townes (1970) placed this species as a
synonym of alticola, but I have examined the holotypes of both and doubt that he is
correct.
Stiboscopus washingtonensis Ashmead, 1906. In Slosson, Ent. News 17: 324. Nomen

nudum.
Hemiteles {Isdromas) washingtonensis Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 61 (8): 14. ♀.
Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 40.

Genus INDOVIA Seyrig

Indovia Seyrig, 1952. Acad. Malgache, Mem. 39: 132.

Type-species: Indovia decorata Seyrig. Orig. desig.

Townes (1970) synonymized Indovia with Stiboscopus Foerster, but a correction of the
type-species of Stiboscopus from Stiboscopus thoracicus Ashmead to Hemiteles mandibularis
Provancher makes Stiboscopus a synonym of Lysibia (which see). Heviiteles pinifoliae Cushman
and Alegina laricellae Mason, which were placed in Stiboscopus by Townes, do not belong in hi-
dovia and are here left in the subtribe Mastrina where they are placed provisionally in Mastrus.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 65-66.

Indovia maculithorax (Ashmead)
n. comb. Fla.; Puerto Rico, Virgin Isls., Lesser Antilles. Host:

Apanteles sp. There is a specimen in the U. S. Natl. Mus. collection which was reared
from an Apanteles cocoon in 1927 at Sanford, Fla. by W. E. Stone.
Hemiteles maculithorax Ashmead, 1895. Zool. Soc. London, Proc. 65: 780. ♂.
Stiboscopus thoracicus Ashmead, 1890. Ent. Soc. London, Trans. 48: 267. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1966. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 8: 55 (syn.).

Genus NEOPIMPLA Ashmead

Neopimpla Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 56.

Type-species: Neopimpla abbottii Ashmead. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Cyrtobasis Cushman, 1919. Ent. Soc Wash., Proc. 21: 114. N. syn.

Type-species: Cyrtobasis rogae Cushman. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Microceratops Seyrig, 1952. Acad. Malgache, Mem. 39: 88. N. syn.

Type-species: Microceratops dentifrons Seyrig. Monotypic and orig. desig.




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Townes (1971) erroneously placed Neopimpla as a synonym of Astornaspis Foerster and
declared that the type locality of N. abbottii Ashmead is Zululand in South Africa by virtue of
his synonymizing abbottii with Caenopivipla crassa Morley (1926). However, the handwritten
manuscript of Ashmead's (1900) classification of the Ichneumonoidea shows that his parentheti-
cal citation "Africa" was intended for Hevnpi7)ipla Saussure and not Neopivtpla. Ashmead's
use of the name abbottii for the type-species of Neopimpla was apparently a lapsus for the
name he really intended and was caused by his confusion with his genus Erythropimpla
(type-species: E. abbottii Ashmead). The only specimens ever to be found bearing a label with
the name N<'<)pinipla in Ashmead's handwriting are two of Cushman's paratypes of Cyrtubanis
rogoe. As noted by Cushman, these specimens run to Neopimpla in Ashmead's key to the
Pimplini.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1919. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 21: 116. —Townes, 1971. Ent. Soc. Wash.,
Proc. 73: 445.

Neopimpla bicarinata (Riley)
n. comb. 111. , Mo., Kans., Colo. Host: Rogas sp.

Polijspliiyicta bicarinata Riley, 1871. Mo. State Ent, Ann. Rpt. 3: 71. ♂.
Neopimpla abbottii Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 56. ♀. N. syn.
Cyrtobasis rogae Cushman, 1919. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 21: 115. ♀.

Genus DIAGLYPTIDEA Viereck

Diaglyptidea Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 46: 371.

Type-species: Diaglyptidea roepkei Viereck. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Diaglyptidea lavoiei (Provancher)
Que., Maine, N. H., N. Y., Mich., Wis.

Phiiadenon Lavoiei Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 353. ♀.
Hemiteles pallipennis Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 360. ♀, ♂.

Genus LYSIBIA Foerster

Pemon Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 174.

Type-species: Pemon proxiynum Perkins. Monotypically included and desig. by
Perkins, 1962.
Lysibia Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 175.

Type-species: Hemiteles jidvipes Gravenhorst. Desig. by Townes, Momoi, and
Townes, 1965 from three species included by Townes, Townes, and Gupta, 1961.
The type-species is regarded as a junior synonym of Lysibia nana (Gravenhorst).
The designation of nana as type-species by Perkins (1962) is invalid because
nana was not among the species included by Townes, Townes, and Gupta (1961).
Stiboscppns Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 182. N. syn.

Type-species: Hemiteles ynandibularis Provancher. By subsequent monotypy from
incl ision by [Ashmead in] Slosson, 1896. Viereck (1911, 1914) and Perkins (1962)
incorrectly believed Ashmead (1900) to be the oldest inclusion of species in
Stiboscopus; consequently, Viereck's designation of Stiboscopiis thoracicus
Ashmead as the type-species of Stiboscopus is invalid.
Haplaspis Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 190. N. syn.

■Type-species: Hemiteles mandibularis Provancher. Orig. desig.

Between 1914 and 1944 the name Astornaspis Foerster was applied to this genus in the belief
that Hemiteles fiilvipes Gravenhorst was its type-species. In 1944 Townes corrected this error,
but he made another in describing Astomaspis of authors as the new genus Haplaspis while
overlooking the fact that the name Stiboscopus should have been applied instead; it should have
occurred to him to investigate this possibility because of the fact that the combination
"Stiboscopus mandibularis Slosson, ... 1896" is given in his synonymy for mandibularis
(Provancher). Since 1961 the name Lysibia has been appHed to this genus, and I here suppress
Stiboscopus as a synonym of Lysibia because I have been urged not to suppress Lysibia.
Stiboscopus sensu Townes (1970) and Townes and Townes (1973) was a confused mixture of spe-
cies; the two Nearctic species, Hemiteles pinifoliae Cushman and Alegina laricellae Mason, be-
long in the subtribe Mastrina (i.e. where Townes had placed Stiboscopus) where I am placing
them provisionally in the genus Mastrus; the other three species belong in Indovia, which is
here placed in the subtribe Acrolytina.




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Taxonomy: Slosson, 1896. Ent. News 7: 264 (the combination "Stiboscopus mandibularis
Prov." was almost certainly provided by Ashmead rather than Davis and was the first
inclusion of a species in Stiboscopus). — Viereck, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 193
(incorrect designation of Stiboscopus thoracicus Ashmead as type-species of Stiboscopus).
—Viereck, 1914. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 83: 138 (oversight of first inclusion of species in
Stiboscopus as well as type-species designation by Viereck, 1911). — Townes, Townes, and
Gupta, 1961. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 1: 123 (first inclusion of species in Lysibia).
—Perkins, 1962. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 11: 436, 453. -Townes, 1970 (1969).
Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 65. —Townes and Townes, 1973. Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 19: 76.

Lysibia mandibularis (Provancher)
Que. s. to N. C, w. to Oreg. and Calif. Host: Apanteles glomeratus
(L.), A. longricomis (Prov.), A. 7nelanoscelus (Ratz.), A. scitulus Riley, A. xylinus (Say),
A. yakutatensis Ash., Microplitus gortynae Riley. According to Townes and Townes
(1951) the Gravenhorst names fulvipes and nana have been erroneously applied to this
Nearctic species (L. nana being Palearctic).
Hemiteles mandibularis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 315. ♀.

Acrolyta sjneriiithi Ashmead, 1900. In Smith, N. J. State Bd. Agr., Ann. Rpt. 27, sup., p.
569. Nomen nudum.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1951. U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 238.

Biology: Muesebeck and Dohanian, 1927. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bui. 1487: 14 (asfulvipes, misdet.).
— Cushman, 1928. N. Y. (Cornell) Agr. Expt. Sta., Mem. 101: 929 (as 7iana, misdet.).

Subtribe HEMITELINA

Genus PLEUROGYRUS Townes

Pleurogyrus Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 44.
Type-species: Hemiteles hungerfordi Cushman. Orig. desig.

Members of this genus parasitize Gyrinidae which attach their pupal cases to the stems of
aquatic plants a few inches above the water line.

Biology: Butcher, 1933. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 26: 79-82.
cheboyg:anen8is (Butcher). Mich. Host: Gyrinus sp.

Hemiteles cheboyganensis Butcher, 1933. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 26: 77. ♀.

Pleurogyrus hungerfordi (Cushman)
Mich. Host: Gyrinus sp.

Hemiteles hungerfordi Cushman, 1930 (1929). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 76 (25): 4. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Butcher, 1933. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 26: 79.

Genus OBISIPHAGA Morley

Obisiphaga Morley, 1907. Brit. Ichn., v. 2, p. 59.

Type-species: Aptesis stenoptera Marshall. Monotypic.

According to Townes (1970) an undescribed species apparently belonging to this genus occurs
in the northwestern U. S. The European 0. stenoptera has been reared from the egg nests of a
pseudoscorpion, Obisiu7}i sp.

Genus AROTREPHES Townes

Arotrephes Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 45.
Type-species: Cryptus p^ls^llus Cresson. Orig. desig.

Arotrephes mitralis (Provancher)
Que.

Platylabus initralis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. S7. ♀.

Arotrephes pusillus (Cresson)
Mass., N. Y., Md., 111. Ecology: Occurs in marshy meadows.
Cryptus pusillus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 302.

Genus XIPHULCUS Townes

Xiphulcus Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 46.




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Type-species: Hemiteles longidus Thomson. Orig. desig. The type-species is
regarded as a synonym of x.floricolator (Gravenhorst).

Townes said "this is a moderate sized genus [he knew 15 species], of Holarctic distribution,"
but the Nearctic species known to him are apparently undescribed.

Taxonomy: Horstmann, 1974. Mus. Natl. Hungarici, Ann. Hist.-Nat. 66: 344 (European spp.).

Genus HEMITELES Gravenhorst

Hemiteles Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 780.

Type-species: Hemiteles tristator Gravenhorst. Desig. by Westwood, 1840. The
type-species is considered to be a synonym of H. bipunctator (Thunberg).
Ocymorus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 180.

Type-species: Hemiteles cingulator Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and desig.
by Townes, 1944. The type-species is considered to be a synonym of H.
bipunctator (Thunberg).

Members of this genus apparently parsitize spider egg cocoons.

Hemiteles humeralis Provancher
Que. w. to Minn., s. to Tex.

Hemiteles humeralis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 333. ♀.

Stilpms appendiculatus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 44.

cJ.

Genus ACLASTUS Foerster

Microplex Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 175.

Type-species: Aclastus rufipes Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from inclusion
by Roman, 1909.
Daetora Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 175.

Type-species: Hemiteles soiutus Thomson. Monotypically included and desig. by
Perkins, 1962.
Aclastus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 175.

Type-species: Aclastus rufipes Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from inclusion
by Ashmead, 1902.
Opisthostenus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 175.

Type-species: Hemiteles (Opisthostenus) etorofuensis Uchida. By subsequent
monotypy from inclusion by Uchida, 1936.

Aclastus flagellatus (Davis)
Colo., Alta., Wash.

Proclitus Jlagellatus Davis, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 246. ♂.

Aclastus gracilis (Thomson)
Greenland: Eurasia.

Hemiteles gracilis Thomson, 1884. Opusc. Ent. 10: 989. ♀, ♂.
Hemiteles soiutus Thomson, 1884. Opusc. Ent. 10: 990. ♂, ♀.
Hemiteles minutus Bridgman, 1886. Ent. Soc. London, Trans. 34: 340. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1916. Arkiv. for Zool. 10 (7): 6-7. —Roman, 1925 (1924). Arkiv. for Zool
17A (4): 14-15. — Jussila, 1965. Univ. Turku., Ann. (A, II) 34: 153.

Aclastus karlukensis (Ashmead)
Alaska.

Acrolyta karlukensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 186. ♀.

Aclastus nigritus (Ashmead)
Alaska; e. U. S. S. R.

Stibeutes nigrita Ashmead, 1899 (1898). In Jordan, Fur Seals and Fur-seal Isls. No. Pacific,

v. 4, p. 338. ♀.
Spinolia minuta Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 186. ♀. Preocc. in Aclastus by
Bridgman, 1886.

Aclastus rufipes (Ashmead)
Alaska.

Stiboscopus alaskeiisis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 171. ♀.
Acrolyta aciculata Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 186. ♂.
Aclastus rufipes Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 187. ♀.




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Genus POLYAULON Foerster

Polyaulon Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 171.

Type-species: Polyaulon incertus Foerster. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from 12 species
included by Foerster, 1871.
Myersia Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 43: 575.

Type-species: Myersia laniinata Viereck. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Thaumatotypidea Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 43: 577.

Type-species: Cremnodes hiberculatus Ashmead. Orig. desig.
Rhacodopteron Capek, 1956. Zool. Listy 5: 285. The author placed the genus in the
Braconidae.

Type-species: Rhacodopteron stiavnicense Capek. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Polyaulon bimaculatus (Ashmead)
Ind.

Orthopelma bimaculatum Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 416. ♂.

Polyaulon canadensis (Harrington)
B. C.

Cremnodes canadensis Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 213. ♀.

Taxonomy: Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 115.

Polyaulon erythropa Ashmead
Va.

Orthopelma erythropa Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 416. ♂.

Polyaulon grandis (Cushman)
B. C.

Myersia grandis Cushman, 1921. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 23: 110. ♀.

Polyaulon koebelei (Cushman)
Wash., Oreg.

Thaumatotypidea koebelei Cushman, 1921. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 23: 112. ♂.

Polyaulon laminatus (Viereck)
Que. s. to Fla., w. to Ohio and Ala.

Myersia laminata Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 43: 576. ♀.

Myersia pallida Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 522. ♀.

Myersia johnsoni Cushman, 1921. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 23: 110. ♀.

Myersia harringtoni Viereck, 1925. Canad. Ent. 57: 73. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1921. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 23: 110.

Polyaulon niger (Viereck)
B. C.

Myersia nigra Viereck, 1925. Canad. Ent. 57: 73. ♂.

Polyaulon spinulatus (Strickland)
Conn.

Thaumatotypus spinulatus Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 116. ♀.

Polyaulon tuberculatus (Ashmead)
Mont, Alaska, Calif. Host: Spider egg cocoon.

Cremnodes tuberculatiis Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 211. ♀.
Cremnodes alaskensis Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 211. ♀.

Taxonomy: Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 115.

Subtribe GNYPETOMORPHINA

Genus ANUROTROPUS Cushman

Anurotropus Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (4): 4.

Type-species: Anurotropus minutus Cushman. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Anurotropus minutus Cushman
Conn., Ga., Mich., 111., Minn.

Anurotropus minutus Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 64 (4): 5. ♂, ♀.

Subtribe GELINA

Genus XENOLYTUS Foerster

Xenolytus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 174.

Type-species: Xenolytus nifipes Cameron. By subsequent monotypy from inclusion
by Cameron, 1906.
Stemocryptus Roman, 1925 (1924). Arkiv for Zool. 17A (4): 12.

Type-species: Cryptus bitinctus Gravenhorst. Monotypic and orig. desig. Cryptus

Xenolytus bitinctus
***authority mismatch
Gravenhorst is an identification of Ichneumon bitinctus Gmelin.




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Xenolytus bitinctus (Gmelin)
Maine, Ont., B. C, Calif.; Eurasia, New Zealand, Australia, Africa. Ecology:
In England commonly found in warehouses, granaries, feedstores, and flour mills where
it was most frequently associated with Tinea pallescentella Stainton, Endrosis
sarcitrella (L.), and Hofniannophila pseudospretella (Stainton); a series was also reared
from a birds nest (Richards, 1949). Adventive.

Ichneumon bitinctus Gmelin, 1790. In Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 13, v. 1, pt. 5, p. 2719. ♀.

Ichneumon expidsor Thunberg, 1922; 1924. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8:
263; 9: 316. ♀.

Cryptus apicalis Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 574. ♀.

Phygadenon liniatus Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. PhDa., Proc. 30: 358. ♀.

Hemiteles occidentalis Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 213. ♀.

Hemiteles destmctivus Cameron, 1898. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc, Mem. and Proc. 42
(1):26. ♀.

Bathymetis antipoda Ashmead, 1900. Ent. News 11: 624. ♀.

Xenolytus nifipes Cameron, 1906. So. African Mus., Ann. 5: 154. ♀.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1912. Zool. Bidr. Uppsala 1: 254 (syn.). — Schmiedeknecht, 1932. Opusc.
Ichn., Sup., fasc. 14, p. 41 (syn.). — Townes, Townes, and Gupta, 1961. Amer. Ent. Inst.,
Mem. 1: 125 (syn.). —Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 52 (syn.).

Biology: Richards, 1949. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, Proc. (Ser. B [Taxonomy]) 18:. 25-28
(speculation concerning hosts).

Xenolytus subspinosus (Provancher)
Que., N. Y., Alta.

Hemiteles subspinosus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 333. ♀.

Genus DICHROGASTER Doumerc

Dichrogaster Doumerc, 1955. Soc. Ent. de France, Bui. (in Ann.) (3) 3: LXXXVIII.
Type-species: Microgaster perlae Doumerc; Monotypic. The type-species is
considered to be a synonym of D. aestivalis (Gravenhorst).
Otactistes Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 174.

Type-species: Otacustes atriceps Ashmead. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from two
species included by Ashmead, 1894.
Microtorus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Verh. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 178.

Type-species: Microtorus kichijoi Uchida. Desig. by Townes, 1957 from two species
included by Uchida, 1940.
Xenobrachys Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 179.

Type-species: Hemiteles longicaudatus Thomson. Monotypically included and desig.
by Perkins, 1962.
Brachycephalus Foerster, 1868. aturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 179. Preocc. by
Fitzinger, 1826; Hollard, 1857; and Signoret, 1866.

Type-species: Hemiteles aestivalis Gravenhorst. Desig. by Townes, 1944 from four
species included by Roman, 1925.
Brachycranium Ashmead, 1900. Canad. Ent. 32: 368. N. name for Brachycephalus

Foerster.
Chrysopoctonus Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 518.
Type-species: Otacustes atriceps Ashmead. Orig. desig.

Members of this genus parasitize cocoons of Chrysopidae and Hemerobiidae.
Revision: Horstmann, 1973. Ent. Scand. 4: 65-72 (European spp.).
Taxonomy: Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (4): 1 (key to N. Amer. spp.).

Dichrogaster bicolor (Cushman)
Fla. Host: Nodita pavida (Hagen).

Chrysopoctonus bicolor Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (4): 1. ♂, ♀.

Dichrogaster chrysopae
***authority mismatch
chrysopae (Ashmead). rev. status. Del., N. C, S. C, Fla., Miss. Host: Chrysopa

bimaculata McCL., C. cubana Hagen, C. oculata Say, C. rufilabris Burm., C. sanchezi
Navas.
Otacustes chrysopae Ashmead, 1894. U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 7: 243. ♂.
Otacustes atriceps Ashmead, 1894. U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 7: 244. ♀.




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Dichrogaster chrysopae
***authority mismatch
patruelis (Cushman). Ariz., B. C. s. to Calif. Host: Chrysopa plorabmida Fitch.

Chrysopoctonus patruelis Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 520. ♂, ♀.

Dichrogaster crassa (Provancher)
Que. s. to D. C, w. to Oreg. Host: Chrysopa harrisii Fitch,C. nigriconiis

Burm., C. plorabunda Fitch, C. mfilabris Burm., Heynerobins sp. I believe that Townes

and Townes (1951) were incorrect in treating chrysopae (Ashmead) and chrysopae

Dichrogaster patruelis (Cushman)
as subspecies of crassa.
Hemiteles crassus Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 361. ♂.
Hemiteles rileyi Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 402. ♂.
Hemiteles hemerobii Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 404. ♂.
Hemiteles hemerobiicola (!) Riley and Howard, 1890. U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3: 153.
Hemiteles nifiventris Riley, 1890. In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3:

153. Nomen nudum.
Hemiteles euryptychiae Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 210. 9. The correct

data for the holotype of euryptychiae were cited by Riley under the above nomen

nudum, rufiventris.
Hemiteles {Otacustes) cressoniformis Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat.

Hist. Survey Bui. 22: 339, 340. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 520. —Townes and Townes, 1951. U. S.
Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 235.

Genus GELIS Thunberg

Gelis Thunberg, 1827. Soc. Sci. Upsala, Nov. Acta 9: 199.

Type-species: Mutilla acaroruvi Linnaeus. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Pezomachus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 867.

Type-species: Mutilla acaroruvi Linnaeus. Desig. by Curtis, 1835.
Pezolochus Foerster, 1850. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 16 (1): 71.

Type-species: Pezolochus rufipes Foerster. Monotypic.
Hemimachus Ratzeburg, 1852. Ichn. d. Forstins., v. 3, p. 157.

Type-species: Hemimachus fasciatus Ratzeburg. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Thaumatotypus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 172.

Type-species: Thaumatotypus femoralis Brischke. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Brischke, 1881.
Plesiomma Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 176. Preocc. by Macquart,
1838. Placed as a synonym of Gelis by Townes (1970), but no species have ever been
included.
Alegina Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 176.

Type-species: Algi7ia(l) alaske^isis Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Ashmead, 1902.
Rhadiurgus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 177. Preocc. by Loew,
1849.

Type-species: Hemiteles bicolorinus Gravenhorst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Uchida, 1933 (June). The type-species is considered to be a synonym
of Gelis cinctus (Linnaeus).
Aschistus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 177.

Type-species: Hemimachus variabilis Ratzeburg. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from two
species included by Brischke, 1891. The type-species is considered to be a
synonym of Gelis cursitaiis (Fabricius).
Blapsidotes Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 177.

Type-species: Hemiteles melanarius Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and desig.
by Perkins, 1962.
Philonygmus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 177.

Type-species: Philonygus{\) alaskensis Ashmead. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from two
species included by Ashmead, 1902.
Barydotira Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 178.

Type-species: Barydotira hammari Viereck. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Viereck, 1912.
Ilapinastes Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 179.




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Type-species: Heniiteles davidsonii Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Ashmead, 1896.
Urithreptus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 180. According to Perkins
(1962) a male specimen of Gelis (species still unidentified) in the Foerster collection
bears the name Urithrephis. No species included.
Terpiphora Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 185.

Type-species: Alegina alaskensis Ashmead. Monotypically included and desig. by
Viereck, 1914.
Micromeson Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 137.

Type-species: Micromeson annulatum Strickland. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Pezomachus subg. M ymiicomorpha Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 44: 566.

Type-species: Pezomachus {Myrmicom.orpka) pemiciosus Viereck. Monotypic and
orig. desig.
Gelis subg. Leptogelis Ceballos, 1925. Eos 1: 155.

Type-species: Gelis (Leptogelis) ariasi Ceballos. Desig. by Townes, 1944.
Thaumatogelis Kupka, 1933. In Schmiedeknecht, Opusc. Ichn., Sup., fasc. 17, p. 7-8. Name

invalid; type-species not designated.
Gelis subg. Cryptogelis Hellen, 1944. Notulae Ent. 24: 2. Name invalid; type-species not

designated.
Gelis subg. Holcogelis Aubert, 1957. Muenchen. Ent. Gesell., Mitt. 47: 226.

Type-species: Pezomachus comiptor Foerster. Orig. desig.
Arctodenon Hellen, 1967. Notulae Ent. 47: 100.

Type-species: Hemiteles glacialis Holmgren. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Rhadiurginus Hellen, 1967. Notulae Ent. 47: 109. N. name for Rhadiurgus Foerster.

Members of this genus are particularly well known as hyperparasites which attack the
cocoons of Braconidae or other Ichneumonidae, but there are also many species which attack the
egg cocoons of spiders. Apparently, some species of Gelis can sometimes be primary parasites in
the cocoons of sawflies or small Lepidoptera.

Revision: Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 113-140 (of very limited use).

Taxonomy: Perkins, 1962. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 11: 462. —Townes, 1970 (1969).
Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 53-55.

Gelis aciculatus (Strickland)
Tex.

Pezomachus foersteri Brues, 1910. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 8: 69. ♀. Preocc. by Bridgman,

1886.
Pezomachus aciculatus Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 136. N. name for

foersteri Brues.

Gelis alegininus Carlson
n. name. Alaska.

Stiboscopus solitarius Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 172. ♂. Preocc. in Gelis by

Foerster, 1850. Because all of its known synonyms are also preocc, solitarius Ashmead

is here given the new name alegininus in reference to its synonymy with the

type-species of Alegina.
AlginaC-) alaske7isis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 188. ♀. Preocc. in Gelis by

Ashmead, 1890.
Philonygusd) alaskensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 189. ♂. Preocc. in Gelis

by Ashmead, 1890 and Ashmead, 1902, p. 188.
Ilapinastes incertus Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 190. ♂. Preocc. in Gelis by

Foerster, 1850.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 53.
aiogus (Viereck). Kans.

Pezomachus alogus Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19: 321. ♂.

Gelis alternatus (Cresson)
111.

Pezomachus alternatus Cresson, 1872. Canad. Ent. 4: 64. ♀.

Gelis annulatus (Strickland)
Pa., Md., Tex. Host: Spider eggs.

Micromeson annulatuyn Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 137. ♀.

Gelis apantelis Cushman
N. H., Mass., N. Y. Host: Apanteles melanoscehis (Ratz.).

Gelis apantelis Cushman, 1927. Jour. Agr. Res. 34: 454. ♂, ♀.




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Biology: Muesebeck and Dohanian, 1927. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 1487: 16-17.

Gelis atratus (Ashmead)
Colo., Alta., Utah. Host: Apanteles sp.

Pezolochus atrafus Ashmead, 1890. Colo. Biol. Assoc, Bui. 1: 22. ♀.
Pezomachns utahensis Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 118. ♀.

Gelis belfragei (Ashmead)
Tex.

Hemiteles belfragei Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 339. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 55.

Gelis bicoloratus (Cresson)
Tex.

Mesoleptus bicoloratus Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 166. ♂.

Gelis birkmani (Brues)
Tex.

Pezomachns Birkmani Brues, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 121. ♀.

Gelis brevistylus (Strickland)
Pa., N. Y.

Pezomachns brevistylus Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc Amer., Ann. 5: 119. ♀.

Gelis bruesii (Strickland)
Mass., Pa. Host: Eggs of Gnaphosidae.

Pezomachns obesus Brues, 1910. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 8: 71. 9. Preocc in Gelis by

Ashmead, 1902.
Pezomachns bruesii Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 136. N. name for obesus
Brues.

Gelis californicus (Ashmead)
Calif.

Pezomachns californicus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 12: 421. ♀.

Gelis canadensis (Cresson)
Que., Ont., 111., Mo., Wash.

Pezomachns canadensis Cresson, 1872. Canad. Ent. 4: 62. ♀.

Pezomachns Quebecensis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 330. ♀.

Gelis caudatus (Rudow)
Iowa. Ecology: Secondary parasite of Callosamia promethea (Drury).

Pezomachns caudatus Rudow, 1917. Ent. Ztschr. 30: 102. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1973. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 19: 362.

Gelis cockerelli (Brues)
Colo.

Pezomachns cockerelli Brues, 1910. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 8: 68. ♀.

Gelis coloradensis (Strickland)
Colo.

Pezomachns coloradensis Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 122. ♀.

Gelis columbianus (Ashmead)
D. C. Host: Coleophora sp.

Hemiteles columbiamis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 402. ♂.

Gelis compactus (Cresson)
111.

Pezomachns compactus Cresson, 1872. Canad. Ent. 6: 63. ♀.

Gelis crassulus (Brues)
Tex.

Pezomachns crass^dus Brues, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 123. ♀.

Gelis cushmani Carlson
n. name. Maine, N. H., Mass., N. Y., N. C, Wis., Alaska. Host: Apanteles
melanoscelus (Ratz.), Porizon cnpressi (Ashmead), Neodiprion tsugae Midd., Coleophor
laricella (Hbn.).
Hemiteles apantelis Cushman, 1927. Jour. Agr. Res. 34: 453. ♂, ♀. Preocc. in Gelis by
Cushman, 1927, p. 454.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 12: 55.
Biology: Muesebeck and Dohanian, 1927. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bui. 1487: 15.

Gelis davidsonii (Ashmead)
Oreg., Calif. Host: Spider egg cocoon.

Hemiteles davidsonii Ashmead, 1896. In Davidson, Ent. News 7: 320. ♀.

Gelis debilis (Provancher)
Ont.

Hemiteles debilis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 59. ♂.

Gelis delicatus (Cresson)
Tex.

Mesoleptus delicatus Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 166. ♂.

Gelis dimidiaventris (Rudow)
Iowa. Ecology: Apparently a secondary parasite o{ Papilio polyxenes
F. Rudow apparently confused the name Papilio polyxenes with that of the European




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papilionid, Zerynthia hypermnestra (Scop.), which was known to Rudow by the
synonymous name "Thais polyxena."
Pezomachus dimidiaventris Rudow, 1917. Ent. Ztschr. 30: 102. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1973. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 19: 362.

Gelis delumbis (Brues)
Wash.

Pezomachus delumbis Brues, 1910. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 8: 75. ♀.

Gelis dispar (Strickland)
Pa., Md. Host: Spider eggs.

Pezomachus dispar Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 125. ♂, ♀.

Gelis drassi (Riley)
Ohio, Kans., Ariz. Host: Eggs of Gnaphosidae.

Hemiteles drassi Riley, 1892. In Howard, Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 2: 296. ♂.
Pezomachus homalommoides Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19: 294. ♂.
Pezomachus testaceicoxus Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19: 322. ♂.

Gelis fenestralis (Brues)
N. H.

Pezomachus fenestralis Brues, 1910. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 8: 71. ♂.
femiginosus (Strickland). B. C, Wash., Oreg. Ecology: Secondary parasite of Neodiprion
tsugae Midd. according to Furniss and Dowden (1941).
Pezomachus insolens Brues, 1910. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 8: 74. ♀. Preocc. by Foerster,

1850.
Pezomachus ferruginostis Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 136. N. name for
insolens Brues.

Biology: Furniss and Dowden, 1941. Jour. Econ. Ent. 34: 49.

Gelis foveatus (Brues)
Mass.

Pezomachus foveatus Brues, 1910. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 8: 73. ♂.
g:elechiae (Ashmead). Calif. Ecology: Data files in the U. S. Natl. Museum indicate that

Gelis gelechiae
***authority mismatch
was associated with Gnorimoschema operculella (Zell.) which were infesting
potato tubers.
Exolytus gelechiae Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 397. ♂.

Gelis gracillimus (Dalla Torre)
R. I., N. Y., Pa., Tex.

Pezomachus gracilis Cresson, 1872. Canad. Ent. 4: 63. ♀. Preocc. by Foerster, 1850.
Pezomachus gracillimus Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 624. N. name for ffracilis

Cresson.
Pezomachus angularis Brues, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 122. ♀.
Pezomachus cressonii Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 136. N. name for gracilis
Cresson; cresso7iii Strickland preocc. by Dalla Torre, 1902.

Gelis habilis (Brues)
Mass.

Pezomachus habilis Brues, 1910. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 8: 72. ♀.

Gelis hammari (Viereck)
Mass., Ark. Host: Casebearer on wild grape. Also reared as a secondary
parasite of Acrobasis indigenella (Zell.).
Barydotira hammari Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 43: 584. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 54.

Gelis inermis (Viereck)
N. Mex.

Chirotica inermis Viereck, 1903. In Skinner, Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 83. ♂.

Gelis insolitus (Howard)
D. C. Ecology: Secondary parasite of Orgyia leucostigma (J. E. S.).

Pezomachus insolitus Howard, 1897. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Ent. Tech. Ser. 5: 54. ♂.

Gelis inutilis Cushman
Mass., Ohio, 111. Host: Apanteles melanoscelus (Ratz.).

Gelis inutilis Cushman, 1927. Jour. Agr. Res. 34: 455. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Muesebeck and Dohanian, 1927. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 1487: 16.

Gelis keenii (Harrington)
B. C.

Pezomachus Keenii Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 214. ♀.

Gelis kukakensis (Ashmead)
Alaska.

Theroscopus kukakensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 191. ♀.

Gelis longipes (Strickland)
Calif.

Pezomachus longipes Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 123. ♀.




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Gelis longipes
***authority mismatch
(Rudow). Iowa.

Pezoyymchus longipes Rudow, 1917. Ent. Ztschr. 30: 103. ♀. Preocc. by Strickland, 1912;
not renamed because of taxonomic uncertainties.
Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1973. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 19: 362.

Gelis longistylus (Strickland)
N. Amer.? Described from an unlabled specimen.
Pezomachus longistylus Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 120. ♀.

Gelis lymensis (Strickland)
Conn. Host: Eggs of Gnaphosidae.

Micromeson lymense Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 138. ♀.

Gelis macer (Cresson)
Mass., N. Y., Pa., Md., Ohio, III., Tex. Host: Eggs of Epeira foliata (Geoff.),
Argiope sp.

Pezomachus macer Cresson, 1872. Canad. Ent. 4: 64. ♂.

Pezomachus jlavocinctus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 421. ♀.

Gelis maculatus (Strickland)
Calif.

Pezomachus maculatus Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 121. ♀.

Gelis manni (Strickland)
Calif.

Pezomachus mayini Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 132. ♂.

Gelis meabilis (Cresson)
Mass. s. to Va., w. to Iowa and Kans. Host: Eggs of Agelenopsis naevia
(Walck.).

Pezomachus meabilis Cresson, 1872. Canad. Ent. 4: 62. ♀.

Pezomachus dimidiatus Cresson, 1872. Canad. Ent. 4: 63. ♀.

Pezomachus similis Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 127. ♂, ♀.

Pezomachus nodosns Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 128. ♀.

Gelis micariae (Howard)
Mass., Pa., D. C. Host: Eggs of Micaria sp.

Pezomachus micariae Howard, 1892. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 2: 294. ♂, ♀.

Hemiteles micarivora Riley, 1892. In Howard, Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 2: 295. ♂.

Gelis minimus (Walsh)
111., Okla., Tex. Host: Apanteles militaris (Walsh).

Pezomachus viinimus Walsh, 1861. lU. State Agr. Soc, Trans. 4: 368. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Riley, 1870. Mo. State Ent., Ann. Rpt. 2: 52.

Gelis nigerrimus (Dalla Torre)
Calif.

Pezomachus niger Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 362. ♀.

Preocc. by Brischke, 1878.
Pezomachus nigerrimus Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 630. N. name for yiiger
Provancher.

Gelis nigriventris (Brues)
Tex.

Pezomachus texanus var. nigriventris Brues, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 122. ♀.

Gelis nigrofuscus (Strickland)
Pa.

Pezomachus nigrofuscus Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 133. ♂.

Gelis nocuus Cushman
Mass., N. Y., N. J., Pa., Ohio, N. C. Host: Apanteles melanoscelus (Ratz.),
Ichneumonidae.

Gelis nocuus Cushman, 1927. Jour. Agr. Res. 34: 455. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Muesebeck and Dohanian, 1927. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 1487: 16.

Gelis obesus (Ashmead)
Alaska; Sweden.

Theroscopus rufipes Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 191. ♂, ♀. Preocc. in Gelis

by Bridgman, 1883.
Pezomachus obesus Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 193. ♀.
Pezomachus auripes Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 134. ♂.
Pezomachus insularis Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 136. N. name for T.
rufipes Ashmead.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1909. In Hamberg, Naturw. Untersuch. Sarekgebirges Schwedish-
Lappland, v. 4, p. 230.

Gelis obscurus (Cresson)
Maine s. to Va., w. to Kans. Host: Bucculatrix canadensisella Chamb.,

Coleophora laricella (Hbn.), C. salmani Heinr., Apanteles canarsiae Ash., A. lacteicolor
Vier., A. melanoscelus (Ratz.), Heterarthrus nemoratus (Fall.).
Pezomachus obscurus Cresson, 1872. Canad. Ent. 4: 62. ♀.




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Pezolochus bucculatricis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 240. ♂, ♀.
Theroscopus americanus Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 211. ♂.
Hemiteles ashyneadii Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 643. N. name for T. americanus
Ashmead, which was temporarily preocc. in Hemiteles.

Taxonomy: Muesebeck and Dohanian, 1927. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 1487: 16, 17.

Biology: Muesebeck and Dohanian, 1927. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 1487: 16, 17. -Friend, 1927.
Conn. [State] Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui. 288: 449, 450.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1927. Jour. Agr. Res. 34: 456. —Muesebeck and Dohanian, 1927. U. S.
Dept. Agr. Bui. 1487: 16.

Gelis ottawaensis (Harrington)
Conn., Ont., W. Va. Host: Eggs of Gnaphosidae?
Pezomachus ottawaensis Harrington, 1896. Canad. Ent. 28: 77. ♀.
Hemiteles ottatcaensis Harrington, 1896: Canad. Ent. 28: 78. ♂. Preocc. in Gelis by
Harrington, 1896, p. 77.

Gelis pennsylvanicus (Strickland)
Pa.

Pezomachus pennsylvanicus Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 126. ♀.

Gelis perniciosus (Viereck)
Tex. Host: Apanteles militaris (Walsh), Meteorus laphygmae Vier.,
Rogas laphygmae Vier.
Pezomachus (Myrmicomorpha) perniciosa Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 44: 566. ♀.

Gelis pettitii (Cresson)
Que., R. I., Ont.

Pezomachus Pettitii Cresson, 1872. Canad. Ent. 4: 61. ♀.

Pezomachus sulcatus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 77. ♀.

Gelis popofensis (Ashmead)
Alaska.

Theroscopus popofensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 192. ♂.

Gelis prosthesimae (Riley)
Mass. Host: Eggs of Zelotes subterraneus (Koch).

Hemiteles prosthesimae Riley, 1892. In Howard, Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 2: 294. ♂.

Gelis pumilis (Foerster)
Alaska; Europe.

Pezomachus pumitus Foerster, 1850. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 16 (1): 131. ♀.

Pezomachus alaskensis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 421. ♀.

Pezomachus nigrellus Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 192. ♂, ♀.

Pezomachus mi)tutus Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 119. ♀.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1909. In Hamberg, Naturw. Untersuch. Sarekgebirges
Schwedisch-Lappland, v. 4, p. 232.

Gelis robustus (Strickland)
Ariz.

Pezomachus robustus Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 120. ♀.

Gelis rotundiceps (Cresson)
Tex.

Mesoleptus/ rotundiceps Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 167. ♂.
Hemiteles pallidus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 406. S. N. syn. The
holotype of pallidus has not been found, and it is my belief that its holotype is actually
the same specimen as the holotype of rotundiceps. Although Ashmead's description of
the propodeum does not agree perfectly with the holotype of rotundiceps, Ashmead is
not renouned for his accuracy. There are at least two cases where it is known with
certainty that Ashmead redescribed unique specimens from the Belfrage Collection
which had already been described by Cresson.

Gelis sessilis (Provancher)
Que., N. Y., S. C, Ohio, Oreg.

Hemiteles sessilis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 334. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 55.

Gelis spiraculus (Strickland)
N. Y., N. C. Host: Microplitis gortynae Riley.

Pezomachus spiraculus Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 124. ♀.

Gelis microplitidis Gahan, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 61: 5. ♂, ♀.

Gelis stanfordensis (Strickland)
Calif.

Pezomachus stanfordensis Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 123. ♀.

Gelis stigmaterus (Cresson)
Tex.

Mesoleptus^ stigmaterus Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 167. ♂.




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Gelis stigmatus (Ashmead)
Colo.

Hemiteles stigmatus Ashmead, 1890. Colo. Biol. Assoc, Bui. 1: 21. ♂.

Strickland! Townes. Calif.

C rem nodes californicus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). Us. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 420. ♀. Preocc. in
Gelis by Ashmead, 1890 (1889), p. 421.

Pezomachus ashmeadii Strickland, 1912. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 5: 135. N. name for C.

Gelis californicus
***authority mismatch
Ashmead. Preocc. in Gelis by Dalla Torre, 1902.

Gelis'stricklayidi Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 202. N. name for P. ashvieadii
Strickland.

Gelis tantillus (Cresson)
R. I., Pa., 111.

Pezomachus gentilis Cresson, 1872. Canad. Ent. 4: 61. i, 9. Preocc by Foerster, 1850.

Pezomachus tantillus Cresson, 1872. Canad. Ent. 4: 62. ♀.

Pezomachus cressonii Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 621. N. name for P. gentilis '
Cresson.

Gelis tenellus (Say)
Que. s. to Ga., w. to s. Alaska and Calif.; Argentina; Hawaii. Host: Apanteles

lacteicolor Vier., A. nielanoscelus (Ratz.), Bracon pygniaeus Prov., Meteorus acronyctae
Mues., M. connnunis Cr.?, M. datanae Mues., M. Iiyphantriae Riley, M. versicolor
(Wesm.), Microplitis gortynae Riley, Casinaria orgyiae (How.), Diadegma insulare
(Cr.), Enicospilus americanus (Chirst), Gatnbrus extrematis (Cr.), H yposoter fugitivus
(Say), H. rivalis (Cresson), Oresbius tsugae Cush.), Phobocampe clisiocavipae (Weed),
Neodiprion abietis (Harris), N. sertifer (Geoff.), N. swainei Midd., N. tsugae Midd.,
Diprion siniilis (Htg.), Chrysopa harrisii Fitch, C. nigricomis Burm., C. rufilabris
Burm., Bucculatrix sp., Coleophora frischella (L.), C. laricella Hbn., C. malivorella
Riley, C. pruniella Clem., C. salnioni Heinr., C. serratella (L.).

Cryptus tenellus Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 233. ♀.

Hemiteles nemativorus Walsh, 1869. Canad. Ent. 2: 11. ♀.

Hemiteles nemativorus \ar.fuscatus Walsh, 1869. Canad. Ent. 2: 12. ♀.

Hemiteles utilis Norton, 1869. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 326. ♀.

Hemiteles depressus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 334. ♀.

Hemiteles melitaeae Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 399. ♀.

Hemiteles coleophorae Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 400. ♀.

Hemiteles variegatus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect
Life 3: 153. Nomen nudum.

Hemiteles sordidus Riley, 1890. In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3: 153.
Nomen nudum.

Hemiteles periliti Riley, 1890. In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3: 153.
Nomen nudum.

Hemiteles scolyti Ashmead, 1893. In Hopkins, W. Va. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui. 31: 144. Nomen
nudum.

Otacustes orgyiae Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 209. ♀.

Otacustes periliti Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 210. ♀.

Otacustes nigro-ornatus Cameron, 1908. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 34: 244. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cushman and Gahan, 1923. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc 23: 163.

Biology: Muesebeck and Dohanian, 1927. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 1487: 12-14. -Doner, 1934.
Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 27: 442. —Doner, 1926. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 29: 228.

Morphology: Dustan, 1923 (1922). Acadian Ent. Soc, Proc. 8: 75-78 (larva).

Gelis terebrator (Ratzeburg)
Greenland; Europe. Host: Microplitus coactus Lundb.
Pezomachus terebrator Ratzeburg, 1848. Ichn. d. Forstins., v. 2, p. 126. ♀.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1916. Arkiv for Zool. 10 (22): 8.

Gelis texanus (Cresson)
Tex.

Pezomachus texanus Cresson, 1872. Canad. Ent. 4: 64. ♀.

Gelis uniformis (Dalla Torre)
N. H. s. to Md., w. to Iowa. Host: Spider eggs.

Pezomachus unicolor Cresson, 1872. Canad. Ent. 4: 64. ♀. Preocc. by Foerster, 1850.

Pezomachus uniformis Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 635. N. name for P. unicolor
Cresson.




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Gelis urbanus (Brues)
N. Y.

Pezoniachufi itrbaynis Brues, 1910. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 8: 70. ♂.

Gelis virginiensis
***authority mismatch
(Aslimead), n. comb. Va., Arl<. Ecology: Associated witii Acrobasis indigenella
(Zell.). This species had been incorrectly placed in the genus Mastnts since 1944.

Hemitelefi virginiensis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 404. ♀.

Gelis wheeleri (Brues)
111.

Pezowachus wheeleri Brues, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 123. ♀.

Gelis yakutatensis (Ashmead)
Alaska.

Atractodes yakutatensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 169. ♂.

Genus AGASTHENES Foerster

Antlienoptera Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 175.

Type-species: Heviiteles stagnalis Thomson. Included and desig. by Hellen, 1967.
Agasthenes Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 178.

Type-species: Heviiteles varitarsus Gravenhorst. Included and desig. by Perkins,
1962.
Arachnoleter Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (4): 2.

Type-species: Arachnoleter swezeyi Cushman. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Townes (1970) says that there are two undescribed Nearctic species. In the U. S. Natl. Muse-
um collection there are specimens of one of them from Mich., Ind., and Minn.; this species
parasitizes spider eggs, as does A. swezeyi (Cushman), which is known from India, Malaya, the
Philippines, and Hawaii.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 57.

Subtribe MASTRINA
Genus PYGOCRYPTUS Roman

Pygocryptus Roman, 1925 (1924). Arkiv for Zool. 17 A (4): 9.

Type-species: Phygadeuon grandis Thomson. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Revision: Torgerson, 1974. Canad. Ent. 106: 889-896 (Holarctic spp.).

Pygocryptus coryopsis Torgerson
Cahf.

Pygocryptus coryopsis Torgerson, 1974. Canad. Ent. 106: 895. ♀.

Pygocryptus cruentus Torgerson
n. status. Alta., B. C.

Pygocryptus echthroides cruentus Torgerson, 1974. Canad. Ent. 106: 893. ♀.

Pygocryptus echthroides
***authority mismatch
echthroides (Townes). Que., Mich., Alaska, B. C, Oreg., Calif.

Cryptus brevicornis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 67. ♀.

Preocc. by Gravenhorst, 1829 and Provancher, 1875.
Cryptus brevicinctus (!) Provancher, 1889. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 452

(index).
Amydraulax echthroides Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 174. N. name for C.
brevicornis Provancher.

Pygocryptus echthroides
***authority mismatch
oribasus Torgerson. Colo., Ariz.

Pygocryptus echthroides oribasus Torgerson, 1974. Canad. Ent. 106: 893. ♂, ♀.

Pygocryptus erugatus Torgerson
Que. s. to N. C, w. to Mich.

Pygocryptus erugatus Torgerson, 1974. Canad. Ent. 106: 894. ♂, ♀.

Pygocryptus exilis Torgerson
Calif.

Pygocryptus exilis Torgerson, 1974. Canad. Ent. 106: 896. ♂.

Pygocryptus exochus Torgerson
Que., N. Y., Md., S. C, Mich.

Pygocryptus exochus Torgerson, 1974. Canad. Ent. 106: 895. ♂, ♀.

Genus MASTRUS Foerster

Perosis Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 169.

Type-species: Echthrus arniatus Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from two
species included by Schmiedeknecht, 1888.




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Daictes Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 176.

Type-species: Phygadeuon (Daictes) fukai Viereck. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Viereck, 1911.
Aenoplex Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 176.

Type-species: Aenoplex betulaecola Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Ashmead, 1896.
Mastrus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 176.

Type-species: Phygadeuon (Mastrus) neodiprioni Viereck. By subsequent monotypy
from inclusion by Viereck, 1911.
hadelphus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 177.

Type-species: Hemiteles ininiicus Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and desig.
by Viereck, 1914.
Zoophthorus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 180.

Type-species: Hemiteles (Zoophthorus) nigricaniformis Viereck. By subsequent
monotypy from inclusion by Viereck, 1917.
Micromonodon Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 195.

Type-species: Hemicryptus tener Kriechbaumer. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Ashmead, 1900. Ashmead (1900) suppressed the monotypic genus
He)nicryptHs Kriechbaumer as a synonym of Micromonodon, which inferred
inclusion of Hemicryptus tener Kriechbaumer in Micromonodon (cf. Perkins,
1962).
Cecidonomus Bridgman, 1880. Entomologist 13: 264.

Type-species: Cecidonomus gallicola Bridgman. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Hemicryptus Kriechbaumer, 1893. Ent. Nachr. 19: 152. Preocc. by Zittel, 1885.

Type-species: Heniicryptxis tener Kriechbaumer. Monotypic.
Chaetoniastrus Hellen, 1967. Notulae Ent. 47: 105.

Type-species: Hemiteles hirticeps Thomson. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Mastrus seems to be an extraordinarily heterogeneous assemblage of species, some of which
may prove to belong in the subtribe Phygadeuontina. Dr. Klaus Horstmann will have signifi-
cantly modified the generic synonymy prior to the appearance of this catalog.

Taxonomy: Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 173, 212. —Perkins, 1962. Brit. Mus.

(Nat. Hist.), Bui. 11:436.

Mastrus aciculatus (Provancher)
N. B. s. to Va., w. to s. Alaska and Calif. Host: Coccygomimus

sanguinipes erythropus (Vier.), Itoplectis behrensii (Cr.), Meteorus niveitarsis (Cr.),
Arge sp., Gilpinia hercyniae (Htg.), Zadiprion townsendi (Cock.), Neodiprion nanulus
Schedl, N. pinetum (Nort.), N. pratti pratti (Dyar), N. rugifrons Midd., N. sertifer
(Geoff.), N. sicainei Midd., N. taedae linearis Ross, N. tsugae Midd., Lambdiiia
fiscellaria fiscellaria (Gn.), Protoboarmia porcelaria (Gn.). The observations by
Cushman (1919) cast suspicion upon records for aciculatus as a primary parasite of
Lepidoptera.

Hemiteles aciculatus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 60. ♂.

Hemiteles ashmeadii Riley, 1890. In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3:
153. Nomen nudum.

Hypocryptus vancouverensis Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 248. ♂.

Phygadeuon phryganidiae Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 207. ♀.

Phygadeuon (Aenoplex) argeae Viereck, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 39: 405. ♀.

Phygadeuon (Mastrus) neodiprioni Viereck, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 195. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 65 (syn.).

Biology: Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 524. —Reeks, 1938. Ent. Soc. Ont., Ann.

Rpt. 69: 27.
Morphology: Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 30-31 (final-instar larva).

Mastrus albiscapus (Ashmead)
Tex.

Hemiteles albiscapus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 403. ♂.

Mastrus annulatus (Ashmead)
Calif. Host: Pupa of microlepidopteran.

Hemiteles annulatus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 402. ♂.




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Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 65.

Mastrus autumnalis (Provancher)
Que., R. I., N. Y.

Atractodes autumnalis Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 367. ♂, ♀.

Mastrus carpocapsae (Cushman)
Pa. s. to Fla., w. to Oreg. and Calif. Host: Grapholitha 7)iolesta (Bsk.),
Laspeyrenia caryana (Fitch), L. pomonella (L.).
Aenoplex carpocapsae Cushman, 1915. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 48: 509. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 53: 461 (male described).

Biology: Flanders, 1926. Pan-Pacific Ent. 3: 44-45. — McClure, 1933. Ent. News 44: 48-49
(effects of sting on host). —McClure, 1933. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 26: 345-347 (variation in
life cycle). -McClure, 1937. Nature Notes 4: 38-40. -Lloyd, 1956. Canad. Ent. 88: 80-89
(oviposition behavior).

Mastrus caudatus (Provancher)
Que., N. Y., Ont.

Echthrus caudatus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 313. ♀.
Aenoplex longicauda Walley, 1934. Canad. Ent. 66: 240. ♀.

Mastrus cressoni (Riley)
N. H., Mich., Ill, Mo. Host: Microgaster gelechiae Riley?, Gaynbnis nuncius

(Say).
Hemiteles (?) Cressoni Riley, 1869. Mo. State Ent, Ann. Rpt. 1: 177. ♂.
Heniiteles conipactus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 398. 9. Described

by virtue of Ashmeads' inclusion of "compacttis Cresson" in a key; Ashmead did not

realize covipacius was a manuscript name on a specimen Cresson had identified for

Riley (see Cushman, 1919).
Hemiteles cressonii Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 647. Emend.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 525-526. —Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer.
Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 65.

Mastrus extensor (Cushman)
Calif.

Isadelpkus extensor Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 527. ♀.

Mastrus gigas (Provancher)
Que., Ont., Mass., Conn., N. Y., N. J., Alta.

Hemiteles gigas Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 59. ♂.
Platylabus giganticus Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 783. Unnecessarily proposed n.
name for H. gigas Provancher (April, 1886) which was not preocc. in Platylabus by
Kriechbaumer (August, 1886).
Phygadeuon (Bachia?) tumidiformis Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.

Survey Bui. 22: 335, 336. ♂.
Hemiteles (Zoophthorus) nigricaniformis Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat.
Hist. Survey Bui. 22: 338, 340. ♂.

Mastrus hydrophilus (Ashmead)
N. S., Maine, N. Y. Host: Epinotia nanana (Treit.).

Hemiteles hydrophilus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 401. ♀.

intermedius (Cresson). Tex.

Phygadeuon internieditis Cresson, 1874. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 160. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 65.

Mastrus laplantei Mason
Newfoundland (insular) s. to Maine, w. to s. Alaska and Oreg. Host: Meteorus
niveitarsis (Cr.), Gilpinia hercyniae (Htg.), Neodiprion nanulus nanulus Schedl, N.
pratti banksianae Roh., A^. swainei Midd., A^. tsugae Midd., Heterarthrus nemoratus
(Fall.), Pikonema alaskensis (Roh.), Pristiphora erichsonii (Htg.), Acleris gloverana
(Wlshm.), A. variana (Fern.), Choristoneura fumiferayia (Clem.), Lambdina fiscellaria
fiscellaria (Gn.), L.f. lugubrosa (Hulst), Rheumaptera hastata (L.).
Mastrus laplantei Mason, 1968. Canad. Ent. 100: 19. ♂, ♀.

Mastrus laricellae (Mason)
n. comb. N. B., P. E. I., Ont., Wis., n.e. Calif. Host: Argyresthia laricella
Kft. This species is placed provisionally in Mastrus (see foregoing discussion under
Lysibia).;

Alegina laricellae Mason, 1961. Canad. Ent. 97: 4. ♂, ♀.

Morphology: Eidt, 1962. Canad. Ent. 94: 32 (final-instar larva).

Mastrus mucronatus (Provancher)
N. H., Ont., Mass., Conn., N. J., Ga. Host: Gatnbrus sp.

Hemiteles mucronatus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 58. ♂.




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Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 65.

Mastrus pilifrons (Provancher)
Que. s. to N. C, w. to B. C. and Calif. Host: Acronicta betulae (Riley),
Grapbolitha molesta (Bsk.), Laspeyresia pomonella (L.).
Orthocentrus pilifrons Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 279-. "9" = 6.
Hemiteles cryptifonnis Riley, 1890. hi Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3:

153. Nomen nudum.
Aenoplex betnlaecola Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 208. ♀.
Aenoplex plesiotypus Cushman, 1915. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 48: 510. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 53: 460.

Mastrus pinifoliae (Cushman)
n. comb. Mass., La. Host: Exoteleia sp., E. pinifoUella (Chamb.). As with
M. laricellae (Mason), this species is placed provisionally in Mastrus (see foregoing
discussion under Lysibia.
Hemiteles pinifoliae Cushman, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (14): 5. ♂, ♀.

Mastrus polychrosidis (Cushman)
R. I., N. Y., Pa. Host: Paralobesia viteana (Clem.).

Aenoplex polychrosidis Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 524. ♂, ♀.

Mastrus rubricornis (Ashmead)
Va.

Hemiteles rubriconiis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 405. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 65.
ruflpes (Ashmead). Alaska.

Aenoplex rufipes Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 188. ♂.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 12: 65.

Mastrus smithii (Packard)
Que. w. to Wash., s. to N. J., 111., Colo., and Oreg. Host: Ganibnis extrematis
(Cr.), Anietastegia glabrata (Fall.).
Cryptus Smithii Packard, 1865. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Proc. 9: 346. ♂, ♀.
Echthrus rubripes Provancher, 1883. Nat. Canad. 14: 16. ♀.

Phaeogenes crassitelns Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 41. ♀.
Aenoplex nigrosovia Cushman, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 53: 460. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 65.

Mastrus subspinosus (Provancher)
Que., R. I., N. Y.

Phygadeuon subspinosus Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 336. ♂.

Genus AMYDRAULAX Cushman

Amydraulax Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 60 (21): 4.

Type-species: Amydraulax pulchra Cushman. Monotypic and orig. desig.

There is an undescribed species which apparently occurs in northern Mexico as well as in the
southwestern U. S.; it has been reared from cones of Pinus ponderosa. The genus is not known
to occur outside of the southwestern part of the Nearctic region.

Amydraulax pulchra Cushman
Calif. Ecology: The only host known for pulchra is a cerambycid which
bores in the branches of Sequoia gigantea. Host: Callidium sequarimn Fisher.
Amydraulax pulchra Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 60 (21): 5. ♀.

Genus APOTEMNUS Cushman

Apotemnus Cushman, 1940. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 88: 359.

Type-species: Cryptus truncatus Cushman. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Only the type-species is known.

Apotemnus truncatus Cushman
Oreg., Calif. Ecology: Reared from cones of Cupressus macrocarpa.
Apotemnus truncatus Cushman, 1940. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 88: 360. ♀.

Genus HELICOSTIZUS Foerster

Brachycentrus Taschenberg, 1865. Ztschr. f. die Gesam. Naturw. Halle 25: 106. Preocc. by
Curtis, 1834.




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Type-species: Cryptus phnplarius Taschenberg. Monotypic. The type-species is
regarded as a synonym of//, restaumtor restanmtor (Fabricius).
Helcostizufi Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 186.

Type-species: Cryptus brachycentrus Gravenhorst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Schmiedei //. restaumtor restaurator (Fabricius).
Cyrtocryptus Marshall, 1872. Cat. Brit. Hym., v. 3, p. 41.

Type-species: Cryptus brachycentrus Gravenhorst. Monotypic.
Mesocryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 519, 521.

Type-species: Cryptus brachycentrus Gravenhorst. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Heterocryptus Woldstedt, 1873. Bidr. till Kann. af Finlands Natur och Folk 21: 73.
Type-species: Cryptus brachycentrus Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Astemaulax Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 42: 632.

Type-species: Astemaulax fiskei Viereck. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Chenhergus Navas, 1930. Soc. Ent. de Espana, Bol. 13: 43. N. name for Brachycentrus
Taschenberg.

This genus was formerly placed by Townes in the Cryptini, where it was a member of his now
defunct subtribe Echthrina. Townes (1970) said little concerning his placement of Helcostizus in
the Hemitelini, which leads me to suppose that he placed it here because he did not know what
else to do with it. He mentioned Helcostizus as one of a number of genera showing "convergence
toward" his newly erected subtribe Gabuniina (Cryptini), but said that in certain cases (without
saying which cases) it is uncertain whether these genera should be placed in the Gabuniina or el-
sewhere.

Revision: Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 531-535. —Townes and Townes, 1962. U.
S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 513-522.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 326.
annulicornis (Walsh). N. Y., Md., Va., Mich., 111.?, Okla. Host: Elapkidionoides parallelus
(Newm.)?
Echthrus ajmulicornis Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 159. ♀.
Helcostizus bicarinatus Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 532. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (4): 8.
collinus (Provancher). Que. Not included in the revision by Townes and Townes (1962) and
probably synonymous with one of the taxa included.
Mesostenus collinus Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11 (no. 126): HI. S.

Taxonomy: Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 453-454 (lectotype selected).
oxyura Townes. Ont., Mich.

Helcostizus oxyura Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
517. ♀.
restaurator canadensis (Provancher). Que. s. to N. C, w. to Mich. Host: Atimia confusa (Say).
//. restaurator restaurator (Fabricius) is Eurasian; its synonymy is listed by Townes,
Momoi, and Townes (1965).
Mesochorus Canadensis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 299. ♀.
Astemaulax fiskei Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 42: 632. ♀.

Ta.xonomy: Townes, Momoi, and Townes, 1965. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 5: 204-205.
restaurator yukonensis (Ashmead). Northwestern N. W. T. w. to Alaska, s. to Ariz, and Calif.
Host: Plectura spi)iicauda Mann. Townes and Townes (1962) distinguished rufiscutuni
Cushman as a separate subspecies, but the material they studied included nearly as
many specimens which they classified as intermediate between rufiscutH)n and
yukonensis as there were specimens identified as rufiscutuni; therefore, I feel it is not
practical to recognize rufiscutuni as a distinct subspecies.
Pinipla yukonensis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 445. ♀.
Helcostizus rufiscutuni Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 533. ♀. N. syn.
subrectus Townes. Ariz.

Helcostizus subrectus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 517. ♀.




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tibialis Townes. Ont., N. Y., Pa., Mich., Wis.

Helco.stizuii tibialis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
516. ♂, ♀.

Genus LOCHETICA Kriechbaumer

Lochetica Kriechbaumer, 1892. Ent. Nachr. 18: 340.

Type-species: Phijgadeuon piniplarinx Thomson. Monotypic. The type-species is
regarded as a synonym of L. Westoni (Bridgman).

This small Holarctic genus includes three Palearctic species and one undescribed species
which occurs in the western U. S. (Townes, 1970).

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 70.

Subtribe ETHELURGINA
Genus RHEMBOBIUS Foerster

Rhentbobiiis Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 184.

Type-species: Phijgudeuon qiiadrispinus Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and
desig. by Ashmead, 1900.
UlothywKs Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 185.

Type-species: Ichneumon perscrutator Thunberg. Monotypically included and desig.
by Perkins, 1962.
Acanthocryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 520, 521.

Type-species: Phygadeuon quadrispinus Gravenhorst. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This small Holarctic genus was removed from the Aptesini by Townes (1970), who discussed
his reasons for transferring it to the Hemitelini. No other genus of Hemitelini is known to have
species in which the adult females overwinter, but it is apparently not known if any Rhembobius
sp. overwinters e.xclusively in this way. The known hosts are saprophagous Syrphidae.

Revision: Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 272-278.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 112.

Rhembobius abdominalis (Provancher)
N. S. s. to Conn., w. to n. Alaska and Calif.; Hawaii. Host: Eiuiierus
strigatuH (Fall.), Merodon eqttestris (F.), Xylota sp. Townes and Gupta (1962) recognized
three broadly overlapping subspecies.
Phygadeuon abdominalis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 280. ♂, ♀.
Phygadeuon 4-carinatus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 180, 183. ♂.
Platylabus pacificus Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 210. ♀.

Rhe)nbobins abdominalis montanus Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2:
275. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1930 (1929). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 76 (25): 3.
parous Townes. Mich., Man., Sask.

Rhembobius parens Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 273. ♂, ♀.

Genus ETHELURGUS Foerster

TohneruH Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 177. Preocc. by Loew, 1849.
Type-species: Phygadeuon sodalis Taschenberg. Monotypically included and desig.
by Townes and Townes, 1966.
Ethel urgus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 180.

Type-species: Hemiteles (Ehtelurgus) lonicerae Viereck. By subsequent monotypy
from inclusion by Viereck, 1917.
Niineches Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 186.

Type-species: Phygadeuon sodalis Taschenberg. Monotypically included and desig.
by Perkins, 1962.
Zaniicrotoridea Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey Bui. 22: 340.
Type-species: Hemiteles (Zamicrotoridea) orbifonnis Viereck. Monotypic.




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I have seen one undescribed Nearctic species in the U. S. Natl. Museum collection, but sup-
pose that there are other undescribed Nearctic species because Townes (1970) said that Ethelur-
gus is a moderate sized genus. Males of Ethelurgus will not key to the subtribe Ethelurgina in
Townes (1970) because only the females have the apical margin of the clypeus impressed.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 7, 72.

Ethelurgus syrphicola (Ashmead)
Conn. s. to S. C, w. to Oreg. Host: Allograpta obliqua (Say), Baccha
(Ocyptat)ius) fascipennis Wied., Mesograpta polita (Say), Syrpluis rectus 0. ♂.
Hemiteles syrphicola Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 399. ♀.
Hemiteles (Ethelnrgus) lonicerae Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.

Survey Bui. 22: 340. ♀.
Hemiteles (Zaniicrotoridea) orbifomiis Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat.
Hist. Survey Bui. 22: 340. ♂.

Subtribe ENDASEINA

Genus CHARITOPES Foerster

Charitopes Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Verh. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 181.

Type-species: Hemiteles (Charitopes) chrysopae Brischke. By subsequent monotypy
from inclusion by Brischke, 1890.
Fianonia Seyrig, 1952. Acad. Malgache, Mem. 39: 31.

Type-species: Fianonia problematica Seyrig. Monotypic and orig. desig.

The species of this genus which have been reared are parasites of Hemerobiidae.

Charitopes gastricus (Holmgren)
Calif.

Hemiteles gastricus Holmgren, 1869 (1868). Eug. Resa, pt. 2 (Zool.), sect. 1 (Ins.), p. 401. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1961. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 63: 106.

Charitopes mellicornis
***authority mismatch
(Ashmead), n. comb. Mass. s. to S. C, w. to Minn, and Iowa. Host: Micromus
posticus (Wlkr.).
Hemiteles mellicornis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 404. ♀.
Charitopes mellicornis Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 383. Nomen
nudum.

Charitopes piceiventris (Harrington)
B. C.

Hemiteles piceiventris Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 213. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 12: 80.

Charitopes plectiscinus (Roman)
Greenland.

Phygadeuon plectiscinus Roman, 1916. Arkiv for Zool. 10 (22): 5. cJ, 9.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1961. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 63: 111.

Genus ADIASTOLA Foerster

Adiastola Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 180.

Type-species: Adiastola aynericaiia Howard. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Howard, 1897.

Townes (1970) incorrectly treated Adiastola as a synonym of Mastrus.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 64.

Adiastola columbiae (Viereck)
D. C. Host: Iseropus coelebs (Walsh)?

Adiastola americana Howard, 1897. U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Tech. Ser. 5: 54. ♂, ♀.

Temporarily preocc. in Hemiteles by Theroscopus americanus Ashmead, 1896.
Hemiteles columbiae Viereck, 1910. In Smith, N.J. State Mus., Ann. Rpt. for 1909, p. 631.
N. name for A. americana Howard.

Genus MEDOPHRON Foerster

Baryntica Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 184.

Type-species: Stylocryptus elegans Schmiedeknecht. Monotypically included and
desig. by Perkins, 1962.




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Medophron Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 185.

Type-species: Medophron niger Brischke. By subsequent monotypy from inclusion
by Brischke, 1881. The type-species is regarded as a synonym of M. afflictor
(Gravenhorst).

Medophron caudatus (Provancher)
Que., s. Alaska.

Crypius caudatus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 314. ♀.
Bathynietis bicolor Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 182. ♂, ♀.

Medophron dytiscivorus Mason
Ont. Host: Dytiscus fasciventris Say.

Medophron dytiscivorus Mason, 1968. Canad. Ent. 100: 21. ♂, ♀.

Genus ENDASYS Foerster

Endasys Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 184.

Type-species: Stylocryptus analis Thomson. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from two
species included by Roman, 1909.
Scinascopus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 185.

Type-species: Phygadeuon cneniargus Gravenhorst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Brischke, 1891. The type-species is regarded as a synonym of E.
parvirentris (Gravenhorst).
Bachia Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 186. Preocc. by Gray, 1845.

Type-species: Phygadeuon (Bachia) testaceipes Brischke. By subsequent monotypy
from inclusion by Brischke, 1891.
Stylocryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 520, 521.

Type-species: Phygadeuon brevis Gravenhorst. Monotypic.
Bachiana Strand, 1928 (1926). Arch. f. Naturgesch. (A) 92 (8): 52. N. name for Bachia
Foerster.
auriculifcrus (Viereck). Conn., N. Y.

Phygadeuon {Bachia^) auriculiferus Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.
Survey Bui. 22: 336. ♂.

Endasys bicolor (Lundbeck)
Greenland.

Phygadeuon bicolor Lundbeck, 1897 (1896). Dansk Naturhist. For. Kjobenhavn, Vidensk.
Meddel., p. 227. ♀.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1916. Arkiv for Zool. 10 (22)': 4, 5.

Endasys maculatus (Provancher)
Que. s. to Md., w. to Mich, and Ohio.

Phygadeuon maculatus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 178, 182. ♀.

Endasys monticola (Dalla Torre)
Colo.

Phygadeuon niontanus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 309. ♀. Preocc. (presently?)

in Phygadeuon by Cryptus niontanus Gravenhorst, 1829.
Phygadeuon monticola Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 689. N. name for P.
niontanus Cresson.

Endasys mucronatus (Provancher)
Que. s. to Va., w. to Mich. Host: Arge clavicornis {¥.), A. pectoralis
(Leach).
Phygadeuon mucronatus Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 73. ♀.
Melophron (!) abdominalis Ashmead, 1906. //( Slosson, Ent. News 17: 324. Nomen nudum.

Endasys paludicola (Brues)
Colo.

Oxytorus paludicola Brues, 1908. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 6: 50. ♂.

Endasys pubescens (Provancher)
Que. s. to Ga., w. to Alta. and Colo.

Phygadeuon pubescens Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 282. ♂.

Phygadeuon dubius Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 283. ♀.

Aloniya pulchra Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 120. ♂.

Phygadeuon pallicox2is Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 75. ♂.

Phygadeuon pallidicoxus Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 690. Emend.

Endasys rotundiceps (Provancher)
Que.

Phygadeuon rotundiceps Provancher, 1877. Nat. Canad. 9: 12. ♀.

Taxonomy: Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 74.




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Endasys subclavatus (Say)
N. B. s. to Fla., w. to Oreg. and Calif. Host: Gilpinia hercyniae (Htg.),

Neodiprion excitans Roh., N. lecontei (Fitch), N. nanulus nanuhis Schedl, A^. prafti

banksianae Roh., N. pratti pratti (Dyar), N. rugifrons Midd., A^. sertifer (Geoff.), N.

swainei Midd., N. taedae linearis Ross, N. tsugae Midd., N. virginiana Roh., Zadiprion

toicnnendi (Cock.).
Cryptiis subclavatus Harris, 1835. In Hitchcock, Rpt. Geol. Mineral. Bot. Zool. Mass., ed. 2,

p. 584. Nomen nudum.
Cryptus subclavatus Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 237. ♀.
Phygadeuon vulgaris Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 310. ♀.
Ichneumon inflatus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (1): 24 (key); 7 (3): 83. ♂.
Platylabus ruficomis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 36, 38.

S, 9.
Melophron (!) nionticola Ashmead, 1900. In Slosson, Ent. News 11: 319. Nomen nudum.
Phygadeuon (Bathymefis) patulus Viereck, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 193. ♂.
Phygadeuon (Bachia^ brittoni Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.

Survey Bui. 22: 336. ♂.

Ta.xonomy: Cushman and Gahan, 1921. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 23: 162. — Finlayson, 1960.
Canad. Ent. 92: 25, 32 (fmal-instar larva).

Biology: Tripp, 1961. Canad. Ent. 93: 53. -Finlayson, 1963. Canad. Ent. 95: 491.

Endasys texanus (Cresson)
Tex.

Phygadeuon texanus Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 160. ♂.

Genus GLYPHICNEMIS Foerster

Glyphicnemis Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 181.

Type-species: Phygadeuon vagabundus Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and
desig. by Ashmead, 1900.
Gnathocryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 520, 521.

Type-species: Phygadeuon vagabundus Gravenhorst. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Semiodes Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 247.

Type-species: Semiodes seminiger Harrington. Monotypic.

I have seen specimens representing what appear to be several undescribed Neartic species.

Glyphicnemis mandibularis (Cresson)
Que. s. to Md., w. to B. C. and Calif.

Phygadeuon mandibularis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 311. ♀.

Ischnus ruficomis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (4): 110. ♂.

Phygadeuon ruficomis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (6): 179. ♂. Preocc. in Phygadetion

by Gravenhorst, 1829 and in Glyphicnemis by Provancher, 1875, no. 4, p. 110.
Phygadeuon crassipes Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 9: 11. ♀.

Phygadeuon califomicus Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 358. ♂.
Seviiodes seminiger Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 247. ♂.

Subtribe BATHYTRICHINA

This subtribe includes six genera, but only Baththrix, which is nearly worldwide in distribu-
tion, occurs in the Nearctic fauna.

Genus BATHYTHRIX Foerster

Ischnurgops Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 175.

Type-species: Cryptus claviger Taschenberg. Monotypically included and desig. by
Viereck, 1914.
Steganops Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 175.

Type-species: Cryptus claviger Taschenberg. Monotypically included and desig. by
Viereck, 1914.
Bathythrix Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 175.

Type-species: Bathythrix meteori Howard. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from two species
included by Howard, 1897.
Panargyrops Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 182.




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Type-species: Cryptus claviger Taschenberg. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from two
species included by Schmiedeknecht, 1888.
Gausocentrus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 198.

Type-species: Gausocentrus gyrini Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Ashmead, 1894.
Sienoschema Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 220. Nomen nudum.
Leptocryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 521.

Type-species: Cryptus claviger Taschenberg. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from nine
species included by Thomson, 1884.
Ageiwra Cameron, 1909. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Jour. 19: 722.
Type-species: Age)iora hirticeps Cameron. Monotypic.

Members of this genus oviposit into cocoons of various insects, often those of Braconidae or
other Ichneumonidae.

Revision: Thomson, 1884. Opusc. Ent. 10: 963-966 (European spp.). — Cushman, 1920. U. S.
Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 261-264. —Viereck, 1925. Canad. Ent. 57: 77-78.

Bathythrix areolaris (Cushman)
Alaska, Oreg., Calif. Host: Neodiprion tsugae Midd.

Panargyrops areolaris Cushman, 1939. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 29: 397. ♂, ♀.

Bathythrix claviger (Taschenberg)
Que., Maine, Tex., Alta., Colo., B. C, Wash.; Eurasia. Host:
Anietastegia glabrata (Fall.).
Cryptus claviger Taschenberg, 1865. Ztschr. f. die Gesam. Naturw. Halle 25: 76. ♂.
Cryptus (Cliaeretymma[f]) ater Brischke, 1880. Naturf. Gesell. Danzig, Schr. (n. f.) 5: 338. ♂, ♀.
Mesostenus sericeus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 264. ♂.
Cryptus sericeifrons Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11 (no. 125): 132. ♀.
Agenora hirticeps Cameron, 1909. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Jour. 19: 722. ♂.
Bathythrix tibialis Cushman, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 53: 458. cJ, 9.
Panargyrops texanus Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 262. ♀. Preocc. in

Bathythrix by Ashmead, 1890.
Panargyrops pacificus Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 262. ♀.
Thysiotorus (Panargyrops) tegularis Viereck, 1925. Canad. Ent. 57: 78. ♀.
Thysiotorus {Panargyrops) conjunctus Viereck, 1925. Canad. Ent. 57: 78. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Oehlke, 1966 (1965). Beitr. z. Ent. 15: 845-846.

Bathythrix fragilis (Viereck)
N. Mex.

Plesiognathus (l) fragilis Viereck, 1903. In Skinner, Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 82. ♂.

Bathythrix gyrinophaga (Cushman)
N. Y., Ont., Mich., Iowa. Host: Gyrinus sp.

Gausocentrus gyrini Ashmead, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 25. ♂. Preocc. in Bathythrix by

Hemiteles gyrini Parfitt, 1881.
Hemiteles gyrinophagus Cushman, 1930 (1929). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 76 (25): 5. N. name

for G. gyrini Ashmead.
Panargyrops instil a DeGant, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82: 2. (J, 9.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 90 (syn.).
latifrons (Cushman). Southern Alaska, Wash., Oreg. Host: Neodiprion tsugae Midd., Meteorus
sp.?
Thysiotorus latifrons Cushman, 1939. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 29: 396. ♂, ♀.

Bathythrix meteori (Howard)
R. I. and N. Y. s. to Ga. and Miss. Host: Meteorus connnu7iis (Cr.), Iseropus
coelebs (Walsh)?
Bathythrix meteori Howard, 1897. U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Tech. Ser. 5: 53. ♂, ♀.

Bathythrix peregrina (Cresson)
Que. s. to Va., w. to Iowa and Kans.

Mesoleptusf peregrinus Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 102. ♂, ♀.

Panargyrops thoracicus Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 55: 528. ♀.

Bathythrix pimplae Howard
N. Y. s. to Va., w. to S. Dak. Host: Ganibrus extretnatis (Cr.), Iseropus
coelebs (Walsh)?, Gyrinus sp.?

Bathythrix piwplae Howard, 1897. U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Tech. Ser. 5: 54. ♀.

Biology: Butcher, 1933. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 26: 82.




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Bathythrix subargentea (Cresson)
Pa., Alta., Idaho, Wash.

Cryptus subarge7iteus Cresson. 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 302. ♀.

Exolytus sericeifrons Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 355. ♀. Preocc. in

Bathythrix by Cryptus sericeifrons Provancher.
Thysiotonis (Panargyrops) seamayisi Viereck, 1925. Canad. Ent. 57: 77. ♀.

Bathythrix texana (Ashmead)
Tex.

Stilpnus texamis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 397. ♀.

Bathythrix triangularis (Cresson)
Maine w. to Wis., s. to Ala. Host: Apanteles melanoscelus (Ratz.),
Meteonis versicolor (Wesm.), Hyposoter sp., Phobocampe geometrae (Ash.), Diprion
similis (Htg.).
Mesoleptns triangularis Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 101. ♂.
Mesostenus pallipes Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 264. ♀.
Thysiotonis^ smithi Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 58: 263. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1939. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 29: 396 (syn.).

Subtribe PHYGADEUONTINA
Genus OECOTELMA Townes

Oecotelma Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 94.

Type-species: Hentiteles cushmaiti Butcher. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Oecotelma cushmani (Butcher)
Mich. Host: Gyrinus sp.

Hemiteles cushmani Butcher, 1933. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 26: 76. ♂, ♀.

Genus SULCARIUS Townes

Sulcaritis Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 95.

Type-species: Hemiteles kellbachi Schmiedeknecht. Orig. desig.

Species of this genus apparently parasitize larvae of caddisflies whose cases are left exposed
by the receding waters of vernal ponds or intermittent streams.

Sulcarius biannulatus (Gravenhorst)
Minn.?, 111.?; Europe. Host: Limnephilus iJidivisus Walker. North
American specimens were identified as biannulatus by Roman (1925) and Mickel and
Milliron (1939), but the question of conspecificity of Neartic and Paleartic specimens has
apparently not been readdressed; therefore, the occurrence of biannulatus in North
America remains unsubstantiated.

Hemiteles biannulatus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 846. ♀.

Hemiteles Hellbachi Schmiedeknecht, 1905. Opusc. Ichn., v. 2, p. 851. 9. Syn. verified by
Dr. Klaus Horstmann (personal commun., 1976).

Hemiteles bianulatus (!) Oehlke and Townes, 1969. Beitr. z. Ent. 19: 400.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1925 (1924). Arkiv for Zool. 17 A (4): 16. -Hellen, 1967. Notulae Ent. 47:
107. -Oehlke and Townes, 1969. Beitr. z. Ent. 19: 400. —Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent.
Inst., Mem. 12: 96.

Biology: Mickel and Milliron, 1939. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42: 578-580.

Sulcarius bicornutus (Ashmead)
Mo.

Hemiteles bicornutus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 12: 403. ♂.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 96.

Sulcarius glacialis (Ashmead)
B. C. The type-locality (Lowe Inlet, B. C.) was erroneously recorded by
Townes (1944) as an Alaskan locality.
Philonygus (!) glacialis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 189. ♂.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 186. —Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent.
Inst., Mem. 12: 96.

Genus ORTHIZEMA Foerster

Orthizema Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 178.




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Type-species: Hemiteles (Ortliizema) omatus Brischke. By subsequent monotypy
from inclusion by Brischi snbannulatu))! (Bridgman).
Naetes Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Ver. 25: 185.

Type-species: Hemiteles {Naites[!]) rufus Brischke. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Brischke, 1892. The type-species is regarded as a synonym of 0.
Iiadrocerus (Thomson).
Phyzelufi Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 185.

Type-species: PhyzeluN fasciatiis Brischke. By subsequent monotypy from inclusion
by Brischke, 1888. Townes and Gupta (1962) disputed Perkins' (1962) synonymy
of fanciatuH with Aptesis flagitator (Rossi) on the premise that A.flagitator does
not agree with the original description of fasciatiis (the holotype of fasciatus
having been destroyed), and Townes (1970) placed /a scm/it.s as a synonym of 0.
Iiadrocerus (Thomson).

Townes (1970) stated that Orthizema is a large genus of Holarctic distribution, but did not
state how many undescribed Nearctic species he has seen.

Taxonomy: Perkins, 1962. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 11: 446. —Townes and Gupta,
1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 247. —Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 97-98.
testaceipcs (Cushman). N. H., N. Y., Pa.

Adiastola testaceipes Ashmead, 1906. In Slosson, Ent. News 17: 324. Nomen nudum.
Lynieoni' testaceipes Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 61 (8): 17. ♀.

Genus UCHIDELLA Townes

ItaviHs Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 179. Preocc. by Schmidt-Goebel,
1846.

Type-species: Heiniteles {Itaniits) okaniotoi Uchida. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Uchida, 1936. The type-species is regarded as a synonym of U.
marginata (Uchida).
Uchidella Townes, 1957. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 59: 109. N. name for Itamus Foerster.

Except for one species known from Taiwan, Uchidella is said to be a Holarctic genus of
moderate size (see Townes, 1970). There are no described Nearctic species.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 12: 99.

Genus GNOTUS Foerster

G7iotus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 179.

Type-species: Hemiteles tenuiconiis Gravenhorst. Included and desig. by Perkins,
1962. The type-species is regarded as a synonym of G. teyiuipes (Gravenhorst).

Gnotus chionops (Gravenhorst)
N. Y., Pa., Md., Mich.; Japan; Europe. Townes (1970) stated that

Gnotus chionops
***authority mismatch
is Holarctic without mentioning specific localities outside Europe; these he
communicated to me personally and stated that he regards the European, Japanese, and
Nearctic specimens he has seen as belonging to three separate subspecies. ^

Hemiteles chionops Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 797. ♂.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 100.

Genus HEDYLUS Foerster

Hedylus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 183.

Type-species: Hedylus crassicoDiis Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Ashmead, 1899.

This genus is transferred from the Endaseina where Townes (1970) placed it as a synonym of
Medophron. Although the type-species of Hedylus somewhat resembles Medophron species in
the structure of the head and ovipositor, it differs from Medophron species so greatly in wing
venation and petiolar structure that it seems illogical to suggest any close phyletic relationship




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between Hedylus and Medophron. In Hedylus crassicornis the nervellus is reclivous, the
discoidella is absent, the apical portion of the mediella is very strongly curved, and the petiole
has the apex of the sternite opposite the spiracles. In Townes' (1970) key to the genera of
Phygadeuontina H. crassicornis runs to Stibeufes.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 81, 92-94.

Hedylus brooksi (Brooks)
n. comb. W. Va. Host: Craponius inaequalis (Say). This species was placed
in Stibeutes by Townes (1970); it seems more a misfit in Stibeutes than in Hedylus.
Sfiboscopus brooksi Ashmead, 1906. In Brooks, W. Va. Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 100: 240.

Nomen nudum.
Stiboscopus brooksi Brooks 1918. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bui. 730: 14. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 100, 395.

Hedylus crassicornis Ashmead
N. H., Wis.; e. U. S. S. R.

Hedylus crassicontis Ashmead, 1899 (1898). In Jordan, Fur Seals and Fur Seal Isls. No.
Pacific, V. 4, p. 339. ♀.

Genus STIBEUTES Foerster

Stibeutes Foerster, 1850. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 16 (1): 76.

Type-species: Stibeutes gravenhorstii Foerster. Desig. by Ashmead, 1900.
Chamaezelus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 181.

Type-species: Stibeutes heinemanni Foerster. Monotypically included and desig. by
Perkins, 1962.
Schizopleuron subg. Scliizopleuron Aubert, 1968. Soc. Ent. de. Mulhouse, Bui. 24: 6.
Described as Schizopleuron n. genus or Medophron subg. Schizopleuron n. subg.
Type-species: Medophron (Schizopleuron) tricinctor Aubert. Monotypic. The
type-species was alternatively described as Schizopleuron tricinctor K\xheri.

Stibeutes yuasai (Bradley)
N. Y.

Phygadeuon (.Stibeutes) yuasai Bradley, 1918. Brooklyn, Ent. Soc, Bui. 13: 99.9.

Genus THEROSCOPUS Foerster

Theroscopus Foerster, 1850. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 16 (1): 72.

Type-species: Pezomachus pedestris Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914. P.
pedestris Gravenhorst is an identification of Ichneumon pedestris Fabricius.
Chamerpes Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 172.

Type-species: Pezomachus hemipterus Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and
desig. by Viereck, 1914. P. hemipterus Gravenhorst is an identification of
Ichneumon hemipterus Fabricius which Viereck referred to as "Hemiteles
hemipterus Gravenhorst."
Eriplanus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 180.

Type-species: Hemiteles (Eriplanus) metacomet Viereck. By subsequent monotypy
from inclusion by Viereck, 1917.
Phyrtus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Verh. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 181.

Type-species: Pezomachus hemipterus Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and
desig. by Ashmead, 1900. P. hemipterus Gravenhorst is an identification of
Ichneumon hemipterus Fabricius which Ashmead referred to as "Hemiteles
hem ipterus Gravenhorst."
Thysiotorus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 181.

Type-species: Hemiteles (Physiotorus[!]) brevipennis Brischke. Desig. by Viereck,
1914 from two species included by Dalla Torre, 1902. Dalla Torre made the
apparently erroneous assumption that Physiotorus was a typographical error for
Thysiotorus. Cushman (1939) and Perkins (1962) suggest that Physiotorus was a
lapsus Brischke made for Phyrtus instead of a typographical error for
Thysiotorus.
Odontoneura Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 185. N. syn.

Type-species: Phygadeuon a)tnulicornis Thomson. Monotypically included and
desig. by Perkins, 1962. The systematic position of the type-species is discussed
by Frilli (1973).




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Aenoplegimorpha Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 42: 147.

Type-species: Aenoplegimorpha phytonomi Viereck. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Townes (1970) said that Theroscopus "is a large genus of Holarctic distribution; the hosts are
probably various small cocoons."

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1939. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 29: 395-396. -Perkins, 1962. Brit. Mus.
(Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 11: 392. -Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 101.
— Frilli, 1973. Entomologica 9: 95.

Theroscopus nigriceps (Ashmead)
Calif.

Hemiteleft nigriceps Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 400. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 101.
ruflcoxus (Provancher). Que. s. to Conn., w. to Alta. and Utah.; Eurasia. Adventive? Host:

Hypera po.stica (Gyll.). The name which has most frequently been applied to this species
is micator (Gravenhorst), but the original description of Ichneumon micator
Gravenhorst (1807) cannot apply to this species primarily because Gravenhorst
specifically described the female (male not described) as having the scape
yellowish-brown and only the apices of abdominal tergites 1 and 2 yellowish-brown; in
addition, the micator female apparently has black coxae. Cushman (1922) apparently
based his suppression of Aenoplegimoi-pha phytonomi as a synonym of micator upon a
specimen in the U. S. Natl. Museum collection identified as micator by Schmiedeknecht.
The European concept of micator apparently had evolved from Gravenhorst's (1829)
expanded definition of the species. Dr. Klaus Horstmann told me (personal commun.,
1976) that Gravenhorst (1829) described a senior synonym of riificoxus, and its identity
will probably be published prior to the appearance of this catalog.

Hemiteles ruficoxus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 331. ♂, ♀.

PhygadeuoncornutuH Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13 (no. 155): 334 (key); 13 (no. 156):
356. ♀.

Hemiteh'H politus Bridgman, 1883. Ent. Soc. London, Trans. 31: 146. 9. Uncertain syn.;
placed as a synonym of micator by Horstmann (1972).

Phaeogenes recticor)iis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 42. ♂, ♀.

Aenoplegimorpha phytonomi Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 42: 147. ♂.

Hemiteles (Eriplanus) metaconiet Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.
Survey Bui. 22: 340. ♀.

Phygadeuon silesiacus Habermehl, 1919. Ztschr. f. Wiss. Insectenbiol. 15: 104. ♀.
Uncertain syn.; placed as a synonym of micator by Habermehl (1926).

Taxonomy: Gravenhorst, 1807. Vergl. Uebers. Zool. Systeme, p. 260. —Gravenhorst, 1829.
Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 832. —Cushman, 1922. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 24: 64. —Roman,
1925 (1924). Arikiv for Zool. 17 A (4): 15-16. -Habermehl, 1926. Deut. Ent. Ztschr. (for
1926), p. 331. —Horstmann, 1972. Entomologist 105: 220.

Biology: Webster, 1912. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent., Bui. 112: 34. — Boulanger, 1969. Ent. Soc.
Wash., Proc. 71: 149-150.

Theroscopus scapiphorus (Provancher)
Que., Mass., R. I., N. Y.

Atractodes scapiphoriin Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 151. ♂.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1939. Canad. Ent. 71: 92. -Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 561.

Genus MEGACARA Townes

Megacara Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 102.
Type-species: Phygadeuon litcens Provancher. Orig. desig.

This is a small Holarctic genus, with liicens (Provancher) being the only described Nearctic
species.

Megacara lucens (Provancher)
Que., Wash.

Phygadeuon lucois Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 281. ♀.




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Genus PHYGADEUON Gravenhorst

Phygadeuon Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 635.

Type-species: Phygadeuon flavimanua Gravenhorst. Desig. by Westwood, 1840.
Apterophygas Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 172.

Type-species: Apierophygus{\) paradoxus Bridgman. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Bridgman, 1889.
Gu7iopaclies Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 174.

Type-species: Gunopaclies crassus Perkins. Monotypically included and desig. by
Perkins, 1962.
Habrovivia Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 176.

Type-species: Habrovnua nigrum Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Ashmead, 1902.
Pantolispa Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 178.

Type-species: Gunopaches crassus Perkins. Monotypically included and desig. by
Perkins, 1962.
Isochresta Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 181.

Type-species: Isochrefita unicincta Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Ashmead, 1902.
Bathymetia Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 182.

Type-species: Phygadeuon (Bathymetis) cylindricus Brischke. Desig. by Viereck,
1914 from two species included by Brischke, 1891.
helix Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 182.

Type-species: Phygadeuon nitidus Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from seven
species included by Dalla Torre, 1902.
Homelyn Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 182. Preocc. by Meyer, 1844.
Type-species: Phygadeuon lapponicus Thomson. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Roman, 1909.
Emoctona Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 183.

Type-species: Phygadeuon rugulosus Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and
desig. by Perkins, 1962.
Zaphleges Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 184.

Type-species: Phygadeuon leucostigrnus Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Ashmead, 1900.
Phygadeuon subg. Ischnocryptus Kriechbaumer, 1892. Ent. Nachr. 18: 351.

Type-species: Phygadeuon 7iitidus Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.

Members of this large genus parasitize the pupae of cyclorrhaphous Diptera.

Phygadeuon aciculatus Provancher
Que., N. H., N. Y., Minn., Alta.

Phygadeuon aciculatus Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13 (no. 155): 336 (key); 13 (no. 156):
356. ♂.

Phygadeuon alaskensis (Ashmead)
n. comb. Alaska. The holotype has been found.

Microcryptus alaskeyisis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 184. ♂.

Phygadeuon albirictus Cresson
Calif.

Phygadeuon albirichis Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 358. ♂.

Phygadeuon americanus (Cushman)
Maine, N. H., N. Y.

Epitovius americanus Ashmead, 1902. In Slosson, Ent. News 13: 320. Nomen nudum.
Plesignathus americanus Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 61 (8): 23. ♀.

Phygadeuon canadensis (Provancher)
Que.

Stilpnus Canadensis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 112. ♂.

Phygadeuon capitalis Provancher
Que., Ont., N. Y.

Phygadeuon capitalis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 57. ♂.

Phygadeuon cephalicus Provancher
Que., N. C.

Phygadeuon cephalicus Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13 (no. 155): 335 (key); 13 (no. 156):
354. ♂.

Phygadeuon coloradensis (Ashmead)
Colo.

Neviatomicrus coloradensis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 395. ♀.




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Phygadeuon cylindraceus Ruthe
Greenland; Europe. Host: Fucellia fucorum (Fall.), Spaziphom
hydroiuijzina (Fall.).
Phygadeuon cylindraceuf; Ruthe, 1859. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 20: 367. ♂, ♀.
Phygadeuon siidvoldeusis Morley, 1947 (1946). Suffolk Nat. Soc, Trans. 6: 37. ♂, ♀.

Ta.xonomy: Roman, 1916. Arkiv for Zool. 10 (22): 5. — Aubert, 1975. Soc. Ent. de Mulhouse,
Bui. 31: 15 (syn.).

Biology: Nielsen, 1907. Meddel. om Greenland 39: 385. — Baines and Finlayson, 1949. Ent.
Monthly Mag. 85: 150-151.

Phygadeuon epochrae Viereck
Mont. Host: Epochra canadensis (Loew).

Phygadeuon (Plesignatliiis) epochrae Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 44: 567. ♂, ♀.

Phygadeuon hudsonicus (Cresson)
"Hudson's Bay Territory."

Stilpnus hudsonicus Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 95. ♂.

Phygadeuon laticinctus Ashmead
Colo.

Phygadeuon laticinctus Ashmead, 1890. Colo. Biol. Soc, Bui. 1: 21. ♀.

Phygadeuon lechevallieri Provancher
Que.

Phygadeuon Lechevallieri Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13 (no. 155): 334 (key); 13 (no.
156): 356. ♀.

Phygadeuon manitouensis (Viereck)
N. Y., Colo., Wash.

Heniiteles {Diaglyptaf) manitouensis Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19: 290. ♂.

Phygadeuon melanocerus Viereck
Que., R. H., Conn., N. Y., Sask.

Phygadeuon (Plesignathus) melanocerus Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat.
Hist. Survey Bui. 22: 336. ♂.

Phygadeuon mignaulti Provancher
Que.

Phygadeuon Mignaulti Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13 (no. 155): 334 (key); 13 (no. 156):

355. ♀.

Phygadeuon mignaultii Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 688. Emend.

tnontivagus (Ashmead). Colo.

Phaeogenes montivagus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 13: 394.

Phygadeuon nortoni Viereck
Conn., N. Y. Townes (1970) seems to have suggested that this species may
not belong in Phygadeuon.
Phygadeuon (Plesignathus) nortoni Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.
Survey Bui. 22: 336. ♂.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 103.

Phygadeuon ovalis Provancher
Que., N. Y.

Phygadeuon ovalis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 180. ♂, ♀.

Phygadeuon parallelus Provancher
Que. Townes (1944) incorrectly suppressed parallelus as a synonym of
P. canadensis (Provancher).

Phygadeuon parallelus Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13 (no. 155): 335 (key); 13 (no. 156):

356. ♂.

Phygadeuon pisinnus Walkley
Colo.

Ichneumon exiguus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 182. ♀. Preocc. in Phygadeuon

by Gravenhorst, 1829.
Phygadeuon pisinnus Walkley, 1958. In Krombein et al., U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2,
Sup. 1, p. 45. N. name for /. exiguus Cresson.

Phygadeuon pumilus (Cresson)
N. H., R. I., N. Y., N. J., Del.

Cry plus pumilus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc Phila., Proc. 3: 301. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 103.

Phygadeuon quadriceps (Ashmead)
Alaska; e. U. S. S. R.

Bachia nigra Ashmead, 1899 (1898). In Jordan, Fur Seals and Fur Seal Isls. No. Pacific, v.
4, p. 340. ♀. Preocc. in Phygadeuon by Provancher, 1874 and 1876. The association of the
female holotype of Bachia nigra (described from Ostrov Bering [i.e. Bering IsL], U. S. S.
R.) with the male holotypes of the following synonyms (described from Alaska [Unga
Isl. and St. Paul Isl.]) should be considered tentative.
Bathymetis ungae Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 180. ♂.




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Bathymetis quadriceps Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 181. ♂.
Bathymetis sinntlator Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 184. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 60 (21): 3. — Walkley, 1958. In Krombein
et al., U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2, Sup. 1, p. 45.

Phygadeuon quintilis Viereck
Conn.

Phygadeuon (Plenignathus) quintilis Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.
Survey Bui. 22: 336. ♀.

Phygadeuon sanctipauli (Ashmead)
Alaska.

Stiboscopus sanctipauli Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 171. ♀.
Stiboscopjis mandibidaris Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 172. ♂. N. syn.

Preocc. in Phygadeuon by Cresson, 1864.
Bathyntetis nigriconiis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 177. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Bathymetis imitator Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 177. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Bathymetis simulans Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 178. ♀. N. syn.
Bathymetis rubrocincta Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 178. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Bathymetis siniillima Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 179. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Bathymetis confusa Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 180. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Plesiognathus (!) rubrocinctus Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 184. ♂. Preocc. in
Phygadeuon by Ashmead, 1902, p. 178.

Phygadeuon scabrosus (Provancher)
Que.

Hemiteles scabrosus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 332. ♀.

Taxonomy: Gahan and Rohwer, 1917. Canad. Ent. 49: 429. —Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102:
560 (rejection of lectotype selected by Gahan and Rohwer, 1917).

Phygadeuon slossonae Cushman
N. H.

Bathymetis slossonae Ashmead, 1906. In Slosson, Ent. News 17: 324. Nomen nudum.
Phygadeuon slossonae Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 61 (8): 21. ♀.

Phygadeuon solidus Lundbeck
Greenland.

Phygadeuon solidus Lundbeck, 1897 (1896). Dansk. Naturhist. For., Vidensk. Meddel. (for
1896), p. 225. ♀.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1916. Arkiv for Zool. 10 (22): 2.

Phygadeuon subfuscus Cresson
Que., Mass., N. Y., Ohio, 111., Iowa.

Phygadeuon subfuscus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 311. ♀.

Platylabus crassiconiis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 37. ♀.

Phygadeuon timidus Cresson
Tex.

Phygadeuon titnidus Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 161. ♂.

Phygadeuon townsendi (Ashmead)
Mich.

Hemiteles townsendi Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 405. ♂.

Hemiteles townsendii Dalia Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 667. Emend.

Phygadeuon unicinctus (Ashmead)
Alaska.

Habromma nigrum Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 24: 188. ♂. Preocc. in
Phygadeuon by Provancher, 1874 and 1876 and by Bachia nigra Ashmead, 1899.

Isochresta unicincta Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 190. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 60 (21): 3.

Phygadeuon vernalis (Brues)
Mass.

Microcryptus (Theroscopus) vernalis Brues, 1910. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 8: 77. ♀.

Phygadeuon victoriensis Townes
B. C.

Centeterus ca)iadensis Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 210. ♀. Preocc. in Phygadeuon by

Provancher, 1875.
Phygadeuon victoriensis Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 226. N. name for C.

Phygadeuon canadensis
***authority mismatch
Harrington.

Phygadeuon zapotecus Cresson
Pa., Tenn., S. C; Mexico.

Phygadeuon zapotecus Cresson, 1873. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 25: 140. ♂.




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Genus CERATOPHYGADEUON Viereck

Ceratophygodeuon Viereck, 1924. Canad. Ent. 56: 110.

Type-species: Ceratophygadeuon taeniatiis Viereck. Monotypic.
Remonzia Seyrig, 1952. Acad. Malgache, Mem. 39: 21.

Type-species: Renionzia impostor Seyrig. Monotypic.
Remonzia subg. Euremonzia Aubert, 1965. Soc. Ent. Mulhouse, Bui. 21: 17.

Type-species: Remonzia (Euremonzia) parvicaudator Aubert. Monotypic and orig.
desig.

Townes' (1970) description and key characters for this genus are partly inaccurate and
misleading. In making his description and choosing the characters to use in his key to the genera
of the Phygadeuontina, Townes appears to have neglected the type-species of
Ceratophygadeuon and based his description and key mainly upon a group of species (which I
will call the perditiis group) whose members are at least in part parasitic upon the larvae of
Stratiomyidae. However, even the males of the perditus group (and occasionally the females as
well) often have two median apical teeth on the clypeus instead of the "single median tooth"
described by Townes. Viereck described Ceratophygadeuon as having the "clypeus bituberculate
at [the] ape.x." which roughly agrees with the two specimens of the type-species I have seen and
with Townes' figure of that species (One of the specimens is like Townes figure in having what
could be described as a single bifid clypeal tooth). In addition to its sharp facial tubercle (whence
the name Ceratophygadeuon), the type-species has a rather unusual mandible which is short,
very broad basally, narrowed very little from base to apex, and transversely concave on its
outer surface; in the two examined specimens, both of the mandibular teeth have been worn
down, but probably were almost equal in length. In species of the perditus group, the mandible
is long, narrow, rather strongly tapered somewhat internal to the upper tooth, which seems to
agree with what little Townes says concerning the mandible of Ceratophygadeuon. I do not
know if either of the names Remonzia or Euremonzia would be applicable to members of the

Ceratophygadeuon perditus
***authority mismatch
group.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 94, 104, 399.

Ceratophygadeuon brevacus (Townes)
Que., N. Y., Mich., Minn., Sask.

Platylabus aciculatus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 36, 37. ♀.
Formerly preocc. in Phygadeuon by Provancher, 1882. The variant spelling "acilatus"
which appears on p. 37 of the "Additions" was rejected in favor of aciculatus by
Provancher (1889) in the errata (p. 476) of the same work.
Phygadeuon brevacus Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 220. N. name for
Platylabus aciculatus Provancher.

Ceratophygadeuon perditus (Provancher)
Que., Ont., N. Y., Sask.

Cryptus perditus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 73. ♂.

Ceratophygadeuon provancheri (Walkley)
Que.

Platylabus cijicticornis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 38. ♀.

Formerly preocc. in Phygadeuon by Cresson, 1864.
Phygadeuon provancheri Walkley, 1958. In Krombein et al., U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog.

2, Sup. 1, p. 45. N. name for Platylabus cincticornis Provancher.

Ceratophygadeuon taeniatus Viereck
Que., Ont., Sask.; Sweden.

Ceratophygadeuon taeniatiis Viereck, 1924. Canad. Ent. 56: HI. 9.
Phygadeuon conifrons Roman, 1925 (1924). Arkiv for Zool. 17 A (4): 10. ♀.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1938. Ent. Tidskr. 59: 35 (syn.).

Subtribe STILPNINA

So far as is known members of this subtribe are parasites of cyclorrhaphous Diptera, oviposit-
ing into late-instar larvae and emerging from puparia.

Genus STILPNUS Gravenhorst

Stilpnus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 1, p. 664.

Type-species: Stilpnus gagates Gravenhorst. Desig. by Curtis, 1832.
Xestophyes Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 189.




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Type-species: Xetitophya fallax Foerster. Desig. by Ashmead, 1900 from two
species included by Foerster, 1876.
Polyrhembia Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 189.

Type-species: Heyniteles tenebricosus Gravenhorst. Included and desig. by Foerster,
1876.
Xestophya Foerster, 1876. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 33: 27. Emend.

Townes (1970) said S(ilp7ius is a moderately large genus, known from the Holarctic and
Neotropic regions.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 106.

Stilpnus gagates (Gravenhorst)
Que. s. to N. C, w. to Alaska and Calif.; Honduras, Chile; Europe.

Host: Fannia canicularif; (L.).
Ichneionon gagates Gravenhorst, 1807. Vergl. Uebers. Zool. Systeme, p. 263. [female].
StilpnuH aniericanus Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 95. ♂, ♀.
Megastylim politus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 331. ♂.
Hewiteles orbicularis Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11 (no. 124): 123. "♂"=♀.
Stilpnus anthoniyidiperda Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 42: 644. ♂, ♀.
StilpnuH gagates var. Robinsoni Roman, 1922. In Skottsberg, Nat. Hist. Juan Fernandez

and Easter Isl, v. 3, p. 293. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1966. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 8: 56 (syn.). —Townes, 1970
(1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 106 (syn.).

Biology: Legner, 1966. Jour. Econ. Ent. 59: 999.

Stilpnus laevis Provancher
Que.

Stilpnm laevis Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 332. ♀.

Stilpus levis Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 738. Emend.

Stilpnus tenebricosus (Gravenhorst)
Greenland, Alaska; Europe.

Heiiiiteles tenebricosus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 785. ♂.

Ichneumon nitidulator Zetterstedt, 1838. Insecta Lapponica ... Hym., p. 362. "♂"=♀.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1918. Arkiv for Zool. 12 (2): 30-31 (syn.).

Genus MESOLEPTUS Gravenhorst

Mesolepttis Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 3.

Type-species: Ichneumon laevigatus Gravenhorst. Desig. by Curtis, 1837.
Exolytus Holmgren, 1859 (1858). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad., Ofvers af ... Forhandl. 15: 328.

Type-species: Ichneumon laevigatus Gravenhorst. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Exolytus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 189. Preocc. by Holmgren,
1858.

Type-species: Ichneumon laevigatus Gravenhorst. Included and desig. by Foerster,
1876.

Gravenhorst's concept of Mesoleptus included elongate Ichneumonidae of diverse affinities.
The species placed in Mesoleptus by Provancher and Cresson were of comparable diversity, but
most European authors restricted the appHcation of the name to a group of species now in the
Ctenopelmatinae: Euryproctini.

Mesoleptus borealis (Davis)
"Hudson Bay Territory."

Exolytus borealis Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 355. "♂"=♀.

Mesoleptus davisii (Dalla Torre)
Colo.

Exolytus petiolaris Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 355. 6. Preocc in

Mesoleptus by Thomson, 1884.
Exolytus davisii Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 727. N. name for E. petiolaris Davis.

Mesoleptus declivus (Provancher)
Que., Ont., N. Y., Oreg. Host: Sepedon fuscipenyiis Loew, Pherbiella
sclioe)iherri niaculata (Cr.).
Hemiteles declivus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 60. ♂, ♀.
Atractodes sepedontis Ashmead, 1901. In Needham and Betten, N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 47:
588. ♀.

Taxonomy: Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 459 (lectotype selected).




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Mesoleptus glaucus (Davis)
N. Y., Mich.

Exolytun glaiicus Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 354. ♂, ♀.

ignotus Cresson. N. Y., Ohio, W. Va.

Mesoleptux^ ignotus Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. See, Trans. 2: 103. ♀.

Exolytus nielanosceli.s DeGant, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 83: 3. ♀.

Mesoleptus ithacae (Ashmead)
Que., Ont., Conn., N. Y., N. J.

Pyracmou iucompletum Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 90. ♀. Preocc. in Mesolepttis by Provancher, 1875.

Exolytus ithacae Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 206. ♀.

Genus ATRACTODES Gravenhorst

Atractodes Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 739.

Type-species: Atractodes bicolor Gravenhorst. Desig. by Westwood, 1840.
Zetesima Foerster, 1876. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 33: 27.

Type-species: Zetesima nifipes Foerster. Monotypic and orig. desig. The name of
the type-species is preocc. in Atractodes by Provancher, 1874.
Asyncrita Foerster, 1876. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 33: 29.

Type-species: Atractodes foveolatus Gravenhorst. Orig. desig.

Atractodes aciculatus (Davis)
N. H., N. Y.

Exolytus aciculatus Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 354. cJ, 9.

Atractodes alamagnus (Davis)
Colo.

Exolytus alawagnus Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 355. ♂.

Atractodes alaskensis (Ashmead)
Alaska, Wash., Oreg.

Exolytus alaskensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 167. ♀.
Exolytus seldoviae Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 168. ♂.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 107 (syn.).

Atractodes ambiguus Ruthe
Alaska; n. Eurasia. Ecology: Occurs in moist biotypes (see Petersen, 1956).
Atractodes ambiguus Ruthe, 1859. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 20: 377. ♀.
Exolytus ungae Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 167. c?, 9.
Exolytus insularis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 168. ♀.
Atractodes truncator Roman, 1909. In Hamberg, Naturw. Untersuch. Sarekgebirges
Schwedish-Lappland, v. 4, p. 228. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1928. In Lindroth, Goteborgs K. Vetensk. Vitterhets-Samhalles Handl.
(5B) 1 (4): 20 (syn.). —Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 229 (syn.).

Biology: Petersen, 1956. In Fridhriksson and Tuxen, Zool. Iceland, v. 3, pt. 49-50, p. 70.

Atractodes americanus (Ashmead)
N. H., N. Y., N. C, S. C, Tenn., Kans. Ecology: Found in late fall at
carrion.
Isclinus americanus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 394. ♀.

Atractodes arcticus Holmgren
Greenland; n. Eurasia.

Atractodes arcticus Holmgren, 1872. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad., Ofvers af ... Forh. 29 (6): 99. ♂.
Taxonomy: Roman, 1916. Arkiv for Zool. 10 (22): 8. —Roman, 1934. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.
(10) 14: 607-608.

Atractodes ashmeadi Cushman
N. H.

Asyncrita conipressa Ashmead (!), 1897. In Slosson, Ent. News 8: 237. Lapsus for and

misidentification of Stilpnus^ conipressus Cresson (compare Ashmead, 1900 with

Cushman, 1922).
Atractodes ashmeadi Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 61 (8): 6. ♀.

Taxonomy: Ashmead, 1900. In Smith, N. J. State Bd. Agr., Ann. Rpt. 27, sup., p. 568.

Atractodes aterrimus Holmgren
Greenland.

Atractodes aterrimus Holmgren, 1872. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad., Ofvers af ... Forh. 29 (6): 98. ♂.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1916. Arkiv for Zool. 10 (22): 9. —Roman, 1934. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.
(10) 14: 607 (description of female).




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Atractodes brevissimus (Dalla Torre)
N. H., R. I., N. Y., Mich., Wash.

Exolytm brevis Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 355. ♀. Preocc. by

Foerster, 1876.
Exolytus brevissi))iun Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 727. N. name for E. brevis

Davis.
Atractodes serpedonten (!) Ashmead, 1902. In Slosson, Ent. News 13: 6. Lapsus for and

misidentification oi Atractodea nepedontis Ashmead, a synonym of Mesoleptus declivus

(Cresson).
Atractodes serpedontus Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 61 (8): 7.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 107 (syn.).

Atractodes compressus (Cresson)
Colo.

Stilpnns^ coDipressiis Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 260. ♂.

Atractodes cultus (Davis)
Colo.

ExolytuH cultus Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 355. ♀.

Atractodes fatuus Townes
N. Mex.

Phygadeuon polita Viereck, 1903. bi Skinner, Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 82. ♂. Preocc. in

Atractodes by Provancher, 1874 and Ashmead, 1890.
Atractodes fdtuus Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 231. N. name for P. polita
Viereck.

Atractodes gillettei (Ashmead)
Colo.

Seleucus gillettei Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 206. ♂.

Atractodes grandis Cushman
N. H.

Exolytus grandis Ashmead, 1900. I)i Slosson, Ent. News 11: 320. Nomen nudum.

Atractodes grandis Cushman, 1922. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 61 (8): 7. ♀.

Atractodes kincaidi (Ashmead)
Alaska.

Exolytus perplexus Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 165. ♂.

Exolytus satictipauli Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 166. ♀.

Exolytus kincaidi Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 167. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 107 (syn.).

Atractodes laphroscopoides (Viereck)
Ariz.

Hemiteles {Diaglyptaf) laphroscopoides Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19: 294. ♂.

Atractodes necrix Mason
S. C. Ecology: Occurs on carrion.

Atractodes necrix Mason, 1971. In Payne and Mason, Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 73: 139. ♀.

Atractodes nigricoxus Provancher
Que., Mass.

Atractodes nigricoxus Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 368. ♂.

Atractodes nigricoxatus Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 722. Unecessary n. name for

Atractodes nigricoxus Provancher
; not preocc. by nigricoxis Foerster, 1876.

Atractodes pacificus Townes
B. C.

Angitia Americana Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 246. ♀. Preocc. in Atractodes by

Ashmead, 1890.
Atractodes pacificus Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 232. N. name for Angitia

a)nerica)ia Harrington.

Atractodes politus (Provancher)
Que.

Ca))ipoplex politus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 144. ♀. Preocc. by Foerster, 1868. Not

renamed because of uncertain synonymy.

Atractodes popofensis (Ashmead)
Alaska; e. U. S. S. R.

Exolytus niger Ashmead, 1899 (1898). In Jordan, Fur Seals and Fur Seal Isls. No. Pacific,

v. 4, p. 338. 9. Preocc in Atractodes by Brulle, 1846.
Exolytus popofensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 166. ♂, ♀.
Atractodes ebeninus Walkley, 1958. In Krombein et al., U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2,

sup. 1, p. 45. N. name for E. niger Ashmead; this n. name was unnecessary because it

was proposed when popofoisis was already standing as a junior synonym of E. niger.

Atractodes rufiventris (Ashmead)
Mich., S. Dak.

Seleucus rufiventris Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 207. ♀.
Exolytus dakotaensis Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 354. ♂.




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Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 107 (syn.).

Atractodes ungensis (Ashmead)
Sask., Alaska.

Exoljitus ungoisis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 169. ♀.
Exolytus rubrocinctus Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 169. ♂.

Subtribe CREMNODINA

Genus CREMNODES Foerster

Cre}>nio(les Foerster, 1850. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 16 (1): 72.

Type-species: Iclineiinion atricapillus Gravenhorst. Orig. desig.
Caeno)ueris Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 174.

Type-species: Xentophya nigripes Ashmead. Monotypically included and desig. by
Townes, 1944.
Stygera Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 176.

Type-species: Stygera rnfipes Perkins. Monotypically included and desig. by
Perkins, 1962.
Cre))i)ii(is Roman, 1939. Ent. Tidskr. 60: 186. Unecessary n. name for Cremnodes Foerster,
which is not preocc. by Gerst, 1858. Roman thought Cremnodes was described by
Foerster in 1868.

Taxonomy: Pefkins, 1962. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 11: 397-398, 411, 415, 454.

Cremnodes nigripes (Ashmead)
Alaska.

Xestophya polita Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 162. ♂, ♀.
Xentophya nigripes Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 163. ♂.

Unplaced Taxa of Hemitelini

Heviiteles nigricans Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 360. 6. Que.

Taxonomy: Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 514.

Tribe APTESINI

In transferring the genus Echtlirus to the group he formerly called the Hemigastrini, Townes
(1970) changed the name of the group to Echthrini because of his preference to base super-
generic group names upon the oldest included genus rather than upon the oldest supergeneric
name; following the latter practice would have resulted in his retention of the name Hemigas-
trini. Because of my belief that Hetnigaster actually belongs in the group Townes (1970) called
the subtribe Baryceratina (tribe Cryptini), the name Hemigastrina is here applied to that sub-
tribe.

Most Aptesini oviposit into the cocoons of sawflies, but the species of Echthrus and
Demopheles parasitize wood boring Coleoptera, and Polytribax parasitizes Lepidoptera.

Revision: Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 1-305.

Taxonomy: Townes, 19701969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 111-140 (genera of world).

Genus DEMOPHELES Foerster

Demopheles Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 186.

Type-species: Phygadeuon caliginosus in the sense of Thomson (1873). By
subsequent monotypy from inclusion by Ashmead, 1900. Ashmead (1900)
suppressed the monotypic genus Mecocryptns as a synonym of Demopheles,
thereby including the type-species of Mecocryptns (which see) in Demopheles (cf.
Perkins, 1962).

Mecocryptns Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 520, 521.

Type-species: Phygadenon caliginosus Gravenhorst, not as restricted by

Taschenberg and Frilli. Monotypic and orig. desig. Thomson did not say that he
was applying the name caliginosus to Gravenhorst's female, but this is implied by
the fact that on the same two pages he described a new genus and species,
Stenocryptus nigriventris, for what he believed to be Phygadeuon caliginosus




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"Taschenberg;" Taschenberg applied the name caliginosu^ to Gravenhorst's male
and validated the name Phyyadeiion corrnptor for Gravenhorst's female. Frilli
(1975) selected Gravenhorst's male as the lectotype of caliginosus, leaving
corrnptor as the valid name for P. caliginosus in the sense of Thomson.

A single species of Holarctic distribution is known; it was revised by Townes (1963) to include
four subspecies, the European D. corrupter corrnptor, the Japanese D. corrnptor atripes
Townes, and two Nearctic ones.

Revision: Townes, 1963. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 65: 47-50.

Taxonomy: Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, pp. 645-646. —Taschenberg, 1865. Ztsch.
f. die Gesam. Naturw. Halle 25: 22, 49. — Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 177,
214. -Perkins, 1962. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 11: 416. -Frilli, 1975 (1974). Soc.
Ent. Ital., Mem. 53: 127-129.
corruptor maturus (Provancher). Que. s. to Ga., w. to w. Ont. and possibly Alta. Host: Clytus
ruricola (Oliv.). The Alta. record is based upon a male from Edmonton, and the
distinction between the Nearctic subspecies is so far based only upon females.
Phijgadenon niaturns Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 68. ♀.
corruptor rufatus Townes. Colo., N. Mex., Wash.

Demopheles corruptor rnfotus Townes, 1963. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 65: 49. ♀.

Genus JAVRA Cameron

CneiHOcryptus Cameron, 1903. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc, Mem. and Proc. 47 (14): 38.

Type-species: Cnemocryptns volidicornis Cameron. Monotypic. The type-species is
regarded as a synonym of J. parviceps Cameron.
Javra Cameron, 1903. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc, Mem. and Proc. 47 (14): 47.

Type-species: Jarra parviceps Cameron. Monotypic.
Finchra Cameron, 1907. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 7: 463.

Type-species: Finchra gracilis Cameron. Monotypic.
Monocryptns Hellen, 1956. Notulae Ent. 36: 135.

Type-species: Cratocryptus opacus Thomson. Monotypic.

This genus is Holarctic and Oriental, with most of the species occurring in Asia.

Javra glaesaria Townes
R. L, N. Y., Ont.

Javra glaesaria Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 13. ♀.

Javra rugata Townes
Va., Ohio.

Javra rugata Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 12. ♀.

Genus PARMORTHA Townes

Parmortha Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 14.

Type-species: Parmortha plenralis atripes Townes. Orig. desig. P. plenralis atripes
is regarded as a synonym of P. plenralis albomaculata (Ashmead).

This is a small genus of Holarctic distribution. The hosts are allantine sawflies which pupate in
the stems of weeds and shrubs.

Parmortha circumcincta
***authority mismatch
circumcincta (Provancher). Que. w. to e. B. C, s. to n. S. C. and Colo.

Cryptus circumcinctns Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11 (no. 125): 132. ♂.

Parmortha circumcincta
***authority mismatch
flavipes (Harrington). Alta. s. to Colo., w. to B. C. and Calif. Host: Ametastegia glabrata (Fall.).
Cryptus flavipes Harrington, 1894. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 26: 212. ♀.

Parmortha parvula (Gravenhorst)
N. S. and n. Ont. w. to Alaska, s. to N. J. and Oreg; Eurasia. Host:
Ametastegia glabrata (Fall.).
Cryptus parvulns Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 459. ♀ (♂ misdet.).
Cryptus erythropus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 469. ♂.
Cryptus velox Harris, 1835. In Hitchcock, Rpt. Geol. Mineral. Bot. Zool. Mass., ed. 2, p. 584.

Nomen nudum.
Cryptus velox Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 293. ♀.




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Cryptus osculatus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 178. ♂.
hofinail) tibialis Ashmead, 1897. In Slosson, Ent. News 8: 237. Nomen nudum.
pleuralis arctica Townes. Northern Que., N. W. T., Alaska. P. pleitralis pleumlia (Thomson)

occurs in Europe, and P. pleuralis alboy)iaciilata (Ashmead) occurs in Japan.
Parmortha pleuralis arctica Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem.

2: 19. ♂, ♀.

pleuralis signata (Provancher). Southern Que. w. to s. Alaska, s. to N. C. and Wash. Host:

A))ietastegia glabrata (Fall.).
Cryptus quebecensis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 179. ♀.
Cryptus signatiis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 179. ♀.
Pannortha pleuralis alpina Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem.

2: 22. ♀. N. syn.

Taxonomy: Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 540, 566-567 (discussion of Provancher types).

Genus CRATOCRYPTUS Thomson

Cratocryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 521.

Type-species: Cryptus furcator Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.

This genus includes only two species which Townes (1970) said "might better be treated as
subspecies."

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 128.

Cratocryptus petilus Townes
Que., Ont., Mich., B. C. Host: Cephalcia sp.

Cratocryptus petilus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 26. ♂, ♀.

Genus CUBOCEPHALUS Ratzeburg

Cubocephalus Ratzeburg, 1848. Ichn. d. Forstins., v. 2, p. 121.

Type-species: Cryptus fort i pes Gravenhorst. Monotypic. The type-species is
regarded as a synonym of Cubocephalus distinctor (Thunberg).
Ecporthetor Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 184.

Type-species: Cryptus fort i pes Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and desig. by
Ashmead, 1900.
Pammachus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 184.

Type-species: Stenocryptns nigriventris Thomson. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Ashmead, 1900. Ashmead (1900) suppressed the monotypic genus
Stenocryptns as a synonym o{ Paniviachus, thereby including S. nigriventris (cf.
Perkins, 1962).
Chaeretynnna Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 187.

Type-species: Cryptus anatorius Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and desig. by
Schmiedeknecht, 1890.
Stenocryptns Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 520, 521.

Type-species: Stenocryptus nigriventis Thomson. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Microcryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 520, 521.

Type-species: Cryptus eryflirinns Gravenhorst. Monotypic.
Planocryptus Heinrich, 1949. Muenchner Ent. Gesell., Mitt. 35-39: 56.
Type-species: Planocryptus niirabilis Heinrich. Orig. desig.

This is a large Holarctic genus. The few available rearing records indicate that the species
parasitize sawflies which pupate in plant tissue, under bark, etc.

Taxonomy: Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 31, 186, 218. —Perkins, 1962. Brit.
Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 11: 442.
alacris (Cresson). Newfoundland (Labrador) s. to n.w. S. C, w. to Alaska and Calif. Host:
Ametastegia glabrata (Fallen). In the tribal revision of Townes and Gupta (1962),
Townes recognized four subspecies, three of which were sympatric.
Cryptus alacris Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 306. ♀.
Leptobatus Caiiadensis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (5): 145. ♀. N. syn.




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Mesostentift nigriconiis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (9): 264. 6. Temporarily preocc. in

CryptuH by Brulle, 1846.
Cryptufi eburniefrons Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11 (no. 125): 133. ♂.
Cryptus niellipes Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 68. ♀.
CryptuH erytliropygufi Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada, Hym., p. 69. ♀.

N. syn.
Phygadeiion ater Ashmead, 1890. Colo. Biol. Assoc, Bui. 1: 20. ♀. N. syn.
Cryptus Lavogleri Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 576. N. name for M. nigricomis

Provancher.
Chaereiymwa mmuta Cushman, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 53: 465. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Taxonomy: Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 441, 453-454, 464, 467, 508, 528-529 (discussion of
Provancher types).

Cubocephalus annectus Townes
N. S. w. to n. Alaska, s. to N. H., N. Mex., and Calif.

Pliaeogenes nigriconiis Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 330. ♂. Preocc. in Cuhocephalus

by Me>;oste)iHs nigriconiis Provancher, 1875.
Cryptus spissicornis Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 361. ♀.

Preocc. by Provancher, 1886.
Cubocephalus annectus Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 234. N. name for Cryptus

spissicornis Provancher.
Cubocephalus atricornis Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 235. N. name for P.
nigriconiis Provancher, 1888.

Cubocephalus annulatus (Cresson)
Que. w. to Alta., s. to w. N. C. Ecology: Two specimens emerged from
the canes of raspberries which were infested by Agriius auriclialceus Redt.
Phygadeuon annulatus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc 3: 308. ♀.
Cryptus ruficoxus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (6): 176. ♂.

Cubocephalus aquilonius Townes and Gupta
Newfoundland (Labrador) w. to n. B. C, Yukon, and Alaska;
also Colo.
Cubocephalus aquilonius Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 53. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus ardens Townes
N. H., Ont., Mich., Wis., Colo., Alaska.

Cubocephalus ardens Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 109.
d, 9.

Cubocephalus armillatus Walkley
Que.

Cryptus collaris Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 71. Preocc

by Rudow, 1883.
Cubocephalus armillatus Walkley, 1958. In Krombein et o/., U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog.
2, Sup. 1, p. 45. N. name for Cryptus collaris Provancher.

Cubocephalus ashmeadii (Harrington)
Mont., Ariz., B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif. Host: A)netastegia glabrata
(Fall.), Trypoxylon sp.
Chaeretynima ashmeadii Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 212. ♀.

Cubocephalus atriclunis Townes and Gupta
Maine w. to B. C, s. to N. J. and s. Mich.

Cubocephalus atriclunis Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 56. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus baldaufii (Dalla Torre)
Que. w. to Sask., s. to N. Y., Ind., and Minn.

Cryptus scutellatus Provancher, 1877. Nat. Canad. 9: 12. 6. Preocc by Smith, 1858.
Cryptus baldaufii Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 563. N. name for Cryptus
scutellatus Provancher.

Cubocephalus brevicornis (Taschenberg)
Northern Que., n. Mich., Colo., n. Yukon, Alaska; Europe.

Phygadeuon brei'icornis Taschenberg, 1865. Ztschr. f. die Gesam. Naturw. Halle 25: 48. ♀.

Cubocephalus caligneus Townes
N. C.

Cubocephalus caligneus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2:
109. ♀.

Cubocephalus callicerus Townes
N. S., Que., N. Y., Ont., Mich., Ohio.

Cubocephalus callicerus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2:
115. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus carnosus Townes
Que., N. H., Mich., Ohio.

Cubocephalus carnosus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2:
114. ♂, ♀.




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Cubocephalus cincticornis (Cresson)
Que. s. to Pa., w. to Mich, and 111.

Phygadeiton cincticornis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Free. 3: 309. ♀.

Cubocephalus contractus Townes and Gupta
Newfoundland (Labrador) w. to n. Yukon and Alaska, s. to N.
Y., Mich., Colo., and Wash.
Cubocephaluf! contractus Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 46. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus denticulatus
***authority mismatch
denticulatus Townes. Que., Maine, Vt., N. Y., Mich.

Cuboceplialus (lenticulatus denticulatus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent.
Inst., Mem. 2: 43. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus denticulatus
***authority mismatch
obscuripes Townes. Alaska.

Cuboceplialus denticulatus obscuripes Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent.
Inst., Mem. 2: 42. ♀.

Cubocephalus dreisbachi Townes
Que. s. to Conn., w. to Alta. and Kans. Townes (1962) said this species "is
very close to C. ash mead ii and may prove to be an eastern subspecies of it."
Cuboceplialus dreisbachi Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 94. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus euryops Townes
Vt., Ont., Mich., Minn.

Cubocephalus euryops Townes, 1962. hi Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 64. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus flavipes Townes
N. Y., Mich.

Cubocephalus Jlacipes Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 72. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus hebes Townes
Sask., Mont.

Cubocephalus hebes Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 66. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus hirtipes
***authority mismatch
hirtipes Townes. Alta. s. to N. Mex., w. to Wash, and Calif.

Cubocephalus hirtipes hirtipes Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst.,
Mem. 2: 122. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus hirtipes
***authority mismatch
trachodes Townes. N. H. Ecology: Occurs above timberline on Mt. Washington.
Cubocephalus hirtipes trachodes Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst.,
Mem. 2: 122. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus impressus (Provancher)
Que. s. to n. Ga., w. to Minn, and Colo.
Ischnus impressus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 112. ♂.

Cubocephalus incisus
***authority mismatch
atriventris Townes and Gupta. Ariz.

Cubochephalus incisus atriventris Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 44. ♀.

Cubocephalus incisus
***authority mismatch
incisus Townes and Gupta. N. Y., Mich.

Cubochephalus incisus incisus Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 45. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus incognitus (Provancher)
Que., Vt., Mass., N. Y., Ont., Mich., Wyo.

Crypfus incognitus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 70. ♂.

Cubocephalus inhabilis (Provancher)
Que. w. to Alta. and Wash., s. to e. Tenn., Colo., and Calif.
Phygadeuon inhabilis Provancher, 1877. Nat. Canad. 9: 11. ♀.

Cubochephalus inhabilis u)n bonater Tov/nes, 1962. hi Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent.
Inst., Mem. 2: 87. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Cubocephalus laticeps (Cresson)
N. B. s. to S. C, w. to Minn., S. Dak., Tex., and Calif.

Crypt us laticeps Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 157. ♂.
lissopleuris Townes and Gupta. Maine, N. Y., Pa., s. w. N. C.

Cubocephalus U.^sopleuris Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 59. ♂.

Cubocephalus longicaudus (Provancher)
Que. s. to Ga., w. to Minn.

Cryptus longicaudus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 68. ♀.

Crypfus .tchniuckii Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 588. Unnecessary n. name for
Cryptus longicaudus Provancher; the latter not preocc. by Crypfus longicauda Brulle.

Cubocephalus maurus (Cresson)
Que., ont., Mich., N. W. T., Alta., B. C, Calif.

Echthrusi maurus Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 381. ♀.




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Cubocephalus miarus Townes and Gupta
Maine, N. H., N. Y., n.w. S. C, Mich., Wis.

Ciiboceplialns inianis Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 54. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus micans Townes
P. E. I. s. to N. Y., w. to Minn.

Cubocepliaiun micans Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 112.

c5, 9.

Cubocephalus molaris Townes and Gupta
Que., N. Y., Ont., Minn., Wyo., Colo., N. Mex., Yukon, B. C, Oreg.,

Calif.
Cubocephaius molaris leechi Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 50. ♂. N. syn.
Cubocephaius 7nolaris molaris Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 50. ♂, ♀.
Cubocephaius molaris cervinus Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 51. c^, 9. N. syn.

Cubocephalus nigriventris (Thomson)
Que. w. to B. C, s. to s.w. N. C, Mich., Colo., and Oreg; Eurasia. In

describing nigriventris Thomson stated that it is the species for which Taschenberg

(1865) had used the name Phygadeuon caliginosus Gravenhorst (1829). Apparently

Thomson was mistai
Gravenhorst's male, and a male which was selected as lectotype of caliginosus by Frilli

(1975) was identified by Frilli as a species of Phygadeuon.
Stenocrypfus nigriventris Thomson, 1874. Opusc. Ent. 6: 604. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 645-646. —Taschenberg, 1865. Ztschr.
f. die Gesam. Naturw. Halle 25: 22, 49. -Frilli, 1975 (1974). Soc. Ent. Ital., Mem. 53:
127-129.

Cubocephalus nitidus
***authority mismatch
nitidus (Provancher). N. S. w. to Alta., s. to Pa. and Mich.
Mesostenus nitidus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 301. ♂.
Cryptus occidentalis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 314. ♀.
Phygadeuon nitiduhis Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 70. Unnecessarily proposed n.

name for M. nitidus; although nitidus was preocc. in Phygadeuon by Gravenhorst, 1829,

Provancher could have used the name ruficoxus for the species because he suppressed

Mesostenus ruficoxus (as "ruficornis [!]") Provancher and Cryptus ruficoxus

Provancher as synonyms of Jiitidulus.
Cryptus ignotus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 73. ♂.
Cryptus iuellicoxus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p 75. ♂.

Cubocephalus nitidus
***authority mismatch
totus Townes. Western Wyo., Alasi
Cubocephaius nitidus totus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem.

2:79. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus pallidas (Cresson)
Que. w. to B. C, s. to n.w. S C, Ark., and Kans. In the tribal revision of

Townes and Gupta (1962), Townes recognized two subspecies which were largely

sympatric.
Mesoleptus vultus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 268. ♂.
Cryptus pallidus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phla., Proc. 3: 307 9.
Cryptus spissicomis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 68. ♂, ♀.

N. syn.

Cubocephalus pentagonalis (Provancher)
Ont. According to Barron (1975) pentagonalis was incorrectly

suppressed as a synonym of Cubocephaius alacris canadensis (Provancher) (= alacris

Cresson) by Townes (1962), the latter author apparently having erroneously disregarded

the lectotype selected by Gahan and Rohwer (1917).
Cryptus pentagonalis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 66. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Gahan and Rohwer, 1917. Canad. Ent. 49: 394. —Townes, 1962. In Townes and
Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 89-91. —Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 528-529.

Cubocephalus personatus Townes
Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Cubocephaius personatus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 105. ♂, ♀.


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Cubocephalus pictus Townes
Mich., ?n.w. S. C. Townes said that "the correlation of the males [from Mich.]
and the female [from S. C] of this species involves much conjecture, and may not be
correct."
Cubocephalus pidus Townes, 1962. hi Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 111. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus prolixus
***authority mismatch
phaeolepis Townes and Gupta. B. C, Oreg., Calif.

Cubocephalus prolixus phaeolepis Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 48. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus prolixus
***authority mismatch
prolixus Townes and Gupta. Que. s. to N. Y., w. to Man. and S. Dak.

Cubocephalus prolixus prolixus Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 49. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus rectus (Provancher)
Que. s. to N. Y., w. to Minn.

Cry plus rectus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 75. ♂.

Cubocephalus rufibasis Townes and Gupta
Mich.

Cubocephalus rufibasis Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 63. ♀.

Cubocephalus scorteus Townes
Northern Que., Yukon.

Cubocephalus scorteus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 70. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus semifulvus Townes
Alaska, Wash.

Cubocephalus sottifuh'us Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 71. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus semirufus (Brulle)
Mass. s. to N. C, w. to Mich. Ecology: One male specimen was reared in
association with Macroiiphytus sp.
Cry plus senii-rufus Brulle, 1846. /*) Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 195. ♀.
Mesoleptus exi))iius Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 100. ♂.

Cubocephalus sternolophus Townes
N. Y., Pa., Ohio, Mich., N. Mex., Alaska, Calif.

Cubocephalus steruolophus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem.
2: 74. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus subpolitus Townes
Que., Conn., N. Y., Minn.

Cubocephalus subpolitus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2:
120. ♂, ♀.

Cubocephalus tincticoxis Townes
Colo., B. C, Oreg., Calif.

Cubocephalus tincticoxis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2:
55. ♂.

Genus ORESBIUS Marshall

Oresbius Marshall, 1867. Ent. Monthly Mag. 3: 193.

Type-species: Oresbius castaneus Marshall. Monotypic.
Opidnus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 185.

Type-species: Aptesis (Pezoporus) tsugae Cushman. Included and desig. by Townes
and Townes, 1951.

Townes (1970) said that this large Holarctic genus has the most northerly distribution of any
aptesine genus. He said that about half of the arctic species have brachypterous females, which
contributes to their scarcity in collections.

Taxonomy: Townes, Momoi, and Townes, 1965. Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 5: 157 (syn.).
—Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 12: 131.

Oresbius albicoxus (Provancher)
Que., N. W. T., and Alaska, s. to Md., Mich., Ariz., and Calif. Host:

Pristiphora erichsonii (Htg.). In the tribal revision of Townes and Gupta (1962), Townes

recognized two subspecies which were largely sympatric.
Cry plus brevicornis Provancher, 1875. Nat Canad. 7 (6): 176. ♂. Preocc. by Gravenhorst

1829.
Mesostenus albicoxus Provancher, 1975. 1875. 7 (6): 266. ♂.
Cryptusferrugineus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 412. ♀. Preocc. by

Smith, 1861 and 1879. N. syn.




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Cryptus Schoberi Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 588. N. name for C. ferrugineus

Ashmead. N. syn.
Cryptus koebelei Rohwer, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 53: 158. Unnecessarily proposed n.

name for C. ferrugineus Ashmead. N. syn.

Taxonomy: Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 419-420, 436 (n. comb, and lectotype selection).
Alexander! (Townes), n. comb. Que., Vt., Alta.

Opidnus alexanderi Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. inst., Mem. 2: 145. ♂, ♀.

Oresbius aniptus (Townes)
n. comb. Colo., Alaska, Calif.

Opidnu.i aniptuH Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 151. ♂, ♀.

Oresbius arridens (Gravenhorst)
N. H., Mass., N. Y., Ont., Mich., B. C; Eurasia. Adventive? The species
is not known to have been collected in North America before 1946.
Phygadeuon arridens Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 654. ♂.

Oresbius ciliatus (Townes)
n. comb. Que.

Opidnus ciliatus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 164. ♀.

Oresbius cognatus (Townes)
n. comb. Norhtern que. s. to N. Y., w. to B. C. and Calif.

Opidnus cognatus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 148. ♂, ♀.

Oresbius dorsator (Ashmead)
n. comb. Alaska.

Centeterus dorsator Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 161.

Oresbius fulvibasis (Townes)
n. comb. Que. s. to s.e. N. C, w. to Minn.

Opidnus fuh'ibasis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 144. ♂, ♀.

Oresbius lindrothi (Townes)
n. comb. Alaska.

Opidnus lindrothi Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 158. ♀.

Oresbius major (Townes)
n. comb. Northern Que., N. H. Ecology: In N. H. this species occurs above
timberline on Mt. Washington.
Opidnus major Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 156. ♂.
inucronatus (Townes), n. comb. Maine, Mass., N. Y., Mich.

Opidnus rnucronatus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 150.
3, 9.

Oresbius nivarius (Brues)
n. comb. Alaska.

Aptesis nivarius Brues, 1919. Rpt. Canad. Arctic Exped. 1913-18, v. 3G, p. 21. ♀.

Oresbius orbitus (Townes)
n. comb. N. H., n. Yukon. Ecology: In N. H. this species occurs above
timberline on Mt. Washington.
Opidnus orbitus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 157. ♂.

Oresbius oresbius (Townes)
n. comb. B. C, Wash.

Opidnus oresbius Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 136. ♂.

Oresbius parallelus (Townes)
n. comb. Que., N. H., N. Y., Man., Colo.

Opidnus parallelus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 165. ♂, ♀.

Oresbius quadriceps (Townes)
n. comb. Northwestern N. W. T., Alaska.

Opidnus quadriceps Townes, 1962. /*; Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 168. ♂, ♀.

Oresbius rufinotum (Townes)
n. comb. Northern Alaska. Townes (1962) said that rufinotum "may
prove to be a subspecies of 0. tumulus."
Opidnus rufinotum Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent Inst., Mem. 2: 161. ♂.

Oresbius shumaginensis Carlson
n. name. Alaska.

Stiboscopus ferrugineus Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 173. ♀. Preocc. in
Oresbius by Cryptus ferrugineus Ashmead, 1890; in the tribal revision of Townes and
Gupta (1962), Townes did not rename Stiboscopus ferrugi)teus because Cryptus
ferrugineus Ashmead is an unavailable primary homonym which could not interfere
with the use of the name Stiboscopus ferrugineus; S. ferrugineus is renamed here




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because if it were to have had a junior synonym one would not be at liberty to use the

name S.ferrugineiis until such time as it was placed in a different genus than C.

fernigmeus Ashmead.

Oresbius sublaevis (Townes)
n. comb. Wyo., Colo., Wash. Ecology: Occurs on mountains near timberline.
Opidnits sitblaei'is sublaevis Townes, 1962. hi Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem.

2: 134. ♂, ♀.
Opidmts sublaevis iiiiltouierus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst.,

Mem. 2: 135. ♂. N. syn.

Oresbius taeniatus (Townes)
n. comb. Northern Que., N. H., N. W. T., n. Yukon. Ecology: In N. H. this

species occurs above timberline on Mt. Washington.
Phygadeuon alticola Ashmead, 1897 In Slosson, Ent. News 8: 237. Nomen nudum.
Opidnus taeniatus Townes, 1962. /» Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 154. ♂, ♀.

Oresbius tegularis (Provancher)
N. S. s. to Pa., w. to Wyo. and Colo. Host: Pristiphora erichsonii

(Htg.).
Phygadeuon tegularis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 282. ♀.
Ichneumon decoratus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (1): 25 (key); 7 (3): 83. ♂.
Ischnus placidus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (4): 110. ♂.
Phygadeuon orbitalis Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13 (no. 155): 335 (key); 13 (no. 156): 354. ♂.
Phygadeuon nigriceps Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 52. ♀.
Phygadeuon {Sci)iascopus^) orbitalifonnis Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and

Nat. Hist. Survey Bui. 22: 336. ♂.

Taxonomy: Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 459, 514, 522, 532, 573 (Provancher types revised).

Oresbius teres (Townes)
n. comb. Northern Yukon, Alaska.

Opidnus teres Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 167. ♂, ♀.
tibialis (Townes), n. comb. Northern Que., n.e. N. W. T., n. Yukon, Alaska.

Opidnus tibialis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 163. ♂, ♀.

Oresbius trifasciatus (Ashmead)
n. comb. Northern Que., N. W. T., n. Yukon, Alaska.

Microcryptus trifasciatus Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 184. ♂.

Oresbius tsugae (Cushman)
Newfoundland (Labrador) w. to s. Alaska, s. to N. C, Colo., Ariz, and Calif.
Host: Neodiprion tsugae Midd. The characters used by Townes (1962) for subspecific
differentiation are neither strong nor entirely in agreement with the material he
studied.
Aptesis (Pezoporus) tsugae Cushman, 1939. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 29: 394. ♂, ♀.
Opidnus tsugae ruficoxa Townes, 1962. hi Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2:

138. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Opidnus tsugae interior Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2:

139. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Opidnus tsugae inflatus Townes, 1962. in Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2:

140. ♀. N. syn.

Biology: Furniss and Dowden, 1941. Jour. Econ. Ent 84: 49, 51.

Oresbius tumulus (Townes)
n. comb. N. W. T., Yukon, Alaska.

Opidnus tumulus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 160.
male, female.

Oresbius vockerothi (Townes)
n. comb. Northern Que.

Opidnus vockerothi Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 166. ♂, ♀.

Oresbius vultuosus (Townes)
n. comb. Newfoundland (Labrador), Que., n. Mich., N. W. T., Alaska.

Opidnus vultuosus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 152. cJ, 9.

Genus POLYTRIBAX Foerster

Polytribax Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 183.




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Type-species: Phygadeuon (Polytribux) pallescens Viereck. By subsequent
monotypy from inclusion by Viereck, 1911.
Plesig7iafhus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 183.

Type-species: Phygadeuon fnlvescens Cresson. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Ashmead (1900) as "Plesiognatlius flavescens Cress." Ashmead's N.
J. record for this species is apparently based upon a misidentified female of
Polytribax contiguiis (Cresson).
Neleophron Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 184.

Type-species: Cryptus arrogans Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and
designated by Perkins, 1962.
Epiphobus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 185.

Type-species: Cryptiis nifipes Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and desig. by
Townes and Gupta, 1962.
Steriphocryptus cameron, 1903. Entomologist 36: 233.

Type-species: Steripliocryptus luteus Cameron. Monotypic.
Chasniocryptus Uchida, 1936. Insecta Matsumurana 11: 16.

Type-species: Plectocryptus liokkaidensiN Uchida. Monotypic and orig. desig. The
type-species is regarded as a synonym of P. penetrator (Smith).

Members of this Holarctic genus parasitize the pupae and possibly prepupae of Lepidoptera.

Taxonomy: Ashmead, 1900. In Smith, N. J. State Bd. Agr., Ann. Rpt. 27, Sup., p. 568 (first

inclusion of a species in Plesignatlius).

Polytribax contiguus (Cresson)
N. S. w. to N. Dak., s. to N. C, n. Ga., and Kans. The coloration of the
male is similar to that of the males in some species of Cratichneumon.

Ischnus configuus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 190. ♂.

Phygadeuon major Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 308. ♀.
crotchii crotchii (Cresson). Newfoundland (insular) w. to Alaska, s. to Pa., S. Dak., and s. B. C.

Phygadeuon Crotchii Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 357. ♀.
crotchii fumipennis Townes and Gupta. Colo., N. Mex., Ariz., s.e. B. C. and Calif.

Polytribax crotchii fumipennis Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 179. ♂.
crotchii Hesperus Townes and Gupta. Southern B. C, w. Oreg., CaHf.

Polytribax crotchii henperus Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 180. ♂.

Polytribax fulvescens (Cresson)
B. C. s. to CaHf.

Phygadeuon fulvescens Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 359. ♀.

Polytribax pallescens (Viereck)
Que. s. to n.w. S. C, w. to Minn., Kans., and Ariz.; Mexico. Host:

Heterocampa guttivitta (Wlk.), Lambdina pellucidaria (G. and R.), Epargyreiis clarus
(Cramer).
Phygadeuon (Polytribax) pallescens Viereck, 1911, U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 39: 406. ♂, ♀.

Genus GIRAUDIA Foerster

Giraudia Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 184.

Type-species: Cryptus congruens Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and desig. by
Ashmead, 1900.
Calocryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 519, 521.

Type-species: Cryptus congruens Gravenhorst. Monotypic.
Pseudocryptus Kriechbaumer, 1893. Ent. Nachr. 19: 120.

Type-species: Cryptus grisescens Gravenhorst. Monotypic.

This is a Holarctic genus of moderate size.

Giraudia ferruginea (Cushman)
R. I., N. Y., Md., D. C, Ont., Mich. Host: Tomostethus multicinctus
(Roh.).

Aptesis ferruginea Cushman, 1935. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 25: 550. ♂, ♀.

Giraudia fulva
***authority mismatch
fulva Townes and Gupta. Western Wash., w. Oreg., n.w. Calif.

Giraudia fill va fill va Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 190. ♂, ♀.

Giraudia fulva
***authority mismatch
nigrithorax Townes and Gupta. Colo., N. Mex., Alta., Idaho, Utah, s.e. B. C, e. Oreg.

Giraudia fulva nigrithorax Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 190. ♂, ♀.




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Giraudia leucospis Townes and Gupta
Calif.

Giraudia leiicoapis Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 196. ♂.

Giraudia minor Townes and Gupta
N. C, S. C.

Giraudia minor Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 196. ♂, ♀.

Giraudia plana (Provancher)
Que. s. to n.e. Ga., w. to Minn, and Iowa.

Phygadeuon planus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 283. ♀.

Mesostenus ruficoxua Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 266. 6. Uncertain syn.

Phygadeuon robuafus Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 75. ♀.

Mesostenus provancheri Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 546. Unnecessary n. name
for M. nificoxHs; the latter not preocc. by Mesostentis nificoxis Brulle.

Giraudia punctifera Townes and Gupta
Que. s. to Ga., w. to Wis.

Giraudia punctifera Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 194. ♂, ♀.

Giraudia rufa (Provancher)
Que. s. to w. N. C, w. to Minn.

Cryptus rufus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6 (6): 177 (key); 6 (7): 202. ♂.

Giraudia semiflava Townes and Gupta
Que., Maine, N. Y., Mich., N. Mex.

Giraudia semiflava Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 191. ♂, ♀.

Giraudia subaequalis Townes and Gupta
N. Y., s.w. N. C, n.w. S. C, n.e. Ga.

Giraudia subaequalis Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 197. ♂, ♀.

Genus SCHENKIA Foerster

Schenkia Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 184.

Type-species: Phygadeuon graminicola Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and
desig. by Ashmead, 1900.
Ecpaglus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 185.

Type-species: Cry plus brevicornis Gravenhorst. Monotypically included and desig.
by Ashmead, 1900.
Sckenckia Dalla Torre, 1901. Wien. Ent. Ztg. 20: 51. Emend.

This is a Holarctic genus of moderate size.

Schenkia amphileuca Townes and Gupta
N. Y., Mich., Minn.

Schenkia an(phileuca Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 201. ♂, ♀.

Schenkia graminicola (Gravenhorst)
Que. s. to N. Y., w. to n. Yukon, Oreg., and Colo.; Europe. Townes

and Gupta (1962) recognized three subspecies.
Cryptus brevicornis Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 511. ♂.
Cryptus humilis Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 604. ♂.
Phygadeuon graminicola Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 673. ♀.
Phygadeuon rectus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 178. ♂.
Phaeogenes tuberculifer Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 331. "♀"=♂.
Cryptus pubescens Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 72. Preocc.

by Fonscolombe, 1850.
Cryptus Hechfellneri Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 574. N. name for C. pubescens

Provancher.
Schenkia graminicola hesperus Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 207. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Schenkia iridescens (Cresson)
Newfoundland (Labrador) w. to Alaska, s. to S. C, 111., Colo., and Oreg.
Ischnus iridescens Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 193. ♂.
Cryptus brevicauda Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 412. ♀.
Schenkia iridescens pumila Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 211. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Schenkia iridescens oreas Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 212. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Schenkia iridescens melanops Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 216. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Schenkia leucopus Townes and Gupta
N. Y., N. J., n.w. S. C, Ohio, Mich.

Schenkia leucopus Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 217. cJ, 9.




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Schenkia lonchura Townes and Gupta
Yukon.

Schenkia lonchura Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 217. ♀.

Schenkia parallela
***authority mismatch
evittata Townes and Gupta. Wash.

Schenkia parallela evittafa Townes and Gupta, 1962. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 209. ♀.

Schenkia parallela
***authority mismatch
parallela Townes and Gupta. N. H. s. to s.w. S. C, w. to Sasi<.

Schejikia parallela parallela Townes and Gupta, 1962, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 208. ♂, ♀.

Genus MEGAPLECTES Foerster

Megapledes Foerster, 1868 Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 186.

Type-species: Ichneionon monticola Gravenhorst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Schmiedeknecht, 1890.
locryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 472.

Type-species: Phygadeiion regiufi Taschenberg. Monotypic. The type-species is
regarded as a synonym of M. vionticola ))ionticola (Gravenhorst).
Megaloplectefi Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 124. Emend.

There is a single Holarctic species.

monticola blakei (Cresson). Newfoundland (Labrador) w. to Yukon, s. to w. N. C, Mich., Man.,
and Oreg. M. monticola monticola (Gravenhorst) is European.
Ichneumon Blakei Cresson, 1864 Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 139. ♂.
Cryptus insignis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 178. ♀.
Hoplismenus stygicus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada. Hym., p. 34. ♂.

monticola dentatus Uchida. Yukon, Alaska; n. Asia.

Megaplectes monticola var. dentata Uchida, 1930. Hokkaido Imp. Univ., Faculty Agr.,
Jour. 25:304. ♂, ♀.

Genus PLEOLOPHUS Townes

Pleolophus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 223.

Type-species: Phygadeuon basizomis Gravenhorst (sensu Townes). Orig. desig.

This is a Holarctic genus of moderate size.

Pleolophus annulosus Townes
Maine, N. Y., Mich.

Pleolophus annulosus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 226. ♂.

Pleolophus astrictus Townes
Maine, N. H., Mass., Conn., N. Y., Mich., Alaska.

Pleolophus astrictus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 242. ♂, ♀.

Pleolophus basizonus (Gravenhorst)
N. B., Que., N. J., Ont., Mich., Ohio; Eurasia. Introduced from
Europe. Host: Gilpinia hercyniae (Htg.), Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch), N. nanulus
nanulus Schedl, N. pratti banksianae Roh., N. sertifer (Geoff.), N. swainei Midd.
Cryptus varicolor Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 603. ♂.
Phygadeuon basizonus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 748. ♀.
Phygadeuon pteronorum Hartig, 1838. Jahresber. Fortschr. Forstwiss. Forstl. Naturk. 1:

273. ♂, ♀.
Microcryptus basizoninsV.) Thomson, 1883. Opusc. Ent. 9: 863.
Microcryptus curtulus Kriechbaumer, 1891. Ent Nachr. 17: 171. ♂.

Taxonomy: Oehlke, 1966 (1965). Beitr. z. Ent 15: 829-831 (syn. and description).

Biology: Seyrig, 1932 Soc. Ent. de France, Ann. 101: 111-112. — Finlayson and Reeks, 1936.
Canad. Ent. 68: 164, 166. —Morris, Cameron, and Jepson, 1937. Bui. Ent. Res. 28: 349-355
(in part). —Green, 1938. Ent. Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rpt 69: 32-34. — Pierson and Nash, 1939.
Maine Forest Commr., Bien. Rpt. 22: 85. —Finlayson and Green, 1940. Canad. Ent. 72:
236-238. — Lovaszy, 1940. Ann. Ent. Fenn. 6: 64-65. — Kangas, 1941. Ann. Ent. Fenn. 7:
10-27. —Reeks, 1953. Canad. Jour. Agr. Sci. 33: 407, 408, 416-417. — Hein, 1956. Nederland.
Boschbouw.-Tijdschr. 28: 283-297. —Finlayson and Finlayson, 1957. Canad. Ent 89:




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507-509. — Niklas and Franz, 1957. Biol. Bundesanst. f. Land. u. Forstw. (Berlin-Dahlem),
Mitt. 89: 22-23. — Finlayson and Finlayson, 1958. Canad. Ent. 90: 223-224. — Finlayson,
1958. Canad. Ent. 90: 557-563. -Finlayson, 1960 (1959). Ent. Monthly Mag. 95: 216.
— Finlayson, 1961 (1960). Ent. Monthly Mag. 96: 177. —Finlayson, 1961. Canad. Ent. 93:
626-628. -Finlayson, 1961. Canad. Ent. 93: 799-801. -Griffiths, 1961. Canad. Ent. 93:
1005-1010. -Griffiths, 1969. Canad. Ent. 101: 673-713, 907-914. -Price, 1970. Science 170:
546-547. -Price, 1970. Canad. Ent. 102: 1102-1111. -Price, 1970. Ecology 51: 445-454.
—Price, 1971. Ecology 52: 587-596. -Price, 1972. Canad. Ent. 104: 129-140.

Morphology: Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 33, 35, 44 (final-instar larva).

Pleolophus borrori Townes
Maine.

Pleolophus borrori Townes, 1962. In Townes arid Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 228. ♀.

Pleolophus clypealis Townes
Alaska.

Pleolophus clypeolis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 242 6.

Pleolophus contractus Townes
B. C. s. to Calif Host: Printiphora erichsonii (Htg.).

Pleolophus contractus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 237. ♂, ♀.

Pleolophus coriaceus Townes
Sask., Alta.

Pleolophus coriaceus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 229. ♂.

Pleolophus furvus Townes
Colo.

Pleolophus furi'Hs Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 228. ♂.

Pleolophus grossus Townes
N. Y., Mich., N. Dak., and B. C, s. to w. N. C, Kans., and Oreg.

Pleolophus grossus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 229. ♂, ♀.

Pleolophus indistinctus (Provancher)
N. B. s. to w. N. C, w. to Sask. and Iowa. Host: Neodiprion abbotii
(Leach), N. abietis (Harris), N. lecontei (Fitch), N. nanulus na7iuius Schedl, N. pratti
banksianae Roh., N. sertifer (Geoff), N. swainei Midd., Gilpi^iia hercyniae (Htg.),
Pristiphora erichsonii (Htg.), Pikonema alaskensis (Roh.).
Cryptus viicropterus Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 238. ♀. Preocc. in Pleolophus by

Ichneumon niicropterus Gravenhorst.
Phaeogenes indistinctus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canad. Hym., p. 43. ♂.
Cryptus segregatns Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 73. ♂.
Aptesis pterigia Bradley, 1918. Brooklyn Ent Soc, Bui. 13: 100. N. name for C.
niicropterus Say.

Biology: Price, 1970. Science 170: 546-547. —Price, 1970. Ecology 51: 445-454. —Price, 1970.
Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 63: 1502-1509. -Price, 1971. Ecology 52: 587-596.

Morphology: Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 31-33, 44 (final-instar larva).

Pleolophus nigribasis Townes
Colo., N. Mex.

Pleolophus nigribasis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 237. ♂.

Pleolophus pilatus Townes
Newfoundland (Labrador), Mich., Minn.

Pleolophus pilatus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 227. ♂, ♀.

Pleolophus rubrocinctus
***authority mismatch
rubrocinctus (Provancher). Que. s. to N. Y., w. to Mich.
Phygadeuon rubrocinctus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 280. ♀.
Phaeogenes aterrinius Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 330. ♂.

Pleolophus rubrocinctus
***authority mismatch
rufifemur Townes. Sask. s. to Colo., w. to Alaska and Calif

Pleolophus rubrocinctus rufifemur Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst.,
Mem. 2: 233. ♂, ♀.

Genus RHYTURA Townes

Rhytura Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 244.
Type-species: Rhytiira pendens Townes. Monotypic and orig desig.




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Only one species is known.

Rhytura pendens Townes
Que. s. to n. Ga., w. to Minn.

Rhytura pendens Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 244. ♂, ♀.

Genus APTESIS Foerster

Aptenis Foerster, 1850. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 16 (1): 71, 82.

Type-species: Ichnennion sudeticus Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914. The
type-species is regarded as a synonym of A. nigrocincta (Gravenhorst).
Pezoporufi Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 181. Preocc. by Illiger, 1811
and Klug, 1842.

Type-species: Pezoniachiis nigrocinctus (Gravenhorst). Monotypically included and
desig. by Ashmead, 1900. The type-species designation is Gravenhorst's 1929
identification of Ichneumon nigrocinctus Gravenhorst, 1815.
Aptesis subg. Clypeocliodon Aubert, 1968. Soc. Ent. Mulhouse, Bui. 24: 7.

Type-species: Aptesis (Clypeodiodon) flavifaciator Aubert. Monotypic. As "Aptesis
Ciypeodion subg no\.Jlavifaciator sp. nov."

This is a large Holarctie genus. Townes (1970) said that "the species occur mostly in natural
meadows."

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 139.

Aptesis albifrons Townes
N. Y.

Aptesis albifrons Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 267. ♂.

Aptesis alpestris Townes
Colo., Idaho., Ariz., B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Aptesis alpestris Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst. Mem. 2: 255. ♂, ♀.

Aptesis anaula Townes
S. C.

Aptesis anaulus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 272. ♂.

Aptesis atrox Townes
Ohio.

Aptesis atrox Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 2: 269. ♀.

Aptesis breviaria Townes
N. Y., Mich., Ohio, Minn.

Aptesis breviaria Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 253. ♂, ♀.

Aptesis catulus Townes
N. Y., N. J., Md., Va., N. C, Kans.

Aptesis catulus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 263. ♂, ♀.

Aptesis fastigata Townes
Alta., Wyo., Oreg., Calif.

Aptesis fastigata Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 267. ♂, ♀.

Aptesis fuscitibia Townes
Maine, Mass., R. I., N. Y., w. N. C, Mich.

Aptesis fnscitibia Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 262. ♂, ♀.

Aptesis gracilis Townes
Northern Mich., Alta.

Aptesis gracilis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 251. ♂.

Aptesis incompta Townes
Northwestern S. C.

Aptesis incompta Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 265. ♂, ♀.

Aptesis inculta Townes
Que. s. to w. N. C, w. to Mich.

Aptesis inculta Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 257. ♂, ♀.

Aptesis lissopleuris Townes
Western N. C. Ecology: Between altitudes of 4600 ft. and 5750 ft.

Aptesis lissopleuris Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 257. ♀.

Aptesis scabra Townes
Md.

Aptesis scabra Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 266. ♀.

Aptesis segnis
***authority mismatch
femorata Townes. Sask., Alta., Wyo., Colo., Calif.

Aptesis segnis femorata Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2:
260. ♂, ♀.




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Aptesis segnis
***authority mismatch
segnis (Provancher). Que., Maine, N. H. N. Y., n.w. S. C, Mich. Ecology: I have seen a
long series of males collected in Malaise traps placed in the crowns of Abies
balsa)tiifera. Host: Profenusa canadensis (Marl.).

Phygadeuon segnis Provancher, 1877. Nat. Canad. 9: 11. ♀.

Pezoporus (Schenkia) tenthredinarum Rohwer, 1915. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 49: 216. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Parrott and Fulton, 1915. N. Y. Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 411: 552, 572.

Aptesis subguttata (Gravenhorst)
Europe. Introduced in N. B., Que., and Ont. in 1937 and 1938,

apparently without becoming established. Host: Gilpinia hercyniae (Htg.). The host
listed was the target species for the introductions in North America, although a small
number of individuals was released in an infestation of Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch).
Although the number of individuals released against G. hercyniae at some places was
large (as many as 6108 males and 10974 females) A. subguttata has not been found in
North America since 1939 when it was recovered from G. hercyniae in Parke Reserve,
Kamouraska Co., Que.

Cryptus subguttatus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 610. ♂.

Cryptus contractus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 617. ♂.

Taxonomy: Oehlke, 1966 (1965). Beitr. z. Ent. 15: 835-836 (syn.).

Morphology: Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 931, 932, 939 (final-instar larva).

Aptesis verrucata Townes
Maine, N. H., N. Y., Ohio, Mich.

Aptesis verrucata Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 252. ♂, ♀.

Aptesis yosemite Townes
Wyo., Calif.

Aptesis yosemite Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2: 254. ♂, ♀.

Genus OXYTAENIA Foerster

Oxytaenia Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 182.

Type-species: Oxytaenia rufolineata Cameron. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Cameron, 1904.

Townes (1970) said that he saw 13 species, all of which are Neotropic except for the fact that
one of them has a Nearctic subspecies.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 140.
barda Carolina (Townes). Que. s. to w. N. C, w. to Mich, and Kans. 0. barda barda (Cresson)
occurs in Mexico.
Aptesis barda Carolina Townes, 1962. In Townes and Gupta, Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 2:
271. ♂, ♀.

Genus ECHTHRUS Gravenhorst

Echtkrus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 861.

Type-species: Ichneumon reluctator Linnaeus. Desig. by Westwood, 1840.
Sphaetes Bremi, 1849 Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 10: 95.

Type-species: Sphaetes crassicrus Bremi. Monotypic.
Karaechthrus Uchida, 1929. Insecta Matsumurana 3: 176.

Type-species: Karaechthrus tuberculatus Uchida. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Bioleter Meyer, 1930. Zool. Mus. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ezheg. 31: 169.

Type-species: Bioleter eons Meyer. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Townes and Townes (1962) placed this small Holarctic genus in the Cryptini (=Mesostenini),
subtribe Echthrina along with four other genera, but only Echtbrus was transferred to the
present tribe by Townes (1970).

Revision: Townes and Townes, 1962. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 486-501.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 112, 113, 130.




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Echthrus abdominalis Cresson
N. S. w. to B. C, s. to N. Y., Minn., N. Mex., and Calif. Townes and

Townes (1962) recognized four subspecies.
Echthrufi abdominalis Cresson, 1868. Canad. Ent. 1: 37. ♀.
MeHOclioms Saint-Cyri Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 299. ♀.
Dyseidopus vancoitrerensis Bradley, 1902. Ent. News 13: 307. ♂. N. syn.
Echthnis abdoviinalis dimidiatus Townes, 1962. I)i Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.

Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 491. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Eclithrua abdoDiitiialis infuficus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.

Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 492. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Echthrus adillae
***authority mismatch
adillae Davis. Newfoundland (Labrador), n. Ont., Alta., Mont., Wyo., Idaho, Alaska, B.

C, Wash., n. Oreg. Host: Paranthrene robiniae (Hy. Edwards).
Echfhriis adillae Davis, 1895. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 22: 32. ♂.
Echfhrus adillae )iigriveHiris Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.

216 (pt. 3): 497. <5, 9. N. syn.
Echthrus adillae seniiruber Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.

216 (pt. 3): 498. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Echthrus adillae
***authority mismatch
rubidus Townes. Nev., s. Oreg., Calif.

Echthrus adillae rubidus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216

(pt. 3):499. ♂, ♀.

Echthrus adillae
***authority mismatch
tibialis Townes. Que., Maine, N. Y., Ont., Va.

Echthrus adillae tibialis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216

(pt. 3): 500. ♂, ♀.
Echthrus adillae hrunnens Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.

216 (pt. 3): 501. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Echthrus niger Cresson
N. S. w. to n. B. C, s. to N. C, Ohio, Minn., and s. Alta. Host: Anoplodera
proxi)na (Say)?, Saperda Candida F., S. discoidea F. Townes and Townes (1962)
recognized three subspecies, two of which were almost completely sympatric and had
ranges which broadly overlapped that of the third subspecies.

Echthrus niger Cresson, 1868. Canad. Ent. 1: 37. ♀.

Echthrus rufopedibus Harrington, 1893. Canad. Ent. 25: 31. 9. N. syn.; name invalid
because it is in the dative case.

Echthrus niger einaculatus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216(pt. 3): 494. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Tribe CRYPTINI

Just as the Cryptinae is the largest of ichneumonid subfamilies, the Cryptini is the largest
tribe in the subfamily. Although the greatest numbers of genera and species of Cryptini occur in
the tropics, the tribe is well represented in North America. Townes (1970) implies that the spe-
cies of Cryptini search for their hosts primarily among foliage rather than in the soil or ground
litter and differ from the species of Aptesini and Hemitelini in this respect as well as in having
larger average size.

Townes (1970) divided the Cryptini (=Mesostenini) into subtribes which are partly for con-
venience and partly to show what he believed to be some of the natural groupings of genera. In
the hope that this classification is actually an improvement over that of Townes and Townes
(1962), the former is adopted here with little modification.

Revision: Townes and Townes, 1962. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 1-602.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 141-346 (genera of world).

Subtribe AGROTHEREUTINA

Genus APSILOPS Foerster

Apsilops Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 182.

Type-species: Crypt us hirtifrons Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from inclusion
by Ashmead, 1896.
Heterotypus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 183.




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Type-species: Ichneitmon cinctorius Fabricius. Monotypically included and desig. by
Townes, Townes, and Gupta, 1961.
Dapaniis Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 183.

Type-species: Ichneumon cinctorius Fabricius. Monotypically included and desig. by
'Ashmead. 1900.
Soba.s Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 187. Preocc. by Pascoe, 1863.

Type-species: Ichneumon cinctoriux Fabricius. Monotypically included and desig. by
Schmiedeknecht, 1890.
Trichocryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 520, 521.

Type-species: Crypfus cinctorius Gravenhorst. Monotypic. The type-species is
Gravenhorst's identification of Ichneumon cinctorius Fabricius.
Neostricklandia Viereck, 1925. Canad. Ent. 57: 75.

Type-species: Neostricklandia sericata Viereck. Monotypic. and orig. desig.
Trichestema Cushman, 1927. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 72 (13): 9.

Type-species: Trichestema helcostizoides Cushman. Monotypic and orig. desig.

The members of this small Holarctic genus parasitize aquatic or subaquatic Pyraloidea. There
is an undescribed species which is known from Fla. and Cuba; it has been reared from Samea
niultiplicalis Gn.

Apsilops bicolor (Cushman)
Ont. and Mass., s. to Md., w. to Alta., Wash, and Calif. Host: Schoenobius
nielinellus (Clem.).
Trichocryptus bicolor Cushman, 1927. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 72 (13): 8. ♀.
Trichocryptus atlanticus Cushman, 1930 (1929). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 76 (25): 3. ♀.

Apsilops hirtifrons (Ashmead)
Ont. and Mass. s. to Fla., w. to Minn, and Tex. Host: Nymphula sp.
Cryptus hirtifrons Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 411. ♂.
Cryptus cyaniventris Riley, 1890. In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3:
154. Nomen nudum.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1927. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 72 (13): 7.

Biology: Hart, 1895. 111. Nat. Hist. Survey, Bui. 4: 178-179.

Apsilops sericata (Viereck)
Que. w. to Alta., s. to Mass., Mich., and S. Dak. Host: Occidentalia
comptulatalis (Hulst), Stenochilo forbesellus (Fern.).
Neostricklandia sericata Viereck, 1925. Canad. Ent. 57: 75. ♀.
Trichestema helcostizoides Cushman, 1927. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 72 (13): 9. ♀.

Biology: Frohne, 1939. Amer. Micros. Soc, Trans. 58: 234, 325, 347.

Genus AGROTHEREUTES Foerster

Agrothereufes Foerster, 1850. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 16 (1): 71.

Type-species: Pezomachus abbreviator Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914. The
type-species is Gravenhorst's identification oi Ichneumon abbreviator Fabricius.
Spilocryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 472, 501.

Type-species: Spilocryptus zygaenarum Thomson. Desig. by Viereck, 1914. The
type-species is regarded as a synonym oi A. fumipennis (Gravenhorst).
Dayro Cameron, 1902. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 9: 209.
Type-species: Dayro pilosus Cameron. Monotypic.

This Holarctic genus has a greater number of species in Eurasia than in North America.

abbreviator iridescens (Cresson). Northern Que. w. to Alaska, s. to N. C, La., Kans., Sask.,
and Alta. Host: Gilpinia hercyniae (Htg.), Heterarthrus nemoratus (Fall.), Neodiprion
abietis (Harris), A'^. lecontei (Fitch), N. sertifer (Geoff.), Pristiphora erichsonii (Htg.),
Paraclemensia acerifolia (Fitch), Paralobesia viteana (Clem.). A. abbreviator
abbreviator (Fabricius) occurs in Europe. In their tribal revision, Townes and Townes
(1962) divided iridescens into two arbitrarily and unnaturally separated subspecies
supposedly based upon a combination of color and female wing length (normal versus
brachypterus).

Cryptus iridescens Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 296. ♂.

Cryptus soror Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 296. ♂.




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Phygadeuon siniilaris Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 57. ♂.

N. syn.
Cryptus albonotatus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 75. ♂.
Aptesis major Davis, 1893. Ent. News 4: 32. ♀. N. syn.
Spilocryptus: propodeHDi Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 253. ♂.
Agrothereutes rnicroalatiifi Cushman, 1927. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 72 (13): 4. ♀. N. syn.
Agrothereutes slossonae Cushman, 1927. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 72 (13): 4. ♀. N. syn.

Morphology: Finlayson, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 931, 932, 939 (final-instar larva).
abbreviator rufopectus Cushman. Alta. s. to N. Mex., w. to B. C. and Calif. Host: Neodiprion
tsugae Midd., Pristipliora erichsonii (Htg.), Laspeyresia nigricana (Steph.).
Agrothereutes rufopectus Cushman, 1927. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 72 (13): 4. ♀.

Agrothereutes alutarius Townes
N. W. T., Yukon, Alaska.

Agrothereutes alutarius Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3):47. ♂, ♀.

Agrothereutes cimbcivorus (Cushman)
Que. w. to B. C, s. to N. H., Mich., S. Dak., Colo., and Calif. Host:
Cimbex aiiiericana Leach.
Spilocrptusil) cimbcii'orus Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64(4): 8. ♂, ♀.
Agrothereutes citubicivorus Walkley, 1958. In Krombein et al, U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr.
Monog. 2, Sup. 1, p. 46. Unjustified emendation.

Agrothereutes grandis Townes
Conn. s. to n.w. S. C, w. to Ohio.

Agrothereutes grandis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 46. ♂, ♀.

Agrothereutes lophyri (Norton)
Newfoundland (insular) w. to B. C, s. to Fla., Ala., 111., and Minn. Host:

Neodiprion abietis (Harris), N. excitans Roh., N. lecontei (Fitch), N. nanulus nanuhis
Schedl, N. )iigroscutu}u Midd., N. pratti ba7iksianae Roh., Diprion similis (Htg.).
Cryptus Lophyri Norton, 1869. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 326. ♂, ♀.
Agrothereutes lophyri oiitariensis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.

Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 60. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Agrothereutes lophyri obscunis Townes, 1962. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 61. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
mandator americanus Townes. Que. w. to B. C, s. to N. J., Mich., Colo., and Wash. Host:
Cimbex a))ierica)ia Leach., Trichiosonia triangulum Kirby. A. mandator ynandator
(Linnaeus) is European. About eight individuals oi manducator americanus emerge
from a single host cocoon.
Agrothereutes mandator a}uericanus Townes, 1962. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.
Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):68. ♂, ♀.

Agrothereutes montanus Townes
Colo. Ecology: The unique holotype was collected at an elevation of 11,000
ft. in Rocky Mountain National Park.
Agrothereutes montanus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3): 48. ♀.

Agrothereutes neodiprionis (Cushman)
Wash., Oreg., Calif. Host: Neodiprion tsugae Midd.

Spilocryptus neodiprionis Cushman, 1939. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 29: 393. ♂, ♀.

Agrothereutes pallipennis Townes
Calif. Ecology: The species is known from two specimens which were
swept from Arteinesia foliage at elevations of 8000 and 8500 ft.
Agrothereutes pallipennis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3): 49. cJ, 9.

Genus GAMBRUS Foerster

Kaltenbachia Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 187.

Type-species: Cryptus ornatus Gravenhorst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Brischke, 1888? The type-species is regarded as a synonym of G.
incubitor (Linnaeus).
Gambrus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 188.

Type-species: Gambrus (Cryptus) tuaculatus Brischke. By subsequent monotypy
from inclusion by Brischke, 1888. The type-species is regarded as a synonym of G.
incubitor (Linnaeus).




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Hygrocryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 513.

Type-species: Cryptus carnifex Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Allocryptus Viereck, 1917. Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey Bui. 22: 333.

Type-species: Agrotlicrentes (Allocryptus) liyslopi Viereck. Monotypic.

This is a Holarctic genus which is rather arbitrarily distinguished from Agrothereutes and
Aritranifi.

Gambrus apicatus (Provancher)
N. S., Que., Maine, Vt., N. Y., Ont., Ohio, Sask. Ecology: This species
has been reared from galls of En lira on Sali.x, but appears to be too large to be a
parasite of Eiiiira and may parasitize Lepidoptera which occupy the galls secondarily.

Cryptua apicatus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6 (6): 178 (key); 6 (7): 204. ♀.

Cryptus cinctus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 175. ♂. Preocc. by Fabricius, 1805.

Gambrus bituminosus (Cushman)
Mass., Conn., N. Y., N. J., Ga., Ill, Minn., La., Calif. Ecology: This
species has been collected on Spartina in salt marshes. Host: Diatraea sp., Ostrinia
nuhilalis (Hbn.), 0. obumbratalis (Led.), 0. penitalis (Grt.), Spheiiophorus pertinax
(Oliv.).
Crypioideus bituniiiiosus Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (4): 6. ♀.

Gambrus canadensis
***authority mismatch
burkei (Viereck). California. Host: Orgyia leucostigma (J. E. S.), 0. vetusta (Bdv.).

Malacosoiiia californiciun califoniicniii (Pack.).
Cryptus (Gawbrus) burkei Viereck, 1909. Ent. News 20: 291. cJ, 9.

Gambrus canadensis
***authority mismatch
canadensis (Provancher). N. S. w. to B. C, s. to N. C, Kans., Ariz., and Oreg.

Host: Malacosoiiia aiiiericaituiit (P.), M. califoniicum fragile (Stretch), M. disstria

Hbn., Laspeyresia poiiionella (L.), Archips cerasiroranus (Fitch), Thymelicus lineola

(Oehs.). In their tribal revision, Townes and Townes (1962) divided this subspecies into

two with very broadly overlapping ranges.
Nejiiatopodius Canadensis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 268. ♂.
Spilocryptus exareolatus Viereck, 1903. In Skinner, Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 81. 6. N.

syn.

Gambrus extrematis (Cresson)
N. S. w. to B. C, s. to D. C, Kans., Utah, and Calif. Host: Hyalophora

cecropia (L.), H. Columbia (S. I. S.), H. euryalus (Bdv.), H. gloveri (Stkr.).
Cryptus extrematis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 404. ♀.
Cryptus sainiae Packard, 1865. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Proc. 9: 345. ♂, ♀.
Echtlirus Provanclieri Provancher, 1885. Canad. Ent. 17: 116. c^, 9. The evidence given by

Barron (1975) does not seem sufficient for attributing authorship to Brodie (in

Provancher) rather than to Provancher.
Spilocryptus cecropiae Habermehl, 1919. Ztschr. f. Wiss. Insekten-Biol. 14: 239. ♀.

Taxonomy: Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 536.

Biology: Riley, 1872. Mo. State Ent., Ann. Rpt. 4: 110-111. —Harrington, 1891. Ent. Soc.
Ontario, Ann. Rpt. 21: 67. -Smith, 1908. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1: 294-297. —Marsh, 1937.
Ecology 18: 107-111. -Marsh, 1937. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 30: 40-42. —Marsh, 1938. N. Y.
Ent. Soc, Jour. 46: 27.

Morphology: Riederer, 1890. N. Y. Micros. Soc, Jour. 46: 27.

Gambrus nuncius (Say)
N. B. w. to w. N. W. T., s. to Ala. and La. Host: Callosaniia angulifera (Wlk.),
C. proniethia (Drury), Antlieraea polyphemus (Cramer), Samia cyntliia (Drury).
Cryptus nuncius Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 237. ♀.

Gambrus polyphemi Townes
N. S. w. to B. C, s. to Fla., Tex., N. Mex. and Oreg. Host: Antlieraea
polyphemus (Cramer).
Cryptus sordid us Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 67. ♀.

Preocc. by Tschek, 1870.
Ganibrus polyplieiiii Townes, 1945. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 809. N. name for C.
sordidus Provancher.

Gambrus tunicularubra (Fyles)
Southern Que. Host: Gnorinioschenia gallaeasteriella (Kell.). The

lectotype is apparently the only remaining specimen reared by Fyles. Fyles mentioned
having encountered this ichneumonid repeatedly in his work on the biology of the host,




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but apparently the host has not been reared frequently since then. Perhaps
tiiniciilambra will prove to be a melanic variant of G. ulti^nis (Cresson).

Trychosis funicula-ruhra Fyles, 1896. Canad. Ent. 28: 148. cJ, 9.

Gambrus ultimus (Cresson)
N. S. w. to Oreg., s. to Fla., Tex., Ariz., and Calif.; Hawaii. Host: Acroba.tis
caryae Grt., Herpetograttniia bipunctalis {¥.), Loxostege sticticalis (L.), Ostrinia
nnbilalis (Hbn.), Plilyctaeuia coronata tertialis (Gn.), Udea nibigalis (Gn.), Astala
confedemta (Grt.), Hyaloscotes pithopoem (Dyar), Thyridopteryx ephemeraefonnis
(Haw.), Platynoia flavedana Clem., A)icylis coniptoiia (Froel.), Grapliolitlio tiiolesta
(Bsk.), Pamlobesia viteatia (Clem.), Coleopliora sp., Pecti)iopliora gossypiella (Sdrs.),
Exyra setnicrocea (Gn.), Neogalea esnla (Druce), Si»iyra henrici (Grt.), Trichoplnsia iii
(Hbn.), Bafhyplectes CKrculionia (Thom.).

Crypfiin nltiniK.'f Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 305. ♀.

Cryptus incertitu Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 306. ♀. Preocc. by Ratzeburg,
1852.

Phygadeuon longicornis Provancher, 1886. Addit Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 52. ♀.

Hewiteles anmilicomis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 403. ♀.

Agrothereufes (Allocryptufi) hyslopi Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.
Survey Bui. 22: 333. ♀.

Spilocryptus exannulatus Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 529. ♂, ♀.

Hoplocryptus incertiiluN Cushman, 1925. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 15: 390. N. name for C.
incertits Cresson.

Biology: Fink, 1932. Jour. Agr. Res. 44: 555, 556. -Haden, 1935. Del. Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta.,
Bui. 194: 33-35.

Gambrus yukonensis Townes
N. W. T., Yukon, Alaska.

Ga))ibrns yukonensis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 79. ♂, ♀.

Genus ARITRANIS Foerster

Aritranis Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 187.

Type-species: Cryptus explorator Tschek. Desig. by Viereck, 1914. from two species
included by Tschek, 1870.
Hoplocryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 508.

Type-species: Hoplocryptus binotulus Thomson. Desig. by Viereck, 1914. The
type-species is regarded as a synonym of A. fugitiva ((}ravenhorst).

This Holarctic genus is arbitrarily distinguished from Ganibnis.

Aritranis affabilis (Provancher)
Que. s. to w. N. C, w. to Minn, and Kans. Host: Cephus pygniaeiis (L.),
Tracheius tabidus (F.), Phlyctaenia coronata tertialis (Gn.).
Cryptus affabilis Provancher, 1877. Nat. Canad. 9: 13. ♀.

Aritranis albicollaris
***authority mismatch
albicollaris (Cresson). Que. s. to N. C, w. to Mont, and Tex. Host: Phlyctaenia
coronata tertialis (Gn.).
Cryptus albicollaris Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 158. ♀.

Aritranis albicollaris
***authority mismatch
clypeata Townes. Wash., Calif

Aritranis albicollaris clypeata Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 3): 114. ♂, ♀.

Aritranis barberi Townes
Md.

Aritranis barberi Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
111. ♂.

Aritranis byrsina Townes
Que. s. to Ga., w. to Wis., Kans., and La. Host: Achatodes zeae (Harris),
Papaipema sp. in Sanibucus pith, "Oberea sp." in raspberry stem. It does not seem
likely that A. byrsina would be a primary parasite of Oberea.
Aritranis byrsina Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
102. ♂, ♀.

Aritranis imitator (Provancher)
Que. w. to n. Yukon, s. to R. I., Ohio, Colo., and Calif. Host: Hoplitis
iCyrtosniia) hypocrita (Ckll.).
Cryptus imitator Provancher, 1877. Nat. Canad. 9: 13. ♀.




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Aritrania i)nitator nigriventris Townes, 19G2. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.

Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 121. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Arifranis iniitator monticola Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui.

216 (pt. 3): 124. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Aritrauis i)>ntator ruficauda Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.

216 (pt. 3): 125. cJ, 9. N. syn.

Aritranis linnae
***authority mismatch
linnae Townes. Que., N. Y., Ont., Mich., Minn., Sask., Alta.

Aritm)iis linnae linnae Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216

(pt. 3): 105. ♂, ♀.

Aritranis linnae
***authority mismatch
pacifica Townes. Calif.

Aritra)iis linnae pacifica Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216

(pt. 3): 106. ♂, ♀.

Aritranis notata
***authority mismatch
newcomeri (Cushman). Mont., Ida., B. C, Wash., Oreg. Host: Ametastegia glabrata

(Fall.), Allantux ductus (L.).
Caenocryptus newcomeri Cushman, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 53: 463. 6, 9..

Aritranis notata
***authority mismatch
notata (Provancher). Que. s. to w. N. C, w. to Alaska, Alta, and Colo. Host:

Ametastegia glabrata (Fall.), Ancistrocerus bireniniaciilatus (Sauss.), "Odynerus" sp. in

Rhus stem.
Cryptus Belangeri Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6 (6): 177 (key); 6 (7): 201. 9. The

holotype was not located by Barron (1975).
Cryptus notatus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6 (6): 177 (key); 6 (7): 202. 6. A specimen

presumed to be the holotype was located by Barron (1975).
Cryptus elongatus Provancher, 1882 (Dec). Nat. Canad. 13: 362. ♂. Preocc. by Rudow,

1882 (Nov.).
Oronotus alboniaculatus Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 205. ♂.

Taxonomy: Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 433, 466, 520.

Aritranis notata
***authority mismatch
sierrac Townes. Calif. Host: Ancistrocerus spilogaster Cam., Leptochilus tetradyynia

Parker, Megachile gentilis Cr.
Aritranis notata sierrae Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216

(pt. 3): 120. ♂, ♀.

Aritranis nubecula Townes
R. I., Fla., Mich., Tex.

Aritranis nubecula Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):

109. ♂, ♀.

Aritranis zoesmairi (Dalla Torre)
Que. s. to w. N. C, w. to Wis. Host: Ceratina dupla Say. Individual

larvae consume two to five host larvae.
Cryptus omatus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 63 (key). 9.

Preocc. by Gravenhorst, 1829.
Cryptris scutellatus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 69. ♀.

Preocc. by Smith, 1858 and Provancher, 1877. This is species number 39 in Provancher's

treatment of Cryptus; the same number is used by Provancher for C. ornatus in his key

to the species of Cryptus; the fact that the synonymy between the two names

pertaining to species number 39 is objective was substantiated by Provancher (1889).
Cryptus gracilis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 74. ♂. Preocc.

by Gravenhorst, 1829.
Cryptus Zoesmairi Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 595. N. name for C. scutellatus

Provancher and C. ornatus Provancher.
Habrocryptus graenicheri Viereck, 1904. Ent. News 15: 333. ♀.

Taxonomy: Provancher, 1889. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 452.

Biology: Graenicher, 1905. Ent. News 16: 43-49.

Genus PYCNOCRYPTUS Thomson

Pycnocryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 500.

Type-species: Cryptus peregrinator Gravenhorst. Monotypic. The type-species is
Gravenhorst's misidentification of Ichneumon peregrinator Linnaeus; the
specimens which Gravenhorst identified as peregrinator are now identified as P.

Pycnocryptus director (Thunberg)





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Cylindrocryptus Ceballos, 1921. Soc. Espan. de Hist. Nat., Bol. 21: 50.

Type-species: Cylindrocryptus nitidns Ceballos. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This is a small Holarctic genus.

Pycnocryptus alexanderi Townes
Vt.

PycnocryptuH alexanderi Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3): 128. ♂.

Pycnocryptus director (Thunberg)
P. E. I. s. to N. C, w. to Mont, and Colo.; Europe. Adventive.

Ichneumon director Thunberg, 1822. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8: 270. ♂.

Pycnocryptus freemani Townes
N. B., Alta., Alaska.

PycnocryptuH freemani Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3): 127. ♀.

Pycnocryptus platyaspis Townes
Northern Que., n. Man., Wyo.

Pycnocryptus platyaspis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3): 127. ♀.

Genus HIDRYTA Foerster

Hidryta Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 187.

Type-species: Bracbycryptus erytbrocenis Thomson. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from
four species included by Dalla Torre, 1902.
Brachycryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 487.

Type-species: Brachycryptus erythrocerus Thomson. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Euthycryptus Jussel, 1907. Vorarlberger Landes-Mus., Jahresber. 44: 71.

Type-species: Euthycryptus scrobiculifer Jussel. Monotypic.

This is a small Holarctic genus.

Hidryta frater (Cresson)
Newfoundland (Labrador) s. to Va., w. to Oreg. and Calif.; Eurasia. Ecology:
Adults occur among the coarse grasses and sedges of wet meadows.

Cry ptus frater Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 303. ♀.

Cryptus sordidus Tschek, 1870. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien, Verh. 20: 409. ♀.

Brachycryptus erythrocerus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 488. ♀.

Hidryta nigricoxa (Provancher)
N. S. s. to w. N. C, w. to Minn.

Cryptus nigricoxus Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 361. ♂.

Brachycryptus niger Cushman, 1926. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 67 (23): 7. ♂.

Genus IDIOLISPA Foerster

Idiolispa Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 188.

Type-species: Bassus analis Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from two species
included by Tschek, 1870.
Liocryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 489.

Type-species: Bassus analis Gravenhorst. Monotypic.
Paracryptus Szepligeti, 1916. Mus. Natl. Hungarici, Ann. 14: 251.

Type-species: Paracryptus hungaricus Szepligeti. Monotypic.

This is a small Holarctic genus.

Idiolispa aestivalis Townes
Que. s. to Ga. w. to Iowa, Kans., and Tex.

Idiolispa aestivalis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
331. ♂, ♀.

Idiolispa albisoleata (Walsh)
Que., Maine, N. H., Va., Ont., Mich., Minn., Iowa, Ariz., n.w. N. W. T.,
Alaska.
Cryptus^ albisoleatus Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 80. ♂.

Idiolispa analis
***authority mismatch
analis (Gravenhorst). Newfoundland (Labrador) s. to Va., w. to Yukon, e. B. C, and
Colo.; Eurasia. In their tribal revision, Townes and Townes (1962) divided this




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subspecies into two, with the nominate form occupying nearly the entire range of the
other segregate.

Bassun analis Gravenhorst, 1807. Vergl. Uebers. Zool. Systeme, p. 266. Se.x not indicated.
In their tribal revision, Townes and Townes (1962) point out that the original
description of analis does not fit the ta.xon for which the name has traditionally been
used; lacking other evidence to indicate that Gravenhorst's original type material did
not include specimens of this taxon, they selected a lectotype which preserves the
traditional usage.

Ichneiuiion cursor Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8: 256; 9: 298. ♀. Preocc. by Schrank, 1780.

Cryptus elevatus Zetterstedt, 1838. Insecta Lapponica, sect. 2, p. 370. ♀.

Cnjptus limatus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 298. ♀. N. syn.

IsclniHs lentus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Cand. 7: 110. ♂, ♀.

Idiolispa analis
***authority mismatch
ignea Townes. Southern Sask. s. to N. Mex., w. to s. B. C. and Calif.

Idiolispa a^ialis ignea Townes, 1962. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 329. cJ, 9.

Genus TRYCHOSIS Foerster

Trychosis Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 187.

Type-species: Cryptus titillator Gravenhorst. Included and desig. by

Schmiedeknecht, 1890. The type-species is Gravenhorst's misidentification of
Ichneumon titillator Linnaeus; the specimens which Gravenhorst identified as
titillator are now identified as T. niesocastana (Tschek) (see van Rossem, 1967).
Phaedrophadnus Cameron, 1906. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Jour. 17: 285.

Type-species: Phaedrophadnus striatus Cameron. Monotypic.
Ethaemorpha Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 44: 565.

Type-species: Cryptus siniilis Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Orthocryptus Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 44: 567.

Type-species: Cryptus monticola Ashmead. Monotypic and orig. desig.

There are a few species of this moderately large genus in the Oriental Region and one known
from the Neotropic Region, but Trychosis is otherwise Holarctic. Some of the species have been
reared from spider egg cocoons, and records of rearings from Lepidoptera may be erroneous.

Revision: van Rossem, 1966. Zool. Verb. 79, 40 pp. (European spp.).

Taxonomy: van Rossem, 1965. Bui. Zool. Nomencl. 22: 259-260 (proposal for use of plenary
powers). —Perkins, 1966. Bui. Zool. Nomencl. 23: 8 (comment on lack of need for use of
plenary powers), —van Rossem, 1966. Bui. Zool. Nomencl. 23: 8 (rebuttal of Perkins).
— Sabrosky, 1967. Bui. Zool. Nomencl. 24: 73-74 (suggested changes for proposal of van
Rossem). —International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1974. Bui. Zool.
Nomencl. 31: 22-23 (unnecessary use of plenary powers).

Trychosis albicaligata (Walsh)
Conn. s. to Va., w. to Mich., Kans., and Tex. In their tribal revision,

Townes and Townes (1962) suggest that albicaligata may prove to be a junior synonym
of T. exulans (Cresson).
Cryptiis albicaligatus Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 82. ♂.

Trychosis anagma Townes
Que. w. to B. C, s. to R. I., Ohio, S. Dak., and Calif.

Trychosis anagtnus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 376. ♂, ♀.

Trychosis apicalis Townes
R. I. s. to Fla., w. to Minn.

Trychosis apicalis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
347. ♂, ♀.

Trychosis atrorubens Townes
Colo., Ariz., Nev., Calif.

Trychosis atrorubens Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 369. c5, 9.

Trychosis coxalis Townes
R. I. s. to S. C, w. to Mich, and Ala.

Trychosis coxalis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
346. ♂, ♀.




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Trychosis cyperia Townes
Newfoundland (Labrador) w. to w. N. W. T., s. to N. Y., Ohio, Colo., and n.
Calif. Ecology: Adults occur among sedges in wet meadows.
Trycliosis cyperia Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
373. ♂, ♀.

Trychosis depilis Townes
Wyo., Idaho, Utah, s. B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif. Townes suggests that depilis
may be only "subspecifically distinct" from the sympatric T. reflexa Townes.
TrijchoiiiH depUii< Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
368. ♂, ♀.

Trychosis exulans (Cresson)
Mass. s. to N. C, w. to Mich., Kans., and Tex. See text for T. albicaligata.

Cryptus exulans: Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 157. "♂"=♀.

Trychosis fuscata Townes
Newfoundland (Labrador), Que., Maine.

Trychoaia fmcata Townes, 1962. /;; Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
356. ♂, ♀.

Trychosis kathrynae Townes
Que. w. to Sask., s. to N. J., W. Va., Mich, and Minn.

Trychosis katlinj)tae Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 363. 6, 9.'

Trychosis latidens Townes
Que. w. to Yukon, s. to Mass., Mich., Colo., and Oreg.

Trychosis latidens Townes, 1962. In Townes and Towes, U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
355. ♂, ♀.

Trychosis montivaga
***authority mismatch
austrina Townes. N. Mex.

Tn/cliosis niontifaga aiistri)ia Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 3): 341. ♂, ♀.

Trychosis montivaga
***authority mismatch
montivaga (Provancher). N. S. w. to Yukon, s. to Va., 111., Minn., and s. B. C.
Crypt us )nontit'agiis Provancher, 1877. Nat. Canad. 9: 12. ♀.

Pliygadeuo)t fnsiforniis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 51. ♀.

Trychosis nigripes Townes
Tex.

Trychosis nigripes Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
345. ♂, ♀.

Trychosis peratra Townes
n. status. Newfoundland (insular) w. to B. C, s. to Va., Tex., and Calif.
Crypt us albitarsis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3 (Sept.): 300. ♂. Preocc. in
Cryptus by Cresson, 1864 (June). T. peratra is not sufficiently well collected to make it
worthwhile proposing a new name for C. albitarsis in order to treat the eastern and
western populations as separate subspecies. N. syn.
Trychosis albitarsis peratra Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 3): 359. ♂, ♀.

Trychosis reflexa Townes
S. Dak., Mont., and s. B. C, s. to Utah and Calif. Townes says reflexa "is very
close to T. atrorubens and is likely to prove [to be] a subspecies of it;" see also the text
for T. depilis, above.
Trychosis reflexa Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
371. ♂, ♀.

Trychosis sanderi (Dalla Torre)
Colo. Known only from the holotype.

Cryptus monticola Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 410. ♀. Preocc. by

Cameron, 1885.
Cryptus Sanderi Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 587. N. name for )»onticola
Ashmead.

Trychosis semirubra Townes
Que. w. to n.w. N. W. T., s. to R. I., Ohio, Minn., N. Mex., and Calif.

Ecology: Has been reared from spider egg cocoons collected under rocks. Host: Eggs of
drassid spider. The subspecies recognized by Townes and Townes (1962) suffer from
being based upon too few specimens and, in two cases, from being based upon different
characters in each sex (hind tarsal coloration in males and flagellar coloration in
females). If the white banding on the female hind tarsus (contrary to the description of
Townes and Townes [1962], in at least one female they placed in their nominate
subspecies tarsal segments 2 through 4 are entirely white) does not correlate well with
the extent of white coloration on the female flagellum, it does not seem logical to




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suppose that there could be a good correlation between the coloration of the male hind

tarsus and the female flagellum.
Pliijgadeuon anmilatus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 179. ♀. Preocc. by Cresson, 1864.
Trychosis seiiiiniber Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 254. N. name for P.

aumilatiis Provancher.
Trychosis soiiinibra pitlla Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.

216 (pt. 3): 352. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Tri/choKiK semirubm arizonica Townes, 1962. //( Townes and Townes, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bui.

216 (pt. 3): 354. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Trychosis similis (Cresson)
N. S. s. to S. C, w. to Minn., Kans., and Tex. The two subspecies recognized

by Townes and Townes (1962) were almost completely sympatric-
Cryptu.'< .■iunilifi Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 299. ♀.
Trychosis situ His badianniis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.

216 (pt. 3): 343. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Trychosis subgracilis (Cresson)
P. E. I. s. to Fla., w. to Colo, and Tex. Ecology: One specimen was
reared from a head of Rudbeckia aniplex.
Cryptus subgracilis Cresson. 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 303. ♀.
Crypius rufoannulatus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6 (6): 177 (key); 6 (7): 202.

Trychosis sulcata Townes
Mass. s. to N. C, w. to Mich, and Kans.

Trychosis sulcata Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
349. ♂, ♀.

Subtribe CRYPTINA

Townes (1970) says that this is the dominant subtribe in the Holarctic Region. Most of the
species appear to be parasites of the pupae or prepupae of Lepidoptera or Symphyta.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 158-159 (genera of world).

Genus CAMERA Townes

Camera Townes, 1962. //( Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 432.
Type-species: Mesosfenus euryaspis Cameron. Orig. desig.

Except for the species which ranges into Texas, this small genus is Neotropic.

Camera euryaspis (Cameron)
Tex.; Mexico.

Mesosfenus euryaspis Cameron, 1885. Biol. Cent.-Amer., Hym., v. 1, p. 226. ♀.

Genus ISCHNUS Gravenhorst

Ischnus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 1, p. 638.

Type-species: Ichneumon porrectorius Fabricius. Desig. by Westwood, 1840. The
type-species is regarded as a synonym of /. inquisitoriiis inquisitorius (Mueller).
Habrocrypfus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 498.

Type-species: Cryptus assertorins Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914. The
type-species is Gravenhorst's identification of Ichneunioyi assertorius Fabricius
and is regarded as a synonym of I. inquisitorius inquisitorius (Mueller).
Aglaocryptus Cameron, 1903. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc, Mem. and Proc. 47 (14): 31.

Type-species: Aglaocryptus curvitnaculatus Cameron. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Erythrocryptus Cameron, 1905. Invertebrata Pacifica 1: 126.

Type-species: Erythrocryptus rufus Cameron. Monotypic.

This moderately large genus is almost worldwide in distribution. The species are pupal
parasites of Lepidoptera.

Ischnus cinctipes (Walsh)
Que. s. to Fla., w. to Minn, and Tex. Host: Ancylis comptana (Froel), A.
dii'isana Wlk., Paralobesia viteana (Clem.).
Cryptus cinctipes Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 72. ♂, ♀.
Phygadeuon fraterculus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 55. ♀.
Spilocryptus polychrosidis Cushman, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 53: 461. ♂, ♀.




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inquisitorius assimilis (Uchida). Alaska; n.e. Asia. /. inquisitorius inquisitorius (Mueller)

occurs in Europe.
Habrocryptus aHsi)tiilis Uchida, 1930. Hokkaido Imp. Univ., Faculty Agr., Jour. 25: 313. ♀.
inquisitorius atricollaris (Walsh). N. S. s. to w. N. C, w. to Alaska and Calif. Host: Archips

argy)-ospilui< (Wlk.), Choristoneiim co)iJlicta)ia (Wlk.), C.fitniifemna (Clem.), C.

rOKaceana (Harris), orange tortricid on azalea, Malacosoitia clisstria Hbn. Townes and

Townes (1962) split this subspecies into three which were very arbitrarily separated and

had broadly overlapping ranges.
Crypfits atricollaris Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 72. ♂, ♀.
Cryptits varim Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6 (6): 177 (key); 6 (7): 200. ♂.
hcluius exilia Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 111. ♂.

Cryptux atriceps Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 361. ♀. N. syn.
Spilocrypfus tieoiiiexicaua Viereck, 1903 In Skinner, Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 81. ♂.
Erythrocryptiis rufits Cameron, 1905. Invertebrata Pacifica 1: 126. ♀. N. syn.
Ganibrus veuablesi Viereck, 1924. Canad. Ent. 56: 65. ♀.
Ifichnus inquisitorius pectoralis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.

Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 146. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Ischnus laevifrons Townes
Ariz.

Ischnus laevifrons Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):

156. ♂, ♀.

Ischnus latus (Provancher)
Que., Maine, N. H., Ont., Mich., Sask., Alta.

Cryptus latus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6 (6): 178 (key); 6 (7): 204. 9. The holotype of

this species was not located by Barron (1975); the original description seems to show

that Townes and Townes (1962) were correct in removing latus from Cubocephalus

where it had been placed by virtue of the incorrect synonymy of Provancher (1879).
Phygadeuon J-annulatus Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13 (no. 155): 335 (key); 13 (no.

156): 355. ♀. Preocc. by P. triannulatus Gravenhorst, 1829.
Cryptus J-annulatus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 74. ♂.

Preocc. in Ischnus by Provancher, 1882.
Ischnus fraterculus tricircularis Walkley, 1958. In Krombein, U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr.

Monog. 2, Sup. 1, p. 46. N. name for P. J-annulatus Provancher.

Taxonomy: Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 69 (incorrect syn.). —Townes and Townes,
1962. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 135-136. —Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 494, 575.

Ischnus laurae Townes
S. C, Fla.

Ischnus laurae Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
140. cJ, 9.

Ischnus lautus Townes
Southern B. C, Calif. Host: Grapholitha niolesta (Bsk.).

Ischnus lautus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
163. ♂, ♀.

Ischnus minor Townes
Northern Que. w. to Alaska, s. to n. Ga., Minn., Ariz., and Calif. Host: Epinotia
aceriella (Clem.), Paralobesia viteana (Clem.), Acleris variana (Fern.), Choristoneura
funiiferana (Clem.).
Ischnus minor Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 159. ♂, ♀.

Ischnus pinguis (Provancher)
revised status. Que. s. to w. N. C, w. to Minn. Townes and Townes
(1962) placed pinguis as a subspecies of latus; the fact that they saw "no real
intergrades" between pinguis and latus leaves the status of pinguis in doubt because
most of the latus specimens they studied were collected within the northern portion of
the range of pi)iguis.
Phaeogenes pinguis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 43. 9. A
lectotype was selected by Barron (1975).

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1962. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 136-137. —Barron,
1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 531.

Ischnus politus Townes
Colo. Ecology: Occurs in the Rocky Mountains at timberline.

Ischnus politus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
162. ♀.




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Ischnus rhomboidalis (Walsh)
Que. s. to e. Tenn., w. to N. Dak. and Colo. Host: Laspeyresia
pomonella (L.).
Cryptus rhomboidalis Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 72. ♀.
Cryptiis a»iblytelarius Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 70. ♀.

Ischnus sparsus Townes
Que. s. to w. N. C, w. to Minn.

hchnus uparsus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
141. ♂, ♀.

Ischnus velutinus Townes
Ariz. Ecology: Occurs in moist deciduous foresjts of mountains in central
Ariz.
hclinua velutinus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
155. ♂, ♀.

Genus GLABRIDORSUM Townes

Glabridorsum Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 174.

Type-species: Gonibrus stokesii Cameron. Monotypic and orig. desig.

The eleven species (ten undescribed) known to Townes (1970) occur between Japan and Aus-
tralia.

Glabridorsum stokesii (Cameron)
Australia. Introduced in N. J. and Va. in 1932 and in Idaho (date unknown
to me) apparently without becoming established. Host: Grapliolitha molesta (Bsk.),
Laspeyresia ponionella (L.). The hosts listed were the target species for introductions in
North America.
Ga)nbnis Stoke>tii Cameron, 1912. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Proc. 37 (1): 180. ♀.

Biology: Allen, Holloway, and Haeussler, 1940. U. S. Dept. Agr., Cir. 561: 50-51.

Genus CHROMOCRYPTUS Ashmead

Clironiocryptus Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 41.

Type-species: Chrotnocryptus albopicfus Ashmead. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Mesoatetiiniorpha Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 44: 566.

Type-species: Cryptus )iebraskensis Ashmead. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Neocryptopteryx Blanchard, 1947. Mus. Hist. Nat. Montevideo, Commun. Zool. 2 (no. 42): 1.

Type-species: Neocryptopteryx orie)italiN Blanchard. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Nothischnus Porter, 1967. Studia Ent. 10: 396.

Type-species: Nothisclinus riverai Porter. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Periplasma Porter, 1967. Studia Ent. 10: 404.

Type-species: Periplasma tanaum Porter. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Townes (1970) said his reasons for regarding Chromocryptus as distinct from Trachysphyrus
are not compelling. Because Townes and Townes (1962) had treated Chroiuocryptus as distinct
from Trachysphyrus in their revision of the Nearctic Cryptini, it seems logical to do likewise
here, thereby restricting the application of the name Trachysphyrus to Neotropic species. E.\-
cept for four species which occur in the Nearctic region, Chromocryptus is also Neotropic; the
South American species are numerous.

Revision: Porter, 1967. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 10: 1-168, in part (Neotropic spp., treated as
part of genus Trachysphyrus).

Ta.xonomy: Townes, 1970. Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 12: 179-181.

Chromocryptus mesorufus Cushman
revised status. Fla.; Mexico. In the U. S. Natl. Mus. collection there is a
female collected in a blacklight trap at Miami, Fla. In their tribal revision, Townes and
Townes (1962) treated niesorufus as a subspecies of planosae (Fitch).
Chromocryptus mesorufus Cushman, 1930. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 76 (25): 2. ♀.

Chromocryptus planosae (Fitch)
Mass., Conn., N. Y., Pa., Ohio, Mich., Ind., 111., Nebr. Host: Epicnaptera

americana (Harris), Tolype laricis (Fitch), T. relleda (Stoll), Halisidota tesselaris (J. E.
S.). Apparently, a number of adults may emerge from a single host.
Phygadeuon Planosae Fitch, 1856. N. Y. State Agr. Soc, Trans. 15: 501. ♀.
Cryptus nebraskensis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 412. ♀.
Chromocryptus albopictus Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 41. ♀.




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Agrothereutes (Itanioplex) cressoni Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.
Survey Bui. 22: 332. ♀.

Taxonomy: Porter, 1974. Fla. Ent. 57: 335.

Chromocryptus vandykei Townes
n. status. Calif.

Chroniocyrpfiin plationae vandykei Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 258. ♀.

Chromocryptus weemsi (Porter)
n. comb. Fla.

Trachy.spliyriifi weewsi Porter, 1974. Fla. Ent. 57: 331. ♂, ♀.

Genus JOPPIDIUM Cresson

Joppidiuni Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 160.

Type-species: Joppidiinn ntbriceps Cresson. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Joppidiiun Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 69. Preocc. by Cresson, 1872.

Type-species: Joppidiiini riificepN Walsh. Monotypic.
Joppoceras Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 39, 40.

Type-species: "Cryptua" duhiositni Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig. The
type-species designation is an error ior Joppidiuni dtibiosHm Cresson.
Opixoxestus Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 40.

Type-species: Opiaoxestun fernigineus Ashmead. Monotypic and orig. desig. The
type-species is regarded as a synonym of J. caentleipenne Cameron.
hocryptufi Brethes, 1927. Ent. Mitt. 16: 308.

Type-species: Isocryptua azureus Brethes. Monotypic. The type-species is regarded
as a synonym of J. nioerens nioerens (Perty).

This Nearctic and Neotropic genus is of moderate size.

Joppidium apicale Cresson
Pa. s. to Ga., w. to Kans. and Tex.

Joppidiuni apicale Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 160. ♀.
Joppidiuni ruficeps Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 70. cJ, 9.

Joppidium arizonicum Townes
Ariz.

Joppidiuni arizonicum Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3):312. ♂.

Joppidium brochum
***authority mismatch
brochum Townes. Okla., Tex.; Mexico.

Joppidiuni brochum brochum Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 3): 309. 6,2.

Joppidium brochum
***authority mismatch
fattigi Townes. Ky., N. C, Ga.

Joppidiuni brochum fattigi Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 3): 309. ♂, ♀.

Joppidium densum Townes
Ariz.; Mexico.

Joppidiuni densum Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 312. ♂, ♀.

Joppidium discolor Townes
Ariz.

Joppidiuni discolor Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 313. ♂.

Joppidium dubiosum Cresson
Va., S. C, Ga., Ala.; Mexico.

Joppidiuni dubiosum Cresson, 1873. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 25: 138. ♂, ♀.
Opisosextiis (!) ruficeps Szepligeti, 1916. Mus. Natl. Hungarici, Ann. 14: 240. ♂. Preocc. in
Joppidiuni by Walsh, 1873.

Joppidium fuscipenne
***authority mismatch
(Brulle). Ariz.; Mexico.

Cryptusfuscipennis Brulle, 1846. //( Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 189. ♀.
Joppidiuni donabilis Cresson, 1873. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 25: 139. ♂, ♀.
Joppidiuni yucatanense Cameron, 1885. Biol. Cent.-Amer., Hym., v. 1, p. 211. ♀.

Joppidium rubriceps Cresson
N. J. s. to Ga., w. to Mo. and Tex.

Joppidiuni rubriceps Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 160. ♂, ♀.

Genus CAENOCRYPTUS Thomson

Caenocryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc Ent. 5: 494.




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Type-species: Cryptus rufirentrifs Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Hobrocryptoides Uchida, 1952. Insecta Matsumurana 18: 19.

Type-species: Habrocryptoides shikokuenais Uchida. Orig. desig.
Pseudischnus Walkley, 1954. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 44: 219.

Type-species: Ischnus oregotiensif; Cushman. Monotypic and orig. desig.

The members of this moderate-sized Holarctic genus apparently parasitize sawflies and
cocoon spinning Lepidoptera.
Ta.xonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 189 (generic syn.).

Caenocryptus erasus (Townes)
Alta.

Habrocryptoides erasus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3): 175. ♀.

Caenocryptus inflexus (Townes)
Calif.

Habrocrtipfoide.H inflexus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3): 177. ♀.

Caenocryptus lumbarius Townes
Calif.

Habrocryptoides lumbarius Townes, 1962 In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 3): 174. ♀.

Caenocryptus luctuosus
***authority mismatch
luctuosus (Cresson). Que. w. to s. Yukon, s. to N. Y., S. Dak., Colo., CaHf. Host:

Trichiosowa triangulum Kirby, Zaraea inflata Nort., sawfly on Tsuga hcterophyla. C.

Caenocryptus luctuosus
***authority mismatch
atrifetiiur (Townes) occurs in Japan and C. luctuosus holalpinus (Heinrich)
occurs in Europe. In the tribal revision of Townes and Townes (1962), the latter was
treated as a synonym of Cryptus luctuosus subquadratus Thomson. A bizarre situation
developed when van Rossem (1969) treated holalpinus as an alpine subspecies of
Cryptus luctuosus distinct from luctuosus subquadratus, followed by Townes (1970)
treatment of subquadratus as a species not congeneric with luctuosus holalpinus;
Townes (1970) placed subquadratus in Itanioplex (=Cryptus), while placing luctuosus
and its subspecies in Caenocri/ptus. Both van Rossem (1969) and Townes (1970) had
studied the lectotype of Cryptus subquadratus.

Cryptus luctuosus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 290. ♀.

Agrothereutes (Itaiuoplex) ebenus Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.
Survey Bui. 22: 333. ♀.

Cryptiis caligatus Cushman, 1927. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 72 (13): 2. ♀.

Taxonomy: van Rossem, 1969. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 112: 364-366. —Townes, 1970. Amer. Ent.
Inst., Mem. 12: 190.

Caenocryptus nitens (Townes)
Calif.

Habrocryptoides nitens Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3): 176. ♀.

Caenocryptus oregonensis (Cushman)
S. Dak., Wyo., Idaho, B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif. Host: Neodiprion
tsugae Midd.
Ischnus oregonensis Cushman, 1939. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 29: 392. ♂, ♀.
Habrocryptoides oregonensis coxalis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.
Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 167. 9. N. syn. Described from a single female.

Caenocryptus pictus Townes)
Ariz.

Habrocryptoides pictus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3): 173. ♂.

Caenocryptus rufifrons (Walsh)
R. I. s. to s. Fla., w. to Mich., Kans., and Tex.

Cryptus rufifrons Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 75. ♀.

Caenocryptus virgeus
***authority mismatch
ardalus (Townes). Colo., Ariz. Ecology: Occurs in relatively moist deciduous forests.
Habrocryptoides lurgeus ardalus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 172. ♂, ♀.

Caenocryptus virgeus
***authority mismatch
virgeus (Townes). Mass. s. to S. C, w. to Wis. Host: Harrisina americana (G.-M.),
Laspeyresia ponionella (L.)?
Habrocryptoides virgeus virgeus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 171. ♂, ♀.




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Genus LANUGO Townes

Lanugo Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 259.
Type-species: Cryptus retenfor Brulle. Orig. desig.

This small genus is Nearctic and Neotropic. The type-species has been reared from cocoons of
Megalopygidae.

Lanugo bicincta Townes
Kans.

Lanugo bicincta Townes, 1962. Ln Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
270. ♀.

Lanugo brunnipennis Townes
Southern B. C, Wash., Calif.

Lanugo Brunnipennia Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 275. ♂, ♀.

Lanugo cestus (Say)
Southern Indiana, Tenn.

Cryptus cestus Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 234. ♀.

Lanugo deserti
***authority mismatch
Townes. Utah, Ariz., Calif. Ecology: One specimen was apparently reared as a
secondary parasite of a sawfly on Pi)ius.
Lanugo deserti Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):

268. ♂, ♀.

cxcincta Townes. Northwestern Kans., Colo., N. Mex., Utah, Ariz.

Lanugo excincta Townes, 1962. I)i Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
272. ♂, ♀.

Lanugo ferrugata Townes
Tex.

Lanugo fernigata Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
263. ♂, ♀.

Lanugo flavipennis Townes
Ariz.

Lanugo flavipennis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 271. ♂, ♀.

Lanugo longurius Townes
Ariz.

Lanugo longurius Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):

269. ♀.

Lanugo picta Townes
Tex., Ariz.; Mexico.

Lamigo picta Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 266. ♂, ♀.

Lanugo polita Townes
Ariz.

Lanugo polita Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 271. ♀.

Lanugo retentor (Brulle)
Va. s. to Fla., w. to Ind. and Tex. Host: Lagoa pyxidifera (J. E. S.),
Megalopyge opercularis (J. E. S.).
Cryptus retentor Brulle, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 192. ♀.
Cryptus covmleiisis Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 159. ♀.
Cryptus nigripennis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 411. ♀.

Lanugo schlingeri Townes
Calif.

Lanugo schlingeri Townes, 1962. /*( Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3):
262. ♀.

Lanugo sororia (Cresson)
Tex., Ariz., Calif.; Mexico.

Cryptus sororius Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 159. ♂.

Genus BUATHRA Cameron

Buatlira Cameron, 1903. Ent. Soc. London, Trans. 51: 233.

Type-species: Buatlira rufiveitfris Cameron. Monotypic. *

Bathycrisis Cameron, 1905. Spolia Zeylanica (Ceylon Jour. Sci., Sect. B) 3: 96.

Type-species: Bathycrisis sfriaticollis Cameron. Monotypic.

This is a Holarctic and Oriental genus of small or moderate size. According to van Rossem
(1971) the separation between Buathra and Mcringopus is rather difficult and arbitrary; he be-
lieved that Buathra could be merged into Meringopus.




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Revision: van Rossem, 1971. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 114: 201-208 (European spp.).

Taxonomy: van Rossem, 1969. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 112: 167, 169 (fig. and key to distinguish from
Meringopus). — Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 192-193 (referred
additional spp. to genus). —Townes, 1971. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 17: 239 (syn. corrected).

Buathra crassifemur (Pratt)
Idaho, s. B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Cryptus craKnifoimr Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 582. ♂, ♀.

Buathra dorsicarinata (Pratt)
Alta. s. to Colo, and Ariz., w. to Alaska and Calif.

Cryptus dorsicari)iatus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 612. ♂, ♀.

Buathra laborator (Thunberg)
Greenland; Newfoundland (Labrador) w. to Alaska, s. to N. Y., Wis., S.

Dak., N. Mex., and Calif.; n. Eurasia. Host: Melanolopliia imitata (Wlk.). The description

of laborator given by van Rossem (1971) shows that Cryptus altonii Dalla Torre should

be suppressed as a synonym rather than being recognized as a subspecies of laborator

on the basis of the distinguishing characters used in the tribal revision of Townes and

Townes (1962).
Ichneumon laborator Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8: 273 (key); 9: 344. [male].
Cryptus fabricii Schiodte, 1857. In Rink, Gronland Geog. og Statis. Beskrevet, v. 2, pt. 3, p. 62. c^, 9.
Placed as a synonym by van Rossem (1971).
Cryptus proxi)Nus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 290. ♀. Preocc. by Fonscolombe, 1850. N. syn.
Cryptus fuli'ipes Magretti, 1884. Soc. Ent. Ital., Bol. 16: 99. ♂.
Cryptus Altonii Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 560. N. name for C. proxintus

Cresson.
Cryptus/ saclialinensis Matsumura, 1911. Tohoku Imp. Univ., Col. Agr., Jour. 4 (1): 95. ♀.
Cryptus tarsoleums var. takagii Uchida, 1930. Hokkaido Imp. Univ., Faculty Agr., Jour. 25: 306. ♂.
Tracliysphyrus laborator satoi Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 209. ♀. N. syn.
Described from a single specimen from Korea.

Taxonomy: Townes, Momoi, and Townes, 1965. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 5: 180-181 (syn.).

Buathra lochmaia (Townes)
Ariz. Ecology: Occurs in chaparral areas.

Tracliysphyrus lochiiiaius Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3):216. ♂, ♀.

Buathra perplexa (Cresson)
revised status. Idaho, w. Nev., s. B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif. Townes and
Townes (1962) treated perplexa as a subspecies of laborator. In one paragraph they
stated that "intergrades between [perplexa] ... and altonii [now a syn. of laborator] are
moderately common where the ranges of the two are adjacent or overlap." In a
subsequent paragraph they stated that perplexa "intergrades with the subspecies
altonii rather freely in western Idaho and near the crest of the Sierra Nevada." The
kinds of localities from which they record both taxa lead me to believe that the
specimens they regarded as intergrades actually were not.
Cryptus proxinius var.? perplexus Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30:
359. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1962. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 213-214.

Buathra strigosa (Pratt)
Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Cryptus strigosHS Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 583. ♂, ♀.

Genus CRYPTUS Fabricius

Cryptus Fabricius, 1804. Systema Piezatorum, p. 70. Preocc. by Jurine, 1801 and Panzer,
1804.

Type-species: Cryptus viciuatorius Fabricius. Desig. by Curtis, 1837.

Eucryptus Haldeman, 1842. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 1: 191. N. name for Cryptus
"(Hal.)," presumably Haliday. Haliday (1839) used the name Cryptus for Ichneumonidae
in a paper describing insects whose names had been published as nomina nnda by
Curtis (1837), who used the abbreviation "Hal." for Haliday and suppressed "Cryptus B.
E." as a synonym of the sawfly name Scizocerus and used Cryptus "F[abricius]" for
Ichneumonidae.




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Itamoplex Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 188.

Type-species: Cnjptns aniericanua Cresson. Desig. by Viereck, 1914 from three
species included by Ashmead, 1900.
• Plesiocryptiis Cameron, 1903. Ztschr. f. System. Hym. Dipt. 3: 299.
Type-species: Plesiocryptus carinifrous Cameron. Monotypic.

This large genus is Holarctic, Oriental, and Ethiopian. The controversy regarding the name
Cryptiis remains unsettled. Even if Opinion 135 (see Hemming, 1939) were valid, Crypfus
Fabricius (1804) would still be preoccupied by Cryptus Panzer (1804) (a subjective synonym of
Arge), and Eucryptus Haldeman may be a valid replacement name for Cryptus Fabricius.
Henniiing's (1945) conclusion that "suspension [of the Rules] would not be essential in the case
of Cryptus Panzer [1804]" is incorrect because Panzer's fascicle 88 (1804) of Fauna Insectorum
Germanicae is shown to predate Fabricius's Systema Piezatorum by virtue of the fact that the
former is cited on page 35 of the latter. Cryptus is used here because I feel that it is virtually
certain that the majority of specialists presently studying Ichneumonidae would choose to sup-
press Cryptus Jurine (1801), Cryptus Panzer (1804), and Eucryptus Haldeman (if the latter is
valid).

Revision: Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 562-661. —van Rossem, 1969. Tijdschr. v. Ent.
112: 229-375 (western Palearctic spp.).

Taxonomy: Jurine, 1801. In Panzer, Intell. Blatt. Litt.-Ztg. Erlangen 21: 163. —Panzer, 1804.
Fauna Ins. German, fasc. 88, pi. 17. —Curtis, 1837. Guide Arrang. Brit. Ins., ed. 2, columns
81-115. -Haliday, 1839 (1838). Ann. Nat. Hist. 2: 114-116. -Hemming, 1939; 1945.
Internatl. Comn. Zool. Nomencl., Opinions and Declarations Rendered 2: 7-12 (Opinion
135); 2: 256 (Opinion 157).

Cryptus albitarsis (Cresson)
Newfoundland (Labrador) w. to w. N. W. T., s. to S. C, Ala., Tex., and

Calif.; Mexico, Costa Rica. Host: Heliothis zeae (Bod.), Macronoctua onusta Grt.,

Grapliolitha ))iolesfa (Bsk.), Psorosina hanimondi (Riley), Tetralopha robustella Zell.

According to van Rossem (1969), albitarsis may be conspecific with the Eurasian C.

dia)iae Gravenhorst.
Ichneumon vinctus Say, 1829. Contrib. Maclurian Lyceum to Arts and Sci. 1: 70. ♂.

Preocc. by Schrank, 1781.
Ischnus albitarsis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3 (June): 194. ♂.
Cryptus aniericanus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3 (Sept.): 297. ♀.
Cryptus nigricalceatus Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 77. ♂.
Cryptus nigricornis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6 (6): 177 (key); 6 (7): 201. ♂. Preocc.

by Brulle, 1846.
Nematopodius coxatus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 269. ♂.
Hoplismenus u/^por Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 3. "♂"=♀.
Cryptus bicolor Smith, 1879. Descr. New Spp. Hym. in Coll. Brit. Mus., p. 231. ♀. Preocc.

by Lucas, 1846. N. syn.
Cryptus monticola Cameron, 1885. Biol. Cent. -Amer., Hym., v. 1, p. 203. ♀. Preocc. by

Wesmael, 1840. N. syn.
Cryptus argentifrons Cameron, 1885. Biol. Cent.-Amer., Hym., v. 1, p. 204. ♂. N. syn.
Cryptus coloradensis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 408. ♀. N. syn.
Spilocryptus canarsiae Ashmead, 1898. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 4: 124. ♂.
Cryptus Eggeri Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 569. N. name for bicolor Smith. N.

syn.
Cryptus perneri Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 585. N. name for nigricornis

Provancher.
Cryptus coHsobrinus Viereck, 1906. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 32: 225. ♀. N. syn.
Crypfus inoniatus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 612. ♀. N. syn.

Taxonomy: van Rossem, 1969. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 112: 333, 336.

Cryptus arcticus Schiodte
Greenland, n.e. N. W. T., Alaska, B. C, Calif.; Europe?

Cryptus arcticus Schiodte, 1857. In Rink, Gronland Geog. og Statis. Beskrevet, v. 2, pt. 3,

p. 57. ♂, ♀.
Cryptus lutescens Tschek, 1872. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien, Verh. 22: 234. ♀.




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Taxonomy: Mason, 1968. Canad. Ent. 100: 17, 18 (fig. and differences from leeclti Mason),
—van Rossem, 1969. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 112: 368 (syn.).

Cryptus aridus Pratt
Colo., B. C, Idaho, Oreg., Calif.

Cryptiis andiis Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 618. ♀.

Cryptus crassulus Pratt
Que., Mich.

Crypt us crassulus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 586. ♀.

Cryptus krombeini (Townes)
W. Va.

Trachysphyrus krowbeini Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3):243. ♀.

Cryptus latigenalis Pratt
Mont., Colo. Host: Loxostege sfidicalis (L.).

Cryptus latigenalis Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 611. ♀.

Biology: Ullyett, 1949; 1950. Canad. Ent. 81: 285-299; 82: 1-11 (misidentified as inoniatus
Pratt).
leech! Mason. Northeastern N. W. T.; n. Greenland.

Cryptus leechi Mason, 1968. Canad. Ent. 100: 17. ♂, ♀.

Cryptus mentigus Townes
Colo., N. Me.x., Ariz., Alaska, Yukon, Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Trachysphyrus mentigus mentigus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 234. d, 9. Described from eight specimens from two localities in
Arizona.
Trachysphyrus )nentigus rufator Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.,

Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 235. 9. Described from one specimen from California. N. syn.
Trachysphyrus mentigus rhodomerus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.
Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 235. d, 9. Because this form had by far the largest range
(including Ariz, and Calif.) of the three forms of mentigus described by Townes it seems
unusual that he did not make it the nominate form. N. syn.

Cryptus minimus Pratt
Sask. s. to N. Mex., w. to Alta., e. Wash., e. Oreg., and Nev.

Cryptus minimus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 619. ♀.
moschator iroquois (Viereck). Que. s. to N. J., w. to Mich, and Ohio. C. moschator moschator
(Fabricius) is European.
Agrothereufes (Itamoplex) iroquois Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.
Survey Bui. 22: 333. ♀.

Cryptus mutatus Pratt
revised status. Western Minn., e. S. Dak., Colo., s. Alta., Idaho, s. B. C, Wash.,
Oreg., Calif. In their tribal revison, Townes and Townes (1962) treated mutatjis as one
of three sympatric western subspecies of albitarsis (Cresson).
Cryptus curticaudus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 627. ♀.
Cryptus mutatus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 634. ♂, ♀.

Cryptus ocellaris Pratt
revised status. Western Nev., Oreg., Calif. In the tribal revision of Townes and
Townes (1962), ocellaris was treated as a sympatric subspecies of aridus Pratt. Because
these authors said that they had not seen any intergrades between the two taxa,

Cryptus ocellaris
***authority mismatch
is here treated as a distinct species instead of being suppressed as a synonym
of aridus.
Cryptus ocellaris Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 617. ♀.

Cryptus persimilis Cresson
N. S. w. to s. B. C, s. to S. C, Tex., s. Ariz., and s. Calif.
Cryptus persimilis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 298. ♀.
Cryptus pidicoxus Walsh, 1873. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 3: 82. ♂.
Cryptus citrinimaculatus Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19: 320. ♂.
Cryptus associatus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 633. ♀.

Cryptus recurvatus Pratt
Tex., Ariz., Calif.; Mexico.

Cryptus recurvatus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 616. ♀.

Cryptus rufovinctus Pratt
revised status. Idaho, Utah, Nev., s. B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif. Host:
Synanthedon bibionipennis (Bdv.), S. exitiosa (Say), Etiella zinckenella (Treit.),
Autoplusia egena (Gn.), Trichoplusia ni (Hbn.). In the tribal revision of Townes and
Townes (1962), rufovinctus was treated as one of three sympatric western subspecies of

Cryptus albitarsis (Cresson)

Cryptus rufovinctus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 620.



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Cryptus rugifrons (Townes)
Ariz., Calif.

TrachyspliyruK nigifrouH Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3):255. ♂, ♀.

Cryptus ruralis Pratt
Southern Man., s. Sask, n. Colo., s. Alta., Ida., s. B. C.

Cryptun niralix Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 637. ♀.

Cryptus scapulatus (Townes)
Calif.

Tracliyaphynts scapulatus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 3): 241. ♂, ♀.

Cryptus sodalis
***authority mismatch
rugosiscutum Pratt. Southern Oreg., Calif.

Cryptus rugosiscutu))! Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 572. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 194.

Cryptus sodalis
***authority mismatch
sodalis Cameron. Tex., Colo., N. Mex., Ariz.; Mexico.

Cryptus sodalis Cameron, 1885. Biol. Cent.-Amer., Hym., v. 1, p. 204. [female].
Cryptus cmssisculptus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 573. c^, 9. N. syn.
Cryptus flagellatus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 574. ♀. N. syn.
Trachysphyrus rugosiscutum binarius Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.
Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 226. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1966. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 8: 70, 73. —Townes, 1970
(1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 194.

Genus XYLOPHRURUS Foerster

Xylophrunts Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 169.

Type-species: Echthnts laticifer Gravenhorst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Schmiedeknecht, 1888. The name of the type-species has been
incorrectly suppressed as a synonym of Ichneumon rf/spa r Thunberg; the latter is
preocc. by Gmelin, 1790.
Nyxeophilus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 187.

Type-species: Cryptus biniaculafus Gravenhorst. Included and desig. by Thomson
(1885). In placing species in Nyxeophilus, Thomson (1885) said "Nyxeophilus
mihi," and Thomson (1897) said "Nyxeophilus Thomson," which led Perkins (1962)
to treat Nyxeophilus Thomson as a proposal of a new genus, and this seems
inconsistent with his p. 387 discussion of Thomson's use of the Foerster names.
The type-species is regarded as a synonym of X. augustus (Dalman).
Macrocryptus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 486.

Type-species: Echthnis lancifer Gravenhorst. Monotypic.
Xylophruridea Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 42: 646.

Type-species: Xylophruridea agrili Viereck. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Revision: Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 536-540 (as Cryptoideus).

Taxonomy: Thomson, 1885. Soc. Ent. France, Ann. (6) 5: 18. —Thomson, 1897. Opusc. Ent. 11:
2363. -Perkins, 1962. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent, Bui. 11: 387, 439.

Xylophrurus agrili (Viereck)
Ont., W. Va., Mich., Kans. Host: Agrilus horni Kerr., A. vittaticollis Rand.

Both of these hosts are root borers and pupate a short distance above the ground in the
stems of their hosts.
Xylophruridea agrili Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 42: 646. ♀.

Biology: Brooks, 1914. Jour. Agr. Res. 3: 184. —Brooks, 1923. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent,
Monthly Let 108: 3. -Carlson, 1969. Amer. Ent Inst, Contrib. 4 (3): 39.

Xylophrurus bicolor
***authority mismatch
bicolor (Cushman). Colo., Alta., Idaho, Alaska, B. C. Host: Oberea sp. on Salix,

Saperda )uoesta LeC. The type locality is Fort Collins, Colo. (Holotype collected in May,
[1896?] by C. F. Baker).
Cryptoideus bicolor Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 537. ♀.

Xylophrurus bicolor
***authority mismatch
maurus Townes. Que., Ont., Mich., Man. Host: Agrilus horni Kerr.

Xylophrurus bicolor maiirus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt 3): 483. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Carlson, 1969. Amer. Ent Inst., Contrib. 4 (3): 39.




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Xylophrurus fasciatus
***authority mismatch
fasciatus (Ashmead). Que., N. Y., Pa., Md., Mich., Tex. Host: Agrilus conjlicola
Fisher, A. Iiorni Kerr.
BrachycentrmfasciatuH Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 413. ♀.
Cryptoideus rufus Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 538. ♀.

Xylophrurus fasciatus
***authority mismatch
hesperus Townes. Colo., Ariz., Calif. Host: Agrilus angel iciis Horn.

XylophriiriiH fasciafuK hexpeniN Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 481. ♂, ♀.

Xylophrurus nubilipennis
***authority mismatch
abdominalis Townes. Sask., Utah, B. C.

Xylophnints nubilipennis abdominalis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.
Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 484. ♂, ♀.

Xylophrurus nubilipennis
***authority mismatch
luctuosus (Provancher). Que., N. H., Conn., N. Y., W. Va., Fla., Ont, Mich. Host:
Agrilus chatnplaini Frost, Oberea praelonga Casey, Saperda Candida F., borer in
Populns.
Mesochorus luctuosus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 299. ♀.
Cryptoideus anthracinus Cushman, 1924. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 64 (4): 7. ♀.

Xylophrurus nubilipennis
***authority mismatch
nubilipennis (Cresson). Colo. Host: Dicerca divaricata (Say).

Cryptus nubilipennis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 291. ♀.

Xylophrurus sitkensis (Ashmead)
Alaska, B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Cryptoideus sitkensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 193. ♀.
Xylophnints atroruber Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 290. 9. Validated as a
"new name" for Cryptoideus purpuri pennis "Ashmead" (1900) and "Cushman" (1919),
misidentifications of Cryptus purpuripennis Cresson (see discussion under Cryptoideus
Ashmead).

Taxonomy: Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 42 (validation of name Cryptoideus
and misidentification of its type-species). —Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 539
(redescription of specimen misidentified as purpuripennis [Cresson] by Ashmead under
the assumption that Ashmead's identification had been correct).

Genus REPTATRIX Townes

Reptatrix Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 276.
Type-species: Cryptus crassipes Pratt. Monotypic and orig. desig.

A single species is known.

Reptatrix crassipes (Pratt)
Wyo., Idaho, Utah, Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Cryptus crassipes Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 585. ♀.

Genus MERINGOPUS Foerster

Meringopus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 186.

Type-species: Ci-yptus recreator Fabricius. By subsequent monotypy from inclusion
by Tschek, 1870. The type-species is regarded as a synonym of M. titillator
(Linnaeus).
Goniocryptus Thomson, 1973. Opusc. Ent. 5: 490.

Type-species: Ichneumon titillator Linnaeus. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.

This Holarctic genus is of moderate size.

Revision: van Rossem, 1969. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 112: 165-199 (European spp. plus some Asian

ones).
Taxonomy: Townes, 1970.(1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 201-202 (list of Nearctic spp.).

Meringopus asymmetricus
***authority mismatch
asymmetricus (Pratt). Sask. w. to B. C, s. to Colo., n. Ariz., and n. Calif.

Cryptus asymmetricus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 587. ♂, ♀.

Meringopus asymmetricus
***authority mismatch
mirabilis (Pratt). Southern Calif.

Cryptus mirabilis Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 589. ♀.
calescens robustus (Cresson). Northern Man. w. to Alaska, s. to n. N. Mex., Utah, and n. Calif.
Ecology: Occurs near timberline in grassy areas with scattered conifers. M. c. calescens




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(Gravenhorst) occurs in Europe and part of Asia and M. c. alaicus (Townes) occurs in

Tadzhik S. S. R. and Kirgiz S. S. R., U. S. S. R.
Cryptus robust us Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Pliila., Proc. 3: 289. ♀.
Cryptus crassicornis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 292. ♂.

Meringopus dirus (Cresson)
Southern B. C. s. to Calif., e. to Idaho., Colo., and Ariz.

Cryptus (lirus Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 359. ♀.

Meringopus fasciatus (Townes)
Ariz.

TrachysphyniH fasciatuN Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3): 188. ♂, ♀.

Meringopus genatus (Pratt)
Southern Sask. and s. Alta., s. to N. Mex., Ariz., Nev. and n. Calif. Host:
Malacosoma californicu)ii fragile (Stretch), M. disstria Hbn.
Cryptus genatus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 570. ♂, ♀.
nigerrimus murorum (Tschek). Northern Man., Calif.; n. Europe. M. nigerr))tius nigerriyuus
(Fonscolombe) is known from southern Europe and central Asia.
Cryptus wurorum Tschek, 1872. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien, Verh. 22: 234. ♂, ♀.
Cryptus serratus Thomson, 1873. Opusc. Ent. 5: 478. ♀.

Taxonomy: van Rossem, 1969. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 112: 190, 191-193.

Meringopus pacificus (Cresson)
Southern B. C, Oreg., Calif.

Cryptus pacificus Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 361. 6. ■

Meringopus punicus (Cresson)
revised status. Southern B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif. The discussion in the
tribal revision of Townes and Townes (1962) indicates that there was not sufficient
evidence to treat punicus as a subspecies or synonym of relativus.
Cryptus punicus Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 364. ♀.
Cryptus californicus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 411. ♀.

Meringopus relativus (Cresson)
Southern Alta. s. to N. Mex., w. to s. B. C. and Calif. Host: Sesia tibialis
(Harris). This taxon was divided into two sympatric subspecies in the tribal revision of
Townes and Townes (1962); intermediate specimens which I have seen among the
material they studied contradict their discussion and indicate the need for placing
Cryptus nitschei Dalla Torre as a synonym of relativus rather than giving it species

gt at,US

Cryptus relatirus Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 359. ♀.

Cryptus pictifrons Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 360. ♂.

Cryptus violaceipennis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 408. ♂, ♀. Preocc.
by Brulle, 1846. N. syn.

Cryptus leucopus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 409. 6. Apparently
preocc. in Cryptus by Ichneumon leucopus Gmelin, 1790. /. leucopus Gmelin was placed
as a synonym of Cryptus tarsoleucus (Schrank) by Gravenhorst (1829), and Townes
(1970) placed tarsoleucus in Itanioplex (=Cryptus). Neither tarsoleucus nor /. leucopus
Gmelin was mentioned by van Rossem (1969) in his revision of the European species of
Cryptus. N. syn.

Cryptus Nit.fcliei Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 581. N. name for C. violaceipennis
Ashmead. N. syn.

Cryptus eleucopus Walkley, 1958. In Krombein et al, U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2, sup.
1, p. 46. N. name for C. leucopus Ashmead. N. syn.

Taxonomy: Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 449.— Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent.
Inst, Mem. 12: 192.

Meringopus serraticaudus (Pratt)
Colo., Idaho, Utah., s. B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Cryptus serraticaudus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 594. ♂, ♀.

Meringopus symmetricus
***authority mismatch
bilobatus (Pratt). Northern CaUf.

Cryptus bilobatus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 592. ♀.

Meringopus symmetricus
***authority mismatch
symmetricus (Pratt). Cole, s. Alta., Utah, s. B. C.

Cryptus symmetricus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 590. ♂, ♀.

Meringopus tejonensis (Cresson)
Alta. s. to N. Mex., w. to Alaska and Calif. In the tribal revision of
Townes and Townes (1962) two subspecies with broadly overlapping ranges were
recognized.
Cryptus tejonensis Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 360. ♀.




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Cry plus nifopedibus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 597. 9. Name invalid; dative

grammatical case.
Cryptu.s niiniicKs Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 607. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Cryptus temporalis Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 609. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
Cryptu.s rugulosHs Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 615. ♀. N. syn.

Meringopus vancouverensis (Harrington)
Southwestern B. C, w. Oreg., w. Calif. Host: Malacosovia sp.
Cryptus vancouverensis Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 211. ♀.

Genus COMPSOCRYPTUS Ashmead

Cryptoideus Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 42.

Type-species: Cryptus purpuripennis Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig. The
type-species was misidentified by Ashmead; the specimen Ashmead misidentified
as purpuripennis is the holotype of Xylophrurus atroruber Townes (=X.
sitkensis [Ashmead]).
Compsocryptus Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 43.

Type-species: Cryptus calipterus Say. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Callicryptus Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 43.

Type-species: Cryptus fasciatus (!) Brulle. Monotypic and orig. desig. Dalla Torre
(1902) regarded the type-species citation as a typographical error for C.
fusco-fasciatus Brulle, while Viereck (1914) regarded it as a lapsus for C.

Compsocryptus fasciipennis
***authority mismatch
Brulle. It seems that Viereck is probably correct, but both
fuscofasciatus and fasciipennis are presently placed in Coiupsocryptus.
Stictocryptus Cameron, 1908. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 34: 243. Preocc. by Cameron, 1907.
Type-species: Cryptus fasciipennis Brulle. Monotypic and orig. desig. Cameron
made the type-species designation as Cryptus "fasciatipennis" Brulle, which is
certainly a lapsus for fasciipoinis.
Sopliocryptus Mallo, 1961. Idia 165: 17. Nomen nudum.

This moderate sized genus is Nearctic and Neotropic.

Taxonomy: Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 556. —Viereck, 1914. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui.
83: 25.

Compsocryptus apicalis Townes
Northwestern B. C. s. to Calif., e. to Idaho, Colo., and N. Me.x.

Compsocryptus apicalis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3):291. ♂, ♀.
aridus Townes. Wyo., Colo., Idaho, Utah, Ariz., Nev., Calif.

Couipsocryptus aridus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Nalt. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3):289. ♂, ♀.

Compsocryptus buccatus (Cresson)
Tex.; Mexico.

Cryptus buccatus Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 159. ♂, ♀.

Compsocryptus calipterus (Say)
Northwestern Okla., Tex., N. Mex., Ariz., Calif.; Mexico. In their tribal

revision, Townes and Townes (1962) treated the majority of specimens from Calif, as
subspecifically distinct, but because the differences seem to be more or less clinal the
subspecies are not recognized here.
Cryptus calipterus Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 234. ♀.
Cryptus fulvus Taschenberg, 1876. Ztschr. f. Gesam. Naturw. 48: 66. ♂.
Ichnemnon viunerosus Cameron, 1885. Biol. Cent.-Amer., Hym., v. 1, p. 159. ♂.
Ca)np.90cryptus{]) brevicor)iis Cameron, 1905. Invertebrata Pacifica 1: 127. ♀.
Cryptus {MansaH political ypterus Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19: 293. ♂.

Compsocryptus crotchii (Cresson)
Calif.

Cryptus crotchii Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 362. ♂, ♀.

Compsocryptus fasciipennis (Brulle)
Southern Fla.; Cuba.

Cryptus fa.sciipennis Brulle, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 191.

Compsocryptus fletcheri (Provancher)
Western Idaho, n. Utah, s. B. C, Oreg., n. Calif. C.fletclieri may not be
distinct from C. fnrbatus (Cresson) (see Townes and Townes [1962]).

Cryptus Fletcheri Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 361. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1962. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 298.




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Compsocryptus pallens Townes
Idaho, Utah, Oreg., Calif.

Compsocryptiin pallens Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3): 293. cJ, 9.

Compsocryptus purpuripennis (Cresson)
Western Idaho, n. Utah, s. B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Cryptm purpuripemm Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 364. ♀.

Compsocryptus resolutus (Cresson)
Southern Alta. s. to Colo., w. to Wash, and Calif.

Cryptua resoliitus Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 363. ♂.
Cryptus Edivardii Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 363. ♀.
CompHOcryptuH resolutus subfasciatus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.
Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 303. cJ, 9. Overlapped and intergraded with more than half of the
Calif, population Townes and Townes treated as the nominate subspecies. N. syn.

Compsocryptus texensis Townes
Kans., Okla., Tex.; Mexico.

Cohipsocryptus texensis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus., Bnl. 216
(pt. 3):283. ♂, ♀.

Compsocryptus tricinctus Townes
Ga.?, Calif. Townes studied a specimen labeled Dewitt, Ga. and Thought
that those data may be erroneous.
Conipsocnjptus tricinctus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3):295. ♂, ♀.

Compsocryptus turbatus (Cresson)
Western Idaho, n. Utah, Oreg., Calif.

Cryptus turbatus Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 363. ♀.

Compsocryptus unicolor Townes
Central Calif.

Conipsocnjptus unicolor Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3): 297. ♂, ♀.

Subtribe HEMIGASTRINA

It is may belief that the Old World genera Hemigaster, Litochila, and Mansa are unrelated to
the genera here placed in the Aptesini and are most likely related to some of the eleven genera
placed in the subtribe Baryceratina by Townes (1970) (compare Townes and Townes [1962]).
Townes (1970) said it is almost certain that the genera he has grouped in the Baryceratina are
not all related but are associated for convenience partly on convergent characters resulting from
the habit of attacking cocoons of Limacodidae. Only three of the genera of Hemigastrina occur
in the New World, and only two of these have North American species.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1962. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 12 (list of genera
placed in Baryceratina). -Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 120-121,
205-215.

Genus BARYCEROS Gravenhorst

Baryceros Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 777.

Type-species: Baryceros guttatiis Gravenhorst. Monotypic.
Christolia Brulle, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 246.

Type-species: Christolia punctata Brulle. Monotypic.
Crypturopsis Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 45.

Type-species: Crypturus texanus Ashmead. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Neochristolia Blanchard, 1936. Rev. Argentina de Ent. 1: 40.

Type-species: Neochristolia eucleidis Blanchard. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Most of the species of this large genus are Neotropic.

Baryceros audax (Cresson)
Que. s. to Ala., w. to Wis. and Kans. In the tribal revision of Townes and
Townes (1962) part of the specimens from the northern end of the distribution were
distinguished as a separate subspecies.

Mesostenns audax Cresson, 1878. Canad. Ent. 10: 207. ♀.

Mesostenus exoptus Cresson, 1878. Canad. Ent. 10: 208. ♀.

Mesostenus Saundersi Cresson, 1878. Canad. Ent. 10: 208. ♀. N. syn.

Mesostenus artnatus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 76. 9. N.
syn.

Mesostenus saundersii Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 546. Emend.




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Baryceros candidus (Cresson)
Mass. s. to Fla., w. to Mich, and Kans.

Mesostenun candidufi Cresson, 1878. Canad. Ent. 10: 206. ♂.

Cryptunm albomaculatuH Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 414. ♂.

Crypftiropsis ahdominaliN Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 28. ♀. Preocc. in

Baryceros by Cresson, 1873.
Cliristolia diti)ietono» Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 271. N. name for
Crypfuropsis abdo))ii)ialis Cushman.

Baryceros fortis (Cresson)
Pa., Md., W. Va., n. Ga., s. Mich., Ohio, Ky., e. Kans., e. Okla.
MefiOHtenitsfortis Cresson, 1878. Canad. Ent. 10: 206. ♀.

Baryceros halli Townes
Ariz.

Baryceros halli Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 30. ♂.

Baryceros texanus (Ashmead)
Md. s. to Fla., w. to n. Mich, and e. Tex.; n.w. Mexico. Host: Alarodia
slosnoniae Pack.
Crypturus texanus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 413. ♂.
Crypturus Dyari Ashmead, 1897. Canad. Ent. 29: 113. ♂, ♀.

Genus WHYMPERIA Cameron

Wliymperia Cameron, 1903. Entomologist 36: 122.

Type-species: Whyniperia cari)iifro)is Cameron. Monotypic.
Profocryptns Schmiedeknecht, 1904. Opusc. Ichn., v. 2, p. 414.

Type-species: Protocryptus grandis Schmiedeknecht. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Zawan.sa Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 42: 647.

Type-species: Cryptus aztecus Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Eleven species and subspecies are known, ten of them Neotropic.

Whymperia tricolor Townes
Southern Ariz.

Whi/mperia tricolor Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui 216 (pt. 3):
22. ♀.

Subtribe MESOSTENINA

Genus CRYPTANURA Brulle

Cryptanura Brulle, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 242.

Type-species: Cryptanura nigripes Brulle. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Mesosteniis subg. Polyaenus Cresson, 1873. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 25: 149.

Type-species: [Mesostenus] Polyaenus ectypus Cresson. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Po/i/oe«/f/£'o Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 46: 381.

Type-species: Polyaenidea pretiosa Viereck. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Except for the three species known to occur in North America, this very large genus is
Neotropic.

Revision: Cushman, 1945. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 96: 139-176.

Cryptanura banchiformis (Megerle)
Mass. s. to Fla., w. to Mich., Kans., and Tex. In their tribal revision,

Townes and Townes (1962) say that "the sting of this species is moderately severe and

of long duration; one sting received by the senior author [while collecting] was still

painful on the night of the third day."
Ichneumon Banchifonnis Megerle, 1802. App. ad Cat. Ins., Quae Mense Novembris 1802

Vienne Austriae Auctionis Lege Vendita Fuere, p. 16. [male].
Mesostenus spinarius Brulle, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 227. ♀.
Mesostenus albopidus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 312. ♂. Preocc. by Smith,

1858.
Mesostenus Delawarensis Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 540. N. name for M.

albopictus Cresson.

Cryptanura compacta (Cresson)
Southern Tex.; Mexico, Honduras.

Mesostenus (Mesostenus) conipactus Cresson, 1873. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 25: 153. ♀.
Cryptanura planiscutellata Cushman, 1945. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 96: 152. ♀.




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Cryptanura septentrionalis Cushman
Southern N. Y. s. to S. C, w. to Mo. and La.

Cryptanura septentrlonalis Cushman, 1945. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 96: 156. ♀.

Genus MESOSTENUS Gravenhorst

Mesostenus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 750.

Type-species: Mesosfehua tranafuga Gravenhorst. Desig. by Westwood, 1840.
Stenameitx Thomson, 1896. Opusc. Ent. 21: 2380.

Type-species: Mesosfe)ii(s tm)isfiiga Gravenhorst, Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Unlinia Cameron, 1902. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 9: 208.

Type-species: Unlijiia penelmlis Cameron. Monotypic.
Derocentnin Cushman, 1919. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 21: 113.

Type-species: Coleocentrus texanits Ashmead. Orig. desig.

This genus is of moderate size and nearly worldwide distribution.

Revision: Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 40-50. -Porter, 1973. Acta Zool.
Lilloana [Tucuman] 30: 227-267 (South American spp.).

Taxonomy: Porter, 1974. Acta. Zool. Lilloana [Tucuman] 31: 27-46 (additions to 1973
revision).
albinotatus promptus Cresson. N. B. w. to B. C, s. to w. N. C, S. Dak., Colo., and n. Calif. M.

albinotatiis albi}iotatiis Gravenhorst is European.
Mesostenus prompt ns Cresson, 1878. Canad. Ent. 10: 209. ♂.

Mesostenus americanus Cresson
Que. s. to Va., w. to S. Dak. Barron (1975) resurrected the name

brevipennis from synonymy with albinotatus promptus and placed temporalis as a

synonym of brevipennis; he failed to note that Townes (1970) had placed temporalis as a

synonym of aniericanus.
Mesostenus tarsatus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 265. ♂. Preocc. by Cresson, 1865.

The syntypes were not found by Barron (1975).
Mesostenus a)nericanus Cresson, 1878. Canad. Ent. 10: 209. ♀.
Exetastes brevipennis Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 363. Nomen nudum.
Exetastes brevipennis Provancher, 1883. Petite Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 386. S, 9. N.

syn.
Mesostenus temporalis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 216

(pt. 3):441. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 12: 224 (syn.). —Barron, 1975. Nat.
Canad. 102: 436-437, 572-573.

Mesostenus angustus Townes
R. L s. to N. C, w. to e. Kans.

Mesostenus leucopus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 406. ♂. Preocc. by

Brulle, 1846.
Mesostenus angustus Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. See, Mem. 11: 284. N. name for leucopus

Ashmead.

Mesostenus clitellatus Townes
N. S., w. to s. B. C, s. to Va. and n.e. Tex. Host: Saucrobotys fiitilalis

(Led.).
Mesostenus clitellatus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.

3): 447. ♂, ♀.

Morphology: Short, 1959. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 110: 440, fig. 22B (final-instar larva).

Mesostenus eisenii Ashmead
Md. s. to Ga., w. to Ohio and Tex.; Mexico.

Mesostenus eisenii Ashmead, 1894. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (2) 4: 129. ♀.

Mesostenus gracilis Cresson
N. S. s. to Ga., w. to s. B. C. and Calif.; Bermuda, Mexico. Host: Anagasta
kuehniella (Zell.), Cadra figulilella (Greg.), Ephestia elutella (Hbn.), Euzophera
semifu)ieralis (Wlk.), Homoeosoma electelluni (Hulst), Laetilia coccidivora (Comst.),
Oza)nia fuscomaculella clarefocta Dynr, Laspetjresia caryana (Fitch).
Mesostenus gracilis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 315. ♂.
Neviatopodius orbifalis Ashmead, 1890. Colo. Biol. Assoc, Bui. 1: 21. ♀.

Biology: Bare, 1942. Jour. Econ. Ent. 35: 186-187.




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Mesostenus liogaster Townes
Western N. W. T., Sask., Wyo., Idaho, B. C, Oreg., Calif.; Mexico.

Mesostenns liogoster Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 440. ♂, ♀.

Mesostenus longicaudis Cresson
N. Y., Minn., Nebr., and n. Calif., s. to S. C, Tex., and s. Calif.; Mexico.
Host: Loxostege aticticalix (L.).
MesostoiUK longicaudis Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 164. ♀.
Mexosteniis niacilmttus Cresson, 1878. Canad. Ent. 10: 210. ♂.
Mesoxteiius gracilipes Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 365. ♀.
Coleocentrus texanus Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 444. ♀.
Mesoxte)tH>f )H(icrHrux Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 544. Unnecessary n. name for

M. longicaudis Cresson, which is not preocc. by M. longicauda Brulle, 1846.
Nonatopodius exclavtans Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19: 318. ♀.

Mesostenus melanurus Cushman
Alta. Known only from the holotype.

Mesoxteniis welanunis Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 47. ♀.

Mesostenus sicarius Townes
N. C, Tex., s. Alta., Mont., Colo., Ariz., Calif.; Mexico. Ecology: Distribution
seems to correlate with that of cacti of the genus Opuntia; one specimen emerged from
a cocoon found in a cactus stem.
Menostenus sicarius Townes, 1962. //( Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 448. ♂, ♀.

Mesostenus thoracicus Cresson
Que. w. to B. C, s. to Fla., Tex., and s. Calif. Host: Acrobasis betulella

Hulst, A. caryivorella Rag., Macrobofys theseusalis (Wlk.), Phlyctaenia extricalis (Gn.).
Mesostenns thoracicus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 314. ♂, ♀.
Mesostenus erythrogaster Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 406. ♂.

Genus POLYCYRTUS Spinola

Polycyrtus Spinola, 1840. Soc. Ent. de France, Ann. 9: 154.

Type-species: Polycyrtus histrio Spinola. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Cryptanuridiniorpha Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 46: 369.

Type-species: Cryptanuridiniorpha elegans Viereck. Monotypic and orig. desig. C.
elegans is a synonym of Polycyrtus vierecki Townes, 1966.
Cryptopteryginiorpha Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 46: 371.

Type-species: Cryptopteryginiorpha tubulifera Viereck. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Polycyrtiniorpha Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus.," Proc. 46: 383.

Type-species: Polycyrtiniorpha anioenus Viereck. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Polycyrtus is a very large genus of the New World. Only one species is known from the
Nearctic Region, but in view of the number of species known from Mexico and Cuba, it seems
likely that additional species will be found in the southern U. S.

Revision: Cushman, 1931. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 78 (14): 1-62.

Polycyrtus neglectus Cushman
Mass. s. to Fla., w. to Wis. and e. Tex. Ecology: Occurs in moist forests.
Polycyrtus neglectus Cushman, 1926. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 67 (23): 5. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 2, 4, 5, 51.

Subtribe GORYPHINA

This subtribe includes 33 genera, 29 of which are restricted to the Old World. Only three of
the genera occurring in the New World have Nearctic species.

Genus DIAPETIMORPHA Viereck

Diapetiniorpha Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 44: 564.

Type-species: Cryptus arinatus Ashmead. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This is a large Nearctic and Neotropic genus.

Revision: Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 29-37 (Nearctic spp.).

Diapetimorpha acadia Cushman
Md. s. to Fla., w. to Mo. and Tex.; Mexico.

Diapetiniorpha acadia Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 35. ♂, ♀.




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Diapetimorpha alabama Cushman
Southern N. Y. s. to S. C, w. to e. Kans. and Ala.

Diapethuorpha alabama Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 34. ♂, ♀.

Diapetimorpha brunnea Townes
Southern Ga., Fla.

Diapetimorpha brunnea Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3): 382. (J, 9.

Diapetimorpha introita (Cresson)
N. C. s. to Fla., w. to Tex.; Mexico.

MeftoHtenits i)ifwitHs Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 162. ♂.

Mesostenus dejectiis Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 163. ♀.

Cryptus arniatuH Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 411. ♂. Preocc. by

Lucas, 1846.
Cryptiis anlinieadii Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 562. N. name for C. arniatus
Ashmead.
macula confederata Cushman. Northern Va. s. to mid Fla., w. to e. Tex. Host: Pilocrosis
tripunctata (F.). D. macula macula (Cameron) is Mexican.
Diapetimorpha confederata Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 34. ♀.
macula ustulata Townes. Southern Fla. One would expect m. ustulata to be found in Cuba,
particularly if the taxon really deserves being distinguished from m. confederata.
Diapetimorpha macula ustulata Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 386. cJ, 9.

Diapetimorpha picta Townes
Southeastern Ga., s. Fla.

Diapetimorpha picta Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 387. ♂, ♀.

Diapetimorpha rufigaster Cushman
Md. s. to Fla., w. to s.e. Wis. and Tenn.

Diapetimorpha rufigaster Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 33. ♀.

Diapetimorpha rugosa Townes
N. J. s. to S. C, w. to s.w. Wis., e. Kans., and Tex.

Diapetimorpha rugosa Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3): 392. (J, 9.

Genus LISTROGNATHUS Tschek

Townes (1970) recognized five subgenera, two of which have Nearctic species. In their tribal
revision, Townes and Townes (1962) erroneously treated the name Listrognathus as being of
feminine gender. If one chooses to ignore the provision in the Code (art. 30, [a], [i], [3]) regarding
the genders of Greek generic names latinized with a change in termination, it is inconsistent to
also ignore the scholarly work of Hopper (1959). Hopper regarded Listrognathus as masculine,
which is apparently explained by his statement that "a large proportion of the compounds of
Greek nouns are adjectives by Greek grammar and may be either masculine or feminine .... and
in such cases the gender must be considered to be determined by the first species included
whose name is of definite gender" (in this case L. comidus Tschek).

Revision: Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 15-22.

Taxonomy: Hopper, 1959. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 61 (4): 158, 166 (nomenclature). —Townes,
1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 12: 259-262.

Genus LISTROGNATHUS Subgenus FENESTULA Townes

Listrognathus subg. Fenestula Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 3): 408.

Type-species: Mesostenus paliidatus Cresson. Orig. desig.

Townes (1970) said that there are three species, one Nearctic, one Japanese, and one Korean
(undescribed).

Listrognathus paludatus
***authority mismatch
californicus Townes. Calif. Host: Lepidopteran on Salix.

Listrognathus {Foiestnla) paludata californica Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U.
S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 410. ♂, ♀.

Listrognathus paludatus
***authority mismatch
ocularis Townes. Ariz. Described from one specimen from the Chiricahua Mts.
Listrognathus (Fenestula) paludata ocularis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S.
Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 411. ♀.




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Listrognathus paludatus
***authority mismatch
paludatus (Cresson). Mich., w. Ohio, 111., Minn., Man., Te.x., Wyo., Colo., N. Mex.,
Yukon, Alaska, B. C, Oreg. Host: C crura cinerea Wlk.
MesoHteniis paludatus Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 162. ♂.
Listrognaihufi agnatu.n Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 21. ♀.

Genus LISTROGNATHUS Subgenus LISTROGNATHUS Tschek

Listrognathus Tschek, 1870. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien, Verh. 20: 153.

Type-species: Li>ffrog)iatlius cornutus Tschek. Monotypic. L. coruutus is regarded
as a synonym of L. pubescens (Fonscolombe).
Menostenoideus Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 45.

Type-species: Mesontenun alboyuaculatus Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This is apparently the largest subgenus; it is Neotropic (species unidentified or undescribed),
Holarctic, and Oriental. I have seen one undescribed species from southern Calif.

Listrognathus achelomus Townes
Md., Fla.

LintrognathuK {Listroguathun) acheloum Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.
Mus. Bui 216 (pt. 3): 425. ♀.

Listrognathus albomaculatus
***authority mismatch
albomaculatus (Cresson). R. I., s. Ont., Mich., and Kans. s. to Fla. and Tex.
Host: Grt-tcheua holliaua (Sling.).
Mesoxtenun albotiiaculatus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 313. ♀.
Mesoxtenus leucocoxux Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 407. ♂.

Listrognathus albomaculatus
***authority mismatch
sagax (Provancher). Southern Que., Ont., and Alta. s. to W. Va. and Wis.

Mesosteiius sagax Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11 (no. 126): 112. ♀.

Listrognathus bicolor Townes
Ariz. Known only from the holotype, which was collected in Oak Creek
Canyon.
Listrog)iatlius (Lisfrogimtlius) bicolor Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.
Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 414. ♀.

Listrognathus femoratus Townes
P. E. I., Que., Ont., Va., W. Va., Mich.

Listroguathus (Li.strog)iathus) feniorata Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl.
Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 415. ♂, ♀.

Listrognathus glomeratus Townes
N. J. s. to Fla., w. to Pa., W. Va., and Tex.

Li.'itrognailius (Lititrognathun) glonierata Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S.
Natl. Mus. Bui. 216'(pt. 3): 424. ♂, ♀.

Listrognathus multimaculatus Cushman
Maine s. to N. J., w. to Minn, and Mo. Host: Tortricid on Glcditsia.
Li.'itrognatlius albonaculatu.s var. nniltiniaculatu.'^ Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc.
74 (16): 18. ♀.

Listrognathus nigrescens Townes
Wyo., N. Mex., Alta., Utah.

Listroguathus (Listroguathus) nigrescens Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S.
Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 416. ♂, ♀.

Listrognathus nubilipennis (Cresson)
N. C, Ga. Ecology: According to Porter (1963) this species occurs in
cypress swamps. L. nubilipennis was known to Townes and Townes (1962) only from
the female holotype; Porter (1963) discussed two males and two females collected on the
North Carolina coastal plain.
MesosteuHs nubilipennis Cresson, 1878. Canad. Ent. 10: 205. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1962. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 416. —Porter, 1963.
Ent. News 74: 19-21.

Listrognathus rufitibialis Cushman
N. J., Md., S. C, Ind., Okla., Tex.

Listroguathus albomaculatus var. rufitibialis Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74
(16): 18. ♂, ♀.

Listrognathus rufus Townes
N. Y., Kans.

Listroguathus (Listroguathus) rufa Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 419. ♂.

Listrognathus victoriensis (Harrington)
Southern B. C, n. Calif.

Cry plus I'ictoriensis Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 211. ♀.

Listroguathus multicolor Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 20. ♀.




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Genus HYLOPHASMA Townes

Hyloplmsma Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 275.

Type-species: Heniiaphragia debilis Townes. Monotypic and orig. desig.

According to Townes (1970) this genus is Neotropic, Nearctic, and eastern Palearctic and in-
cluded seven undescribed species.

Hylophasma debile (Townes)
Md., Va., Ohio, Tenn., La., Kans.

Hewisphragia debilin Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 378.

Subtribe LYMEONINA
Genus MALLOCHIA Viereck

Mallochm Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 43: 591.

Type-species: Mallochia agenioides Viereck. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This New World genus is of moderate size; there are fewer Nearctic species than Neotropic
ones (most of which are undescribed).

Revision: Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 13-15.

Mallochia agenioides Viereck
R. I. s. to Fla., w. to Mich., e. Kans., and Ala.; Mexico.
Mallochia agenioklen Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 43: 591. ♀.

Mallochia frontalis Townes
N. J., Md., Va., N. C, e. Kans., Tex.

Mallochia frontalis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 96. ♂, ♀.

Mallochia laevis Townes
Southeastern Ga., n.e. Fla.

Mallochia laecis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 97. ♂, ♀.

Mallochia strigosa (Cresson)
Tex., Ariz.? In their tribal revision, Townes and Townes (1962) were
uncertain that the female from Ariz, which they identified as strigosa was really
conspecific with the male holotype from Texas.
Mesoleptiisf strigosns Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 167. ♂.

Genus LYMEON Foerster

Lymeon Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 176.

Type-species: Lymeon annnlicornis Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Ashmead, 1894.
Neoniesostenus Schmiedeknecht, 1904. Opusc. Ichn., v. 2, p. 562.

Type-species: Neoniesostenus tuheitensis Brues and Richardson. Desig. by Townes
and Townes, 1966 from three species included by Brues and Richardson, 1913.
Christoliniorpha Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 44: 564.

Type-species: Christoliniorpha plesius Viereck. Monotypic and orig. desig. The
type-species is regarded as a synonym of L.fiiscipennis (Brulle).
Zaviastrus Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 46: 385.

Type-species: Zaniastrus photopsis Viereck. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Neogoryphits Roman, 1936. Ent. Tidskr. 57: 3.

Type-species: Ichneumon ariolator Linnaeus. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Nasntocryptus Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 560.

Type-species: Nasntocryptus )iasntns Pratt. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Except for four Nearctic species, this very large genus is Neotropic. The females oviposit into
cocoons of various sorts, including the egg cocoons of spiders.

Lymeon bicinctus (Cresson)
Southern Fla.; Cuba.

Hemiteles bicinctus Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 24. ♀.

Lymeon leiponeuron Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
3): 397. cJ, 9.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1966. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 8: 89 (syn.).




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cinctiventrjs (Cushman). Md. s. to Fla., w. to Tex.

Mesostenu.
laticinctiis Walker, 1874.
Mesosteniis Cressonii Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 539. N. name for M. laticinctus

Cresson; preocc. by Ashmead, 1900.
Diapetimorpha cindiventriH Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 32. N. name

for M. cressonii Dalla Torre.

Lymeon nasutus (Pratt)
N. Me.x.

NasHtocryptus nasHtHn Pratt, 1945. Amer. Midland Nat. 34: 561. ♀.

Lymeon orbus (Say)
Southern N. Y. s. to Fla., w. to s. Wis., Kans., and Tex. Host: Coleophora sp.,
Ho)>iale(lra sabcilella (Chamb.), Phereoeca wahinghami (Bsk.), Grapliolitha molesta
(Bsk.), Astala confederata (G. and R.), Lineodea vulnifica Dyar, eggs oi Zelotes sp.,
Hi/posoter fngifivus (Say).
Cri/ptus orbus Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 231. [female].
Meso.stenus diligeus Cresson, 1878. Canad. Ent. 10: 207. ♀.
Lyiiieon annulicornix Ashmead, 1894. U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 7: 243. ♀.

Genus ACERASTES Cushman

Acemstes Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 53.

Type-species: Meaosfenun perti)iax Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Except for the widely distributed type-species which ranges into the Nearctic Region, this
moderately large genus is Neotropic.

Acerastes pertinax (Cresson)
Md. s. to Fla., w. to Tex.; Mexico, West Indies, Honduras, Panama,

Venezuela, Brazil, Paraguay. Townes and Townes (1962) said that pertinax "appears to
overwinter in southern Florida and near Brownsville, Tex., and to work northward each
season."

MetiONfenus pertinax Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 163. ♀.

Phytodietns ornatus Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 431. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1966. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 8: 98 (syn.).
Biology: Townes and Townes, 1962. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 405.

Genus POLYCYRTIDEA Viereck

Polycyrtidea Viereck, 1913. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 46: 382.

Type-species: Polycyrtidea gracilis Viereck. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Except for one species that ranges into the southern tip of Texas and one that occurs in Fla.,
this small genus is restricted to America south of the U. S.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 12: 288.

Polycyrtidea floridana Porter
Northern Fla. Known only from the holotype.

Polycyrtidea floridana Porter, 1975. Fla. Ent. 58: 250. ♀.

Polycyrtidea limitis Cushman
Southern Tex.; Mexico, Costa Rica. In their tribal revision, Townes and
Townes (1962) said that Umitis may prove to be only subspecifically distinct from P.
flaropicta (Ashmead) which is known from Grenada and South America.
Polycyrtidea linntis Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74: (16): 52. ♀.

Taxonomy: Porter, 1975. Fla. Ent. 58: 248-250.

Genus PACHYSOMOIDES Strand

Pachysowa Szepligeti, 1916. Mus. Natl. Hungarici, Ann. 14: 290. Preocc. by Macleay, 1821
and five additional authors.

Type-species: Pachysouia albopictuw Szepligeti. Monotypic.
Pachysowoides Strand, 1917. Internatl. Ent. Ztschr. 10: 137. N. name for Pachysoma

Szepligeti.
Polistiphaga Cushman, 1925. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 15: 391.

Type-species: Mesosfenus arvalis Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig.




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The species of this small New World genus are parasites of Polist eft larvae.

Revision: Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 55-57.

Pachysomoides fulvus (Cresson)
N. Y. s. to Fla., w. to s. B. C. and Calif.; Cuba, Mexico. Host: Polistes
auniilaris (L.), P. apachiis Sauss., P. Carolina (L.), P. cubensis Lep., P.fuscatiis
fuficatus (F.).
Mesostenua^ fulvun Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 316. ♂.
Mesosfenns arvalin Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 163. ♀.
[Meaostenux] Menostenuti collarit^ Cresson, 1873. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 25: 162. ♂.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1966. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 8: 96 (syn.).

Biology: Dow, 1932. Psyche 39: 16. —Gaul, 1940. Canad. Ent. 70: 240-242. — Rau, 1941. Ent.
Soc. Amer., Ann. 34: 364.

Pachysomoides stupidus (Cresson)
N. C. s. to Fla., w. to s. 111. and Tex.; West Indies and Mexico s. to South
America; Hawaii. Host: Polintes annularis (L.), P. canadensis (L.), P. exclanians Vier.,
P. fuscatits fuscatus (F.).
[Mesostenus] Mesostenus stupidus Cresson, 1873. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 25: 162. ♂.
Pachysonia alhopictuni Szepligeti, 1916. Mus. Nat. Hungarici, Ann. 14: 290. ♀.
Polistiphaga zonata Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 56. ♀.

Subtribe CERATOCRYPTINA
Of the 18 genera, 16 are confined to the Old World tropics.

Chaviula Townes, 1962. hi Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 430.

Type-species: [Mesostenus] Polycrytus reliquus Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This genus includes the type-species and an undescribed species from Venezuela.

reliqua (Cresson). Southwestern La.; Mexico. The female is unknown.

[Mesostenus] Polycrytus reliquus Cresson, 1873. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 25: 146. ♂.

Subtribe OSPRYNCHOTINA

Most of the nine genera are tropical, and the hosts are larvae of wasps which make nests en-
tirely or partly of mud.

Genus MESSATOPORUS Cushman

Messatopoms Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 8.
Type-species: Mesostenus discoidalis Cresson. Orig. desig.

This is a rather large genus of the New World; most of the species are Neotropic.

Revision: Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 8-13.

Messatoporus compressicornis Cushman
Conn. s. to Fla., w. to Ohio and Ala. Host: Ancistrocenis

tuberculocephalus sufterianus (Sauss.), Trypargilum collinum ntbrocinctuni (Pack.). In
their tribal revision, Townes and Townes (1962) said that co7)i press icoryiis may prove to
be a subspecies of M. arcuatus (Cresson) which is known from Mexico.
Messatopoms co)»pressicornis Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 12. Messatopoms major Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 13. ♀.

Messatoporus discoidalis (Cresson)
Que. s. to S. C, w. to Minn, and Tex. Host: Auplopus nielli pes niellipes
(Say), Plianagenia boitibycina (Cr.).
Mesostenus fermm-equinum Walsh and Riley, 1869. Amer. Ent. 1: 133. Sex not indicated.

Preocc. by Brulle, 1846.
Mesostenus discoidalis Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 162. ♀.
Mesostenus jocosus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 300. ♀.

Messatoporus rufiventris Cushman
Que. w. to s. B. C, s. to Fla., s. Tex., Ariz., and n. Calif. Host: Auplopus
sp., Plianagenia bonibycina (Cr.)?, Trypoxylon sp.
Messatopoms rufiventris Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 11. ♀.




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Genus ACRORICNUS Ratzeburg

Acroricnus Ratzeburg, 1852. Ichn. d. Forstinsecten, v. 3, p. 92.

Type-species: Acroricnus scliauviii Ratzeburg. Monotypic.
Xenodocon Foerster, 1855. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 12: 237.

Type-species: Xenodocon ruficoniis Foerster. Monotypic. The type-species is
regarded as a synonym of A. nediicfor (Scopoli).
Macrobatiis Holmgren, 1856 (1854). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 75: 50.

Type-species: Cryptua macrobatu>i Gravenhorst. Monotypic.
Linoceras Taschenberg, 1865. Ztschr. f. die Gesam. Naturw. Halle 25: 105.

Type-species: Cryptiis viacrobatun Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Leptobatides Buysson, 1896. In Andre, Spec. Hym. Eur. Alg., v. 6, p. 678, pi. ♂.

Type-species: Leptobatides abeillei Buysson. Monotypic.
Agatliobanclius Ashmead, 1900. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 23: 97.

Type-species: Banchns aequatus Say. Monotypic and orig. desig. The type-species
was misidentified by Ashmead, who based his description of Agathohanchits upon
specimens of Agathilla bradleyi (Viereck) (see Cushman and Gahan, 1921).

This small genus is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. The hosts are larvae of Eu-
menidae and Sphecidae.

Revision: Mitchell, 1950. Ent. Soe. Amer., Ann. 43: 249-261.
Taxonomy: Cushman and Gahan, 1921. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 23: 158-159.

Acroricnus stylator
***authority mismatch
aequatus (Say). N. S. s. to S. C, w. to Man. and Mo. Host: Ancistrocenis

bireniniaciilatus (Sauss.), A. adiabatns (Sauss.), Eumenen fraternus Say, Sceliphwn
cae)nentanu)ti (Drury). The gradual south-to-north reduction in the amount of yellow
pigmentation led Townes (1944) to divide this subspecies into two. The name aequatus
was applied to the northern population, presumably to agree with Say's color
description. Mitchell (1950) and Townes and Townes (1962) applied the name aequatus in
the same manner. The inconsistencies in Say's color description of aequatus indicate
that it would not be accurate enough to show that it applies to a specimen collected
north of the type-locality (which was indicated as "Indiana," but which presumably
would have been southwestern Indiana). Therefore, those wishing to recognize an
arbitrary division of A. s. aequatus into two subspecies should apply the name aequatus
to the southern population.

Banchus aequatus Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 247. [male].

Cryptus junceus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 295. ♀. N. syn.

Atractodes Cloutieri Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 150. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Cushman and Gahan, 1921. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 23: 158. —Townes, 1944. Amer.
Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 296-297. —Mitchell, 1950. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 43: 258-259. —Townes
and Townes, 1962. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 3): 474.

Biology: Walsh and Riley, 1869. Amer. Ent. 1: 137.

Acroricnus stylator
***authority mismatch
edwardsii (Cresson). Western Oreg., Calif. Host: Sceliphron caementariuin (Drury).

Linoceras Edwardsii Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 365. ♂.

Acroricnus stylator
***authority mismatch
excelsus (Cresson). Western S. Dak., Colo. The range of this form is almost entirely
overlapped by the southern end of the range of s. niger, which casts doubt upon'the
validity of the distinction between them.
Cryptus excelsus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 293. ♂, ♀.
Acroric7ius stylator axilaris Mitchell, 1950. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 43: 259. 9. Synonymy
based upon data in the tribal revision of Townes and Townes (1962). N. syn.

Acroricnus stylator
***authority mismatch
niger Mitchell. Alta. s. to Colo. w. to B. C, e. Wash., e. Oreg., and Utah.

Acroricnus stylator niger Mitchell, 1950. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 43: 253. ♂, ♀.

Acroricnus stylator
***authority mismatch
stylator (Thunberg). Western N. W. T., n. B. C; Eurasia.

Ichneumon stylator Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8: 265

(key); 9: 320. [male].
Cryptus niacrobatus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 440. ♂, ♀.
Acroricnus Schauniii Ratzeburg, 1852. Ichn. d. Forstinsecten, v. 3, p. 92. ♂.
Xenodocon ruficornis Foerster, 1855. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 12: 237. ♀.




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Macrobatufi clavator Holmgren, 1856 (1854). Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 75: 50.
Unnecessary n. name for Cryptux ))iacrobatHs Gravenhorst.

Acroricnus stylator
***authority mismatch
townesi Mitchell. N. Mex., Ariz.

AcroricuHH Htylator townesi Mitchell, 1950. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 43: 256. ♂, ♀.

Subtribe GABUNIINA

The members of this subtribe are all thought to be parasitic upon wood-boring Coleoptera and
Lepidoptera. Only two of the 23 genera have Nearctic species.

Genus AGONOCRYPTUS Cushman

Agonocryptu.s Cushman, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 74 (16): 6.

Type-species: MesoNteniiH diNCoidaloide.s Viereck. Orig. desig.

This moderately large New World genus is Neotropic except for the one species which occurs
in eastern North America.

Agonocryptus discoidaloides (Viereck)
Southern N. H. s. to Fla., w. to s. Wis., e. Kans., and Tex. Host:
Podosesia sip-ingae (Harris), Enpogoniun vestitus (Say), Psyrassa unicolor (Rand).
Meaoxtenus discoidaloides Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19: 319. ♀.

Genus CRYPTOHELCOSTIZUS Cushman

CrypfohelcostizHs Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 534.

Type-species: Cryptohelcostizus nifigaster Cushman. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This is a small Nearctic genus.

Revision: Cushman, 1940. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 88: 357-359.

Cryptohelcostizus alamedensis (Ashmead)
Western Tex., Utah, s. B. C, Oreg., Calif. Host: Agrilits angeliciis
Horn, Clirysohothris ttiali Horn, Mynnex arizonicus (Schaef.).
Cry phis alamedensis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 409. ♀.
Cryptohelcostizus rufigaster Cushman, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 534. ♂, ♀.

Cryptohelcostizus caudatus Townes
Calif.

Cryptohelcostizus caudatus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 3): 511. ♀.

Cryptohelcostizus chrysobothridis Cushman
Okla. Host: Chrysobothris sp. in Mains pnmila.

Cryptohelcostizus chrysobothridis Cushman, 1940. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 88: 358. ♀.

Cryptohelcostizus dichrous Viereck
N. J., Va., N. C, Ga., Mo., Tex.

Cryptohelcostizus dichrous Viereck, 1921. Psyche 28: 73. ♂, ♀.

Cryptohelcostizus fumipennis Townes
Ariz.

Cryptohelcostizus fu})iipennis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 3): 507. ♀.

Cryptohelcostizus genalis Townes
Calif.

Cryptohelcostizus goialis Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216
(pt. 3):507. ♀.

Cryptohelcostizus leiomerus Townes
Calif.

Cryptohelcostizus leiomerus Townes, 1962. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 3): 506. ♀.

Cryptohelcostizus maculosus Townes
Calif. Ecology: The holotype emerged from Prosopis.

Cryptohelcostizus maculosus Townes, 1962. /)( Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 3): 512. ♀.

Cryptohelcostizus nigricans Townes
Ariz.

Cn/ptohelcosfizus nigricans Townes, 1962. //( Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui.
216 (pt. 3): 508. ♂, ♀.

Cryptohelcostizus ornatus Cushman
Southern Ariz., Calif. Host: Chrysobothris deserta Horn. The type locality is
Death Valley.
Cryptohelcostizus ornatus Cushman, 1940. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 88: 359. ♀.




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Subtribe SPHECOPHAGINA

This subtribe includes the Holarctic genus Sphecophaga and two other genera which are
restricted to the Old World. The hosts are pupae of Vespinae or Polistinae.

Genus SPHECOPHAGA Westwood

Sphecophaga Westwood, 1840. Introduct. Mod. Classif. Ins., v. 2, Synopsis Genera Brit.
Ins., p. 57.

Type-species: A)io)naloh cespanoii Curtis. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Chrijono))iOH Desvignes, 1856. Cat. Brit. Ichn., p. 47.

Type-species: Anoitialoii respanitu Curtis. Monotypic.
Cacotro'pa Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 208.

Type-species: Cacotropa sericea Thomson. By subsequent monotypy from inclusion
by Thomson, 1888. The type-species is regarded as a synonym of S. vespariDn
I'espariDii (Curtis).

There is a single species.

vesparum burra (Cresson). N. H. w. to B. C, s. to S. C, Ariz., and Calif. Host: Vespula

aroiaria (F.), V. )iiaci(lata (L.), V. )iiaculifro)ts (Buyss.). S. vesparum vesparuin occurs
in Europe. Both diapausing and nondiapausing larvae may develop on the same host
pupa presumably from eggs deposited by a single v. burra female. Only females develop
from nondiapausing larvae, and they usually differ somewhat in coloration from females
which develop from diapausing larvae. Nondiapausing larvae spin a delicate, white
cocoon, while diapausing larvae spin a tough, brown one.

Eucero.s burriis Cresson, 1869. Canad. Ent. 1: 104. ♀.

Sphecophagml'V praedator Zabriskie, 1894. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 2: 84. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Couper, 1870. Canad. Ent. 2: 52-53. -Zabriskie, 1894. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 2: 81, 86.
— Cushman, 1933. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 35: 10-11. — Schmieder, 1939. Ent. News 50:
92-97, 125-131. -Leech, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 80.

Unplaced taxa of CRYPTINI

Cryptm niiindiis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6 (6): 177 (key); 6 (7): 203. "S"= 6, 9. Que.
Barron (1975) said that the lectotype (no. 245 in second collection of Provancher) keyed
to Cryptus ruralis Pratt, a species not known from Quebec. Townes' (1944) placement of
niiDidiis as a synonym of C. persiviilis Cresson was based upon specimen no. 189 in
Provancher's first collection (personal commun.. Dr. H. K. Townes, 1975).

Taxonomy: Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 280. —Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102:
511-512.

Subfamily ACAENITINAE

Revision: Cushman and Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 57: 503-523. —Townes and
Townes, 1960. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 544-579.

Ta.xonomy: Townes, 1971. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 17: 159-179 (genera of world).

Tribe COLEOCENTRINI

This Holarctic and Oriental tribe includes six genera, only two of which have North American
species.

Genus COLEOCENTRUS Gravenhorst

ColeocentniK Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 437.

Type-species: IclDienniou excitator Poda. Desig. by Westwood, 1840.
Macrocoleus Desvignes, 1850. Ent. Soc. London, Trans, (n. s.) 1: 13.

Type-species: Macnifi longiventris Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914. The
type-species is regarded as a synonym of C. excitator (Poda).

This is a moderately large Holarctic and Oriental genus.




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Coleocentrus flavipes (Provancher)
N. S. s. to w. N. C. and e. Tenn., w. to n. and w. Ont. Host: Leptura sp.?
Acoenitea flavipen Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 80. ♀.
Acoenites Canadensis Provancher, 1880. Nat. Canad. 12: 10. ♂.
Coleocentms minor Cushman, 1920. In Cushman and Rohwer, U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57:

507. ♀.

Coleocenfnis niger Cushman, 1920. In Cushman and Rohwer, U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57:

508. ♀.

Coleocentrus harringtoni Cushman
N. B., Que., N. H., Mass., N. Y., Pa., Ont., n.w. Mich., Minn.

Coleocentms canadensis Harrington, 1892. Canad. Ent. 25: 29. ♀. Preocc. in Coleocentnis

by Provancher, 1880.
Coleocentms harringtoni Cushman, 1920. In Cushman and Rohwer, U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc.
57: 509. N. name for C. canadensis Harrington,

Coleocentrus manni Cushman
Colo., B. C, Wash., Oreg.

Coleocentms nianni Cushman, 1920. Iti Cushman and Rohwer, U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57:

512. ♂, ♀.
Coleocentms )nan7ii coloradensis Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.
Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 556. S. N. syn.; described from only two specimens.

Coleocentrus occidentalis
***authority mismatch
occidentalis Cresson. Northwestern Mont., n. Idaho, s. B. C, Wash., Oreg.

Coleocentms occidentalis Cresson, 1879 (1978). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 376. ♀.

Coleocentrus occidentalis
***authority mismatch
pulchripennis Cushman. Northeastern Calif.

Coleocentms pnlchripennis Cushman, 1920. hi Cushman and Rohwer, U. S. Natl. Mus.,
Proc. 57:512. ♀.

Coleocentrus pettiti Cresson
N. S. s. to w. N. C, w. to Minn, and Colo.
Coleocentms Pettiti Cresson, 1868. Canad. Ent. 1: 35. ♀.
Coleocentms Pettitiiil) Provancher, 1880. Nat. Canad. 12: 8.
Xoioscliesis alpinensis Davis, 1894. In Slosson, Ent. News 5: 4. Nomen nudum.
Coleocentms Pettitii Dalla Torre, 1901. Cat Hym.. v. 3, p. 530. Emend.

Coleocentrus quebecensis Provancher
N. S., N. B., Que., Maine, Ont., Mich., Minn., s.w. Mont.

Coleocoitms Quebecensis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 79. ♀.

Coleocentrus rufocoxatus Pratt
P. E. I., N. B., Que., N. H., Vt., N. Y., Pa., Ont., w. N. W. T.
Coleocentms rufocoxatus Pratt, 1936. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 31: 11. ♀.

Coleocentrus rufus Provancher
N. S. w. to e. N. Dak., s. to e. N. C, n.w. S. C, n. Ga., and central Iowa.
Coleocentms rufus Provancher, 1876. Nat. Canad. 8: 316. ♀.

Coleocentms siinilis Cushman, 1920. In Cushman and Rohwer, U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57:
514. ♂, ♀.

Genus MESOCLISTUS Foerster

Mesoclistus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 168.

Type-species: Acaenites rufipes Gravenhorst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Schmiedeknecht, 1888.

Only the European type-species and one North American species are known.

Mesoclistus cushmani Townes
Interior Alaska.

Mesoclistus cuslnnani Townes, 1960. //( Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt.
2): 560. (J, 9.

Tribe ACAENITINI

This tribe includes eighteen genera; only three of these occur in the New World, and none
occur in South America.

Genus AROTES Gravenhorst

Arotes Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 446.

Type-species: Arotes albicinctus Gravenhorst. Monotypic.
Asthenonieris Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 168.

Type-species: Asthenonieris nigricoxis Schmiedeknecht. By subsequent monotypy
from inclusion by Schmiedeknect, 1888.




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Sphalerus Kriechbaumer, 1878. Ent. Naehr. 4: 41.

Type-species: Sphalerus bifasciatus Kriechbaumer. Monotypic. The type-species is
regarded as a synonym of A. albicinctus Gravenhorst.
Retanixia Cameron, 1886. Biol. Cent.-Amer., Hym., v. 1, p. 299.

Type-species: Retanisia facialis Cameron. Monotypic.

This moderate sized genus is Holarctic and Neotropic (mountains of Me.xico and Guatemala).
The known hosts include Cerambycidae, Melandryidae, Buprestidae, and Mordellidae.

Arotes amoenus Cresson
Que. w. to Minn., s. to w. N. C. and n. Ga. Host: Melandrya striata Say.
Acaenitus amoenus Harris, 1835. In Hitchcock, Rpt. Geol. Mineral. Bot. Zool. Mass., ed. 2,

p. 586. Nomen nudum.
Arotes at)ioenus Cresson, 1868. Canad. Ent. 1: 34. ♀.
Tropistes elegayis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 80. ♂.

Arotes decorus (Say)
Mann. s. to Ga., w. to Wis., e. Kans., and e. Tex. Host: Towoxia bidentata (Say).

Acaenitus decorus Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 248. ♀ (♂ misdet.).

Arotes maurus Rohwer
Northern Minn., w. Sask., central Alta., s.w. B. C. May be only subspecifically
distinct from A. a)iioeuus Cresson.
Arotes tiiaunis Rohwer, 1920. In Cushman and Rohwer, U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 517. ♀.

Arotes melleus (Say)
N. Y., N. J., Pa., Md., D. C, w. N. C, s. Mich., s.w. Ind. Host: Metacmaeops
vittatus (Swed.).
Acaenitus melleus Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 249. ♀.

Genus SPILOPTERON Townes

Spilopteron Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 568.
Type-species: Spilopteron franclemonti Townes. Orig. desig.

This is a small Holarctic and Oriental genus.

Spilopteron formosum (Cresson)
Que. w. to s.w. Man., s. to s.e. Ga. Host: Bellamira scalaris (Say).
Arotes fomiosus Cresson, 1868. Canad. Ent. 1: 34. ♂.
Spilopteron formosum australe Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.

Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 573. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Spilopteron franclemonti Townes
N. B. w. to s. Man., s. to N. Y., s. Ohio, and Minn.

Spilopteron franclemonti Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 216

(pt. 2):569. ♂, ♀.

Spilopteron occiputale (Cresson)
Mass. w. to Mich., s. to e. N. C, n.w. S. C, and s. Ind. Host: Strangalia

bicolor (Swed.).
Arotes occiputalis Cresson, 1869. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 260. ♂.
Arotes apicalis Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 366. ♀.

Spilopteron vicinum (Cresson)
N. S. w. to s.w. N. W. T., s. to Va., Tex., Colo., and n.w. Oreg. Host:

Anoplodera nigrella (Say), A. rubrica (Say)?, A. vagans (Oliv.)?, Metacmaeops vittatus

(Swed.). The two "subspecies" recognized by Townes and Townes (1960) were largely

sympatric.
Arotes vicinus Cresson, 1869. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 260. ♂.
Arotes venustus Cresson, 1869. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 260. ♂, ♀.
Arotes superbus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 81. ♂, ♀.
Spilopteron vicinum melanderi Townes, 1960. In Townes and Townes, U. S. Natl. Mus.

Bui. 216 (pt. 2): 575. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Genus YEZOCERYX Uchida

Yezoceryx Uchida, 1928. Hokkaido Imp. Univ., Faculty Agr., Jour. 25: 36.

Type-species: Yezoceryx scutellaris Uchida. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This is a large Holarctic and Oriental genus; the majority of the species are Oriental.

Yezoceryx rupinsulensis (Cresson)
Central Mich., 111., s.e. Minn.

Acaenitus rupinsulensis Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 143. ♀.




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Subfamily LYCORININAE

This is a small subfamily including three cosely related genera, only one of which occurs in the
New World.

Genus TOXOPHOROIDES Viereck

Toxophowides Cresson, 1874 (1873). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 25: 406. Manuscript name
cited in synonymy (i.e. nomen nudum). Townes (1970) regarded the name Toxophowides
as being validated by Viereck (1911); Townes opinion is (personal communication, 1975)
that because Cresson did not adopt this name (Cresson said that it was an MS name
which he had intended to use for the species he described on the following page as
Lycorinaf apicalis) it should be regarded as having been published in synonymy by
Cresson. Those who agree with the present Code regarding the publication date and
authorship of names which have been accepted as having been validated in synonymy,
possibly could regard Toxophowides as having been validated by Cresson.

Toxophoroides Viereck, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 195.

Type-species: Lifcorina^ apicalis Cresson. Monotypic and orig desig.

Chloral ijcorina Cushman. 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 9.
Type-species: Glypta scitula Cresson. Orig. desig.

This is a small Neotropic and Nearctic genus.

Revision: Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 7-13.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1970 (1969). Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 13: 3.

Toxophoroides albomarginatus
***authority mismatch
albomarginatus (Cresson). Maine w. to Man., s. to N. C, Ark., Kans., and
Colo. Host: Psoronina hanniiondi (Riley), A)iarHia lineatella Zell., Dichouienis
bipiDictella (Wlshm.), Archips romceana (Harris), Acleris niintita (Rob.), Grapholitha
niolesta (Bsk.).
Glypta alboniarginafa Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 157. ♀.

Toxophoroides albomarginatus
***authority mismatch
soror (Cushman). N. Mex., Ariz., Calif. Host: Acrobasis nuxvorella Neun.

Chlorolycorina Noror Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 10. ♀.

Toxophoroides glaucomatus Cushman
N. J., Pa., Md., N. C, Ohio, Mich.

Toxophoroides glaucoinatus Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 12. ♀.

Toxophoroides scitulus (Cresson)
N. Y., N. J., Md., D. C, Va., N. C, Fla., Ind., Ky., Tenn. Host: Acrobasis
juglandis (LeB.), Nephopteryx uvinella (Rag.), Tetralopha subcanalis (Wlk.), Arogalea
cristifasciella (Chamb.), Gelechia albisparsella (Chamb.), Ancylis comptana (Froel.),
"tineid" on apple, leaf feeder on Rubus alleghe)iiensis.
Glypta scitula Cresson, 1870. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 3: 155. ♀.

Toxophoroides xanthozonatus (Ashmead)
Southeastern N. C, s. Fla., Mo. Host: Tortricid on oak,
Antaeotricha hioiiilis (Zell), leaf roller on Vacci)iiu))i australe.
Glypta xanthozonata Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 449. ♂.

Taxonomy: Viereck, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 195 (syn.). -Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl.
Mus., Proc. 58: 11-12. — Walkley, 1967. In Krombein et al, U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2,
sup. 2, p. 85 (syn.).

Subfamily COLLYRIINAE

Genus COLLYRIA Schiodte

Pachymerus Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 721. Preocc. by Thunberg, 1805

and Serville, 1825.

Type-species: Bassns calcitrator Gravenhorst. Desig. by Westwood, 1840.
Collyria Schiodte, 1839. Mag. Zool. (Ser. 2, sect. 3) 9 (insectes, pi. 6-10): 10. N. name for

Pachynienis Gravenhorst.

This is a small Palearctic genus. The hosts are Cephidae. The eggs are inserted into the eggs
of the host and the Collyria adults emerge from the cocoon of the host.




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Collyria coxator (Villers)
N. Y., N. J., Pa., Del., Md., n. Va., Ont., Ohio; Eurasia; n. Africa. Introduced.
Host: CephuH pycjntaeus (L.), Janus integer (Nort.). Despite repeated attempts to
establish coxator in western Canada in the 1930's on the native Cephus cinctus Nort., it
apparently no longer occurs there. Townes, Momoi, and Townes (1965) were apparently
the first authors to suppress Collyria calcitrator (Gravenhorst) as a synonym of
coxator, but Gravenhorst had placed calcitrator as a definite synonym of coxator in 1829
and uncharacteristically neglected to use the senior name.

Ichneumon coxator Villers, 1789. Caroli Linnaei Ent., v. 3, p. 193. Sex not indicated.

Bas.sus calcitrator Gravenhorst, 1807. Vergl. Uebers. Zool. Systeme, p. 266. ♀.

Pacliynierux puncticepa Thomson, 1877. Opusc. Ent. 8: 734. ♀.

Collyria calcitratrix Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 122. Emend.

Taxonomy: Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 3, p. 727-729. — Kerrich, 1936. Soc. Brit.
Ent., Trans. 3: 63. —Kerrich, 1936. Soc. Brit. Ent., Jour. 1: 124. —Townes, Momoi, and
Townes, 1965. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 5: 397-398.

Biology: Salt, 1931; 1932. Bui. Ent. Res. 22: 506; 23: 211-216. -Salt, 1934. Roy. Sbc. London,
Proc. (Ser. B) 114: 457-460. —Salt and Laing, 1935. Nature [London] 135: 792. —Walker,
1937. Parasitology 29: 477-503. -Walker, 1940. Bui. Ent. Res. 3: 551-573. —Smith, 1948.
Ent. Soc. Ont., Ann. Rpt. 78: 39-44. —Smith, 1959. Canad. Ent. 91: 697-700.

Subfamily ORTHOPELMATINAE

Genus ORTHOPELMA Taschenberg

Orthopehiia Taschenberg, 1865. Ztsehr. f. die Gesam. Naturw. [Halle] 25: 137.

Type-species: Honiteles luteolator Gravenhorst. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.
Proedrus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 147.

Type-species: Heniiteles luteolator Gravenhorst. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Thomson, 1889.

This is the only genus in the subfamily; it is medium sized and Holarctic. The species are in-
ternal larval parasites of Cynipidae which make galls on Rosa, Rubus, and Ribes. Dr. John Bar-
ron has completed a revision of Orthopehna which will probably be published prior to the ap-
pearance of this catolog.

Orthopelma californicum Ashmead
Northern Calif. Host: Cynipid gallmaker on wild currant. According to
Ashmead, the syntypes were "reared in May, 1887, from a Rose gall," but the Koebele
notes in the U. S. Natl. Museum say that they were reared from a cynipid which makes
galls on wild currant and that the parasites of the cynipids emerged in May, 1888, from
galls collected near Alameda Calif, in March, 1888.
Orthopehna californicum Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 417. ♂, ♀.

Orthopelma coloradense Ashmead
Colo. Host: Diplolepis tuberculator (Ckll.).

Orthopehna coloradense Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 418. ♀.
Orthopehna americanum Riley, 1890. In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life
3: 154. Nomen nudum (also on same page as "americana").

Orthopelma diastrophi Ashmead
Conn., Ind.? Host: Diastrophns radicmn Bass., Diplolepis radicum (0.
S.). Apparently parasitizes cynipids which make galls on the roots of both Rosa and
Rubus.
Orthopehna diastrophi Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 418. 6, 9. The
syntypes from the Riley collection are not likely to be from Mo. as Ashmead thought
because the specimens do not appear to have been mounted by Riley and because the
numbers they bear do not appear to be Riley numbers. Small circular labels bearing a
"W" might indicate that these specimens came from F. M. Webster, who was then in
Indiana. I recently learned that Webster's notes are in the U. S. Natl. Archives.

Orthopelma luteolator (Gravenhorst)
Que., Mass., R. I., N. Y., Pa., Ont., Ind., Ariz.; Europe. Host:

Diastrophus turgidus Bass., Diplolepis ignota (0. S.), D. rosae (L.), D. rosaefolii (Ckll.).
Ichneumon mediator Thunberg, 1822: 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8:
269; 9: 332. 9. Unavailable by virtue of preoccupation in Ichneumon by Pimpla
mediator Fabricius, which was unnecessarily renamed Ichneumon modulator by




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Thunberg on i^ey p. 271 (v. 8, 1822) and text p. 340 (v. 9, 1824). Although Thunberg
never indicated that any of his names were replacement names until he cited the names
being replaced in his 1824 text, it is imperative that we accept the fact that the
renamed species (such as P. mediator Fabricius) were included in Ichneumon by
Thunberg in his 1822 key. Otherwise, the numerous replacement names proposed in the
key must instead be treated as proposals of new species. The only practical course is to
continue to treat Thunberg's (1822; 1824) replacement names as such, particularly in
view of the fact that most of them have been unavailable because they were
unnecessarily proposed. Without having heard the foregoing argument. Dr. H. K.
Townes informed me (personal commun., 1975) that he would consider /. mediator
Thunberg to be available were it not for the fact that the combination /. mediator
(Fabricius) had been published by Jurine in 1807. I am not certain that the latter would
have any bearing on the question.

Hemitelen liiteolafor Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 2, p. 826. cJ, 9.

Orthopelma minutum Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 416. 9. The type
locality is Jamaica Plain, Mass. (not "Jamaica Plains, New York," as stated by Ashmead).

Orthopelwa romecola Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 417. 6, 9. Notes in
the U. S. Natl. Museum indicate that the syntypes were reared from a cynipid gall on
rose sent to Washington, D. C. by H. K. Morrison, Ft. Grant, Ariz.

Orthopelma fhoinpsoni Brues, 1907. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 5: 157. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1912. Zool. Bidr. Uppsala 1: 267, 292.

Orthopelma occidentale Ashmead
Southwestern Wyo. Host: Diplolepis similis (Ash.).

Orthopelma occidentale Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 417. ♂.

Orthopelma ovale (Provancher)
Que., Alta.

Hemiteles omlis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 332. ♂, ♀.

Subfamily ICHNEUMONINAE

The Ichneumoninae is the second largest of ichneumonid subfamilies (only the Cryptinae
being larger). The species are all internal parasites of Lepidoptera. The females of some species
oviposit into larvae and some into fresh pupae, but the progeny always emerge from the pupa.
The sexual dimorphism in structure and color is often marked, but the differences between spe-
cies often are subtle, which not infrequently causes difficulty in identification and association of
the sexes.

Historically, the Ichneumoninae have been divided into categories having names that were not
derived from those of included genera. The names cyclopneusticae and particularly stenop-
neusticae are two which persist to some extent in current literature. The cyclopneusticae is com-
posed of the Alomyini and Phaeogenini, while the stenopneusticae includes the remainder of the
tribes of Ichneumoninae. The species of cyclopneusticae are parasites of microlepidoptera, while
those of stenopneusticae generally parasitize macrolepidoptera. Accordingly, the species of
cyclopneusticae are generally smaller than those of stenopneusticae.

Heinrich (1961-1962) published a revision of the stenopneusticae which applies mostly to
northeastern North America. Many of the subspecies recognized or described in that work or its
supplements (Heinrich, 1969-1976) are not recognized here, often because they merely represent
ends and intermediate portions of clines. In some cases synonymy of these subspecific names is
based upon specimens in the U. S. National Museum collection. In a few cases, subspecies are
placed in synonymy because they are based upon too few specimens to demonstrate that they
deserve recognition (particularly when there is no zoogeographical reason for expecting sub-
speciation).

Revision: Heinrich, 1961-1962 (Phaeogenini excluded). Canad. Ent. Sup. 15: 1-87 (1961
[I960]); 18: 89-205 (1961 [I960]); 21: 207-368 (1961); 23: 369-505 (1961); 26: 507-671 (1962);
27: 675-802 (1962); 29: 803-886 (1962). -Peck, 1964. Ent. Soc. Canada, Mem. 35: 887-925
(addenda, corrigenda, host-parasite list, and indices for Heinrich, 1961-1962). —Heinrich,
1969-1976. Nat. Canad. 96: 935-963 (1969); 98: 959-1026 (1971); 99: 173-211 (1972); 100:
461-465 (1973); 102: 753-782 (1976) (supplements to Heinrich, 1961-1962).

Taxonomy: Dasch, 1971. Ohio Jour. Sci. 71: 279-283 (key to stenopneusticae found
overwintering as adult females, particularly in Ohio).




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Biology: Dasch, 1971. Ohio Jour. Sci. 71: 270-279 (overwintering sites preferred by
stenopneusticae found overwintering as adult females, particularly in Ohio).

Tribe PHAEOGENINI

The members of this tribe are parasites of microlepidoptera. Townes and Townes (1973) per-
sisted in suppressing the name Phaeogenini as a synonym of Alomyini. Because this seems in-
consistent with their recognition of a tribe Heterischnini, the Phaeogenini are here regarded as
tribally distinct from the Alomyini.

Taxonomy: Perkins, 1959. Handb. Ident. Brit. Ins., v. 7, pt. 2 (ai), p. 68-111. —Townes and
Townes, 1973. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 19: 219-221 (Ethiopian cat.).

Subtribe HETERISCHNINA

Genus HETERISCHNUS Wesmael

HeterischuHs Wesmael, 1859. [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Mem. 8: 83.

Type-species: Ichnemuon piilex Mueller. Monotypic.
RhexideriiiHs Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 192.

Type-species: Rhexidernius japonicus Ashmead. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Ashmead, 1906.
Ponocentnis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 272.

Type-species: Ponocoitnis liuordi Provancher. Monotypic.
Isclinop.sidea Viereck, 1914. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bui. 83: 77.

Type-species: IclDieionon tlioracicus Gravenhorst. Monotypic and orig. desig.
AethiopisclniHs Heinrich, 1936. Paris, Mus. d'Hist. Nat., Mem. (n. s.) 4: 244. Name invalid
as of 1936 because neither of the two species names validated was designated as
type-species.
AetliiopisclniHs Heinrich, 1938. Acad. Malgache, Mem. 25: 127.

Type-species: Aethiopischnus olsoufieffi Heinrich. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Species of this genus are known from the Holarctic and Ethiopian Regions.

Heterischnus coloradensis (Cushman)
n. comb. Colo. According to notes pertaining to the C. F. Baker

collection, the holotype was collected by C. F. Baker on July 21, 1896 at an elevation of
10,000 ft. in Rabbit Ear's Pass, Colo.
Ischnopnidea coloradensis Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 253. ♀.

Heterischnus huardi (Provancher)
Que. s. to N. Y., w. to Alaska and Oreg.

Posocentrus Huardi Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 273. ♀.

Posocentnis Huarti{\) Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 251.

Phaeogenes recticaudus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 42. ♀.

Isclrnopsidea alberta Cushman, 1927. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 72 (13): 1. ♀.

Subtribe PHAEOGENINA

Taxonomy: Townes, Momoi, and Townes, 1965. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 5: 415-423, 592-593
(cat. of E. Palearctic spp. and key to genera).

Genus STENODONTUS Berthoumieu

Gnathoxys Wesmael, 1845 (1844). [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Nouveaux Mem. 18: 168.
Preocc. by Westwood, 1842.

Type-species: IcInieiDiion niargiiiellus Gravenhorst. Monotypic. The type-species
was identified with a query by Berthomieu.
Stenodontus Berthoumieu, 1896. Soc. Ent. de France, Ann. 65: 846. N. name for Gnathoxys
Wesmael.

This is a small Holarctic genus with two undescribed species occurring in North America. The
known ranges of these species are: (1) Newfoundland (insular) s. to N. C, w. to Mich, and (2)
Idaho and Wash.




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Genus DICAELOTUS Wesmael

Dicaelotuft Wesmael, 1845 (1844). [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Nouveax Mem. 18: 175.

Type-species: Ichneiouon pu))iilis Gravenhorst. Desig. by Ashmead, 1900.
Leptodenias Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 182.

Type-species: Leptodemaa cariniscutis Cameron. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Cameron, 1906.
Deloglyptufi Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 193.

Type-species: Deloglyptns pi(iictive)itris Thomson. By subsequent monotypy from
inclusion by Thomson, 1891.
Cinxaelotus Holmgren, 1890 (1889). Ichn. Suecica, v. 3, p. 367.

Type-species: CinxaelotuH erythrogaster Holmgren. Monotypic.
Euryptilm Holmgren, 1890 (1889). Ichn. Suecica, v. 3, p. 375.

Type-species: Euryptilns kriechbaiofieri Holmgren. Monotypic.

This is apparently a moderate sized genus of the Holarctic and Ethiopian Regions. Perkins
(1959) placed Deloglyptus as a synonym of Dicaelotus because he thought the differences
between them were rather weak. He said that if a division is made between them, other groups
of species should also be split off as genera distinct from Dicaelotus. I assume, therefore, that
Perkins's (1969) treatment of DeloglyptuN as distinct from Dicaelotiiti was for the purpose of
making the first revisor decision to suppress Leptodeman as a synonym of Deloglyptus. Con-
sequently, I have not followed Townes and Townes (1973), who treated Deloglyptus as a distinct
genus.

Ta.xonomy: Perkins, 1959. Handb. Ident. Brit. Ins., v. 7, pt. 2 (ai), p. 83. —Perkins, 1962. Brit.
Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 11: 416, 435. —Townes and Townes, 1973. Amer. Ent. Inst.,
Mem. 19: 220.

Dicaelotus attenuatus (Provancher)
Que., Conn., w. B. C. Because the range, "Atlantic to Cont. Divide in

Transit, and U. Austr. Zones," given by Townes and Townes (1951) conflicts with the

type-localities of two of their synonyms, one is inclined to doubt the correctness of their

synonymy and to wonder about the sort of data they generally used to make their

sweeping generalizations about the ranges of species.
Phygadeuon attenuatus Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13 (no. 155): 334 (key); 13 (no. 156):

359. 9. Barron (1975) said that the lectotype selected by Rohwer and Gahan (1918) is

now represented only by the pin and labels.
Phaeogenes sectus Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 358. ♂.
Herpestonnis flavicoxae Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 210. ♂.
Phygadeuon (Plesignathus) taeniatus Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat.

Hist. Survey Bui. 22: 335, 336. ♂.

Taxonomy: Gahan and Rohwer, 1918. Canad. Ent. 50: 135. —Townes and Townes, 1951. In
Muesebeck et al., U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 279. —Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102:
430, 563.

Dicaelotus clypeatus (Cresson)
Maine s. to N. C, w. to 111.

Stilpnus clypeatus Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 2: 95. ♂.

Dicaelotus gelechiae (Ashmead)
N. H., N. Y., Ont., Ohio. Host: Gnorinioschema gallae.'^olidaginis (Riley).

Phaeogenes gelechiae Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 392. ♂, ♀.

Dicaelotus missouriensis (Ashmead)
D. C, Mo. Ecology: The holotype of the synonym Phaeogenes
honiteloides was reared together with the type series of Eniphyti)ia pallidiscapa
Rohwer (1911) (a synonym oi Anietastegia recens [Say]) from beneath the bark at the
base of a black birch {Betula nigra).
Phaeogenes missouriensis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 393. ♀.
Phaeogenes heniiteloides Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 393. ♀.

Taxonomy: Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 41: 401 (discussion of Bureau of
Entomology notes).

Dicaelotus pacificus (Ashmead)
Md., W. Va., Alta., Calif.

Ischyrooionis pacificus Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 23: 199. 9 (male misdet).




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Dicaelotus ruficornis (Ashmead)
Mo.? The holotype bears a label with what is apparently the illegible
name of a collector and another label reading "Collection C. V. Riley;" as often as not,
Ashmead was incorrect concerning localities for specimens in the Riley collection.
Phaeogenes riificonnx Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 394. ♀.

Genus ORONOTUS Wesmael

Oronotus Wesmael, 1845 (1844). [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Nouveaux Mem. 18: 213.

Type-species: Oronotus coarctus Wesmael. Monotypic. The type-species is regarded
as a synonym of 0. bi)iotati(^ (Gravenhorst).
Fedahua Cameron, 1903. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 13: 318.

Type-species: Fedahiia tricolor Cameron. Monotypic.
Pra)iiha Cameron, 1903. Ent. Soc. London, Trans. 51: 231.

Type-species: Prainha iHcntdihularis Cameron. Monotypic.
Takanona Uchida, 1926. Hokkaido Imp. Univ., Faculty Agr., Jour. 18: 163.

Type-species: Takano)ia ishi!/a)iia)ta Uchida. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Ta.xonomy: Townes, Momoi, and Townes, 1965. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 5: 420 (syn.).

Oronotus vincibilis (Cresson)
n. comb. N. H. s. to D. C, w. to Iowa and Ark.

Iclniennion ci)icibilis Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 312. ♀.
Phaeogenes decoloratits Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 203. ♀.
Phaeogenes discus Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 203. ♂.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1957. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 59: 119 (generic transfer).

Genus DIADROMUS Wesmael

DiadroniKs Wesmael. 1845 (1844). [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Nouveaux Mem. 18: 207.

Type-species: Ichneumon troglodytes Gravenhorst. Desig. by Ashmead, 1900.
Thyraeella Holmgren, 1890 (1889). Ichn.'Suecica, v. 3, p. 402.

Type-species: Isclnuis collaris Gravenhorst. Monotypic.

Diadromus erythrostomus (Cameron)
Calif.

Stiboscopus erythrostomus Cameron, 1908. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 34: 244. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1961. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 63: 113.

Diadromus helvolus (Cresson)
Eastern Que. s. to Va., w. to Sask., Colo., and Tex. Host: Spargmiothis
sulfureana (Clem.), Endothenia hebesana (Wlk.).
Ichneumon helrolus Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 312. ♀.
Ichneumon Magdalensis Provancher, 1890. Nat. Canad. 19: 248. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 205.

Diadromus marginatus (Provancher)
N. Y., N. J., Md., Ont., Alta.

Phygodeuon marginatus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 56. ♂.

Diadromus subtilicornis (Gravenhorst)
Ont., Ohio, Ind., N. Dak., Kans., Utah, Wash., Oreg.; Eurasia. Host:
Phttella xylostella (L.). Cushman (1935) suppressed Herpestomus plutellae Ashmead as
a synonym of subtilicornis, and, after comparing North American and European
specimens, I have concluded that Townes (1944) was incorrect in resurrecting plutellae
from synonymy. Phaeogenes japonicus Ashmead was erroneously suppressed as a
synonym of subtilicornis by Townes, Momoi, and Townes (1965).
Ichneumon subtilicornis Gravenhorst, 1829. Ichn. Europaea, v. 1, p. 592. ♀.
Diadromus imbellis Wesmael, 1845 (1844). [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Nouveaux Mem.

18" 209 9
Herpestomus plutellae Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 12: 396. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1935. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 25: 548. —Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc,
Mem. 11: 305. —Townes, Momoi, and Townes, 1965. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 5: 420.

Biology: Lloyd, 1942. Rev. Canad. de Biol. 1: 633-645. — Harcourt, 1963. In LeRoux et ai,
Ent. Soc. Canada, Mem. 32: 61.




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Genus TEREBRAELLA Heinrich

Terebraella Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 211.

Type-species: Terebraella culiciops Heinrich. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Terebraella culiciops Heinrich
Fla.

Terebraella cidiciops Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 211.

Genus COLPOGNATHUS Wesmael

Colpogyiathns Wesmael, 1845 (1844). [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Nouveau.x Mem. 18:
174.

Type-species: Ichneumon celerator Gravenhorst. Monotypic.

Colpognathus helvus (Cresson)
Que. s. to Ga., w. to Calif. Host: Platyptilia carduidadyla (Riley).
Ichneumon fungor Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 306. ♂.
Ichneumon helvus Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 312. ♀.
CrypfuH certus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6 (6): 177 (l Phygadeuon hilaris Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 284. "♂"=♀.
Crypfus ruficornis Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11 (no. 125): 139. ♂. Preocc. by
Gravenhorst, 1829.

Taxonomy: Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 204, 206.

Genus CENTETERUS Wesmael

Cenfeterus Wesmael, 1845 (1844). [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Nouveaux Mem. 18: 176.
Type-species: Centeterns major Wesmael. Desig. by Ashmead, 1900.

Centeterus euryptychiae (Ashmead)
N. Y., Mich. Host: Epiblema Hcudderianum (Clem.). Ashmead

erroneously stated that the two syntypes were from V;'ashington, D. C. Notes made by
T. Pergande show that he reared these specimens from galls (on Solidago) sent by D. S.
Kellicott of Buffalo, N. Y.
Colpognathus euryptychiae Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 12: 395. ♀.

Centeterus linearis (Provancher)
Que., N. J., N. Mex. Host: Epiblema scudderianuvi (Clem.).

Crypfus linearis Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 72. ♂.
Phaeogenes beulahensis Viereck, 1903. In Skinner, Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 80 S.

Centeterus quadriceps (Cresson)
Que. s. to Va., w. to Mich.

Ichneumon quadriceps Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 312. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 204.

Centeterus tuberculifrons (Provancher)
Que., Maine, N. Y., S. C, Ont.

Phygadeuon tuberculifrons Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 284. ♀.

Phygadeuon fasciatus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 55. ♀.

Genus AETHECERUS Wesmael

Aethecenis Wesmael, 1845 (1844). [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Nouveaux Mem. 18: 213.
Type-species: Aethecerus di spar Wesmael. Desig. by Ashmead, 1900.

Aethecerus parvus (Provancher)
Que., Maine, R. I., N. Y.

Isch}tus parvus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 112. 6. Barron (1975) rejected the
"lectotype" selected by Gahan and Rohwer (1917) because it is a specimen which
Provancher used only for his 1879 redescription; Barron gave label data for the
specimen he regarded as the holotype.
Phaeogeues Farladeaui Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 331. ♀.
Phaeogenes Falardeauid) Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 302.

Taxonomy: Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 121. —Gahan and Rohwer, 1917. Canad. Ent.
49: 428. -Mason, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 145. -Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 469, 527-528.

Aethecerus pinifolii Mason
Alta., Calif. Host: Coleotechnites milleri (Bsk.), C. starki (Free.).
Aethecerus pinifolii Mason, 1960. Canad. Ent. 92: 145. ♂, ♀.




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Genus JETHSURA Cameron

Jethsura Cameron, 1902. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 28: 373.

Type-species: Jcth.sura ferntginea Cameron. Monotypic.

Jethsura pyriformis (Provancher)
Que., N. H., Mass., R. I., N. Y., N. Mex.
Isclnius pyriforniis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 109. ♀.
Jefhsura fen-uginea Cameron, 1902. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 28: 374. ♀.

Taxonomy: Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 40. -Townes, 1961. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 63:
109.

Genus PHAEOGENES Wesmael

Phaeoge)ies Wesmael, 1845 (1844). [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Nouveaux Mem. 18: 180.
Type-species: Phaeogenea priniarius Wesmael. Desig. by Ashmead, 1900. The
type-species is regarded as a synonym of P. seviivulpiniis (Gravenhorst).
Diwphanes Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 183.

Type-species: Phygadeuon (Dirophanes) plesius Viereck. By subsequent monotypy
from inclusion by Viereck, 1912.
TycheniH Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 25: 192.

Type-species: Phaeogenes elongating Thomson. Monotypically included and desig. by
Perkins, 1962.
Pwscus Holmgren, 1890 (1889). Ichn. Suecica, v. 3, p. 420.

Type-species: Phaeogenes ceplmlotes Wesmael. Desig. by Ashmead, 1900.

Townes, Momoi, and Townes (1965) distinguished Dirophanes from Phaeogenes, but the
characters they ascribed to Dirophanes in their key do not fit the type-species very well. Their
key also distinguishes Phaeogenes in the strict sense from "species placed in Phaeogenes with a
query," but because the latter category includes most of the species presently in Phaeogenes it
does not seem practical to adopt that classification here.

Taxonomy: Perkins, 1959. Handb. Ident. Brit. Ins., v. 7, pt. 2 (ai), p. 99-111. —Perkins, 1962.
Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent, Bui. 11: 461. —Townes, Momoi, and Townes, 1965. Amer. Ent.
Inst., Mem. 5: 593.

Phaeogenes acaudus (Provancher)
Que.

Phygadeuon acaudus Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13 (no. 155): 334 (key); 13 (no. 156):
358. ♀.

Phaeogenes arcticus Cushman
N. C.?, Alta., Alaska, B. C, Wash., Calif.? Host: Acleris gloverana (Wlshm.),
A. variana (Fern.).
Phaeogenes arcticus Cushman, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 251. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Prebble and Graham, 1945. Brit. Columbia Lumberman 29: 38, 39, 88.

Phaeogenes arogae Gittens and Henry
Idaho, Oreg. Host: Aroga websteri Clarke.

Phaeogenes arogae Gittens and Henry, 1966. Biol. Soc. Nev., Occas. Papers 12: I. 6, 9.

Phaeogenes ater Cresson
Que. s. to Miss., w. to Oreg. Host: Podosesia syringae (Harris), Synanthedo7i
exitiosa (Say), S. pyri (Harris), S. scitula (Harris), S. tipuliformis (Clerck).
Phaeogenes ater Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 202. ♀.

Amhlyteles macrocephalus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 34.
S.

Phaeogenes cacoeciae Viereck
N. Y., Mich., Sask., Colo., N. Mex., Utah, Alaska, B. C. Host: Archips
argyrospilus (Wlk.), Choristoneu)-a conflictana (Wlk.).
Phaeogenes cacoeciae Viereck, 1924. Canad. Ent. 56: 66. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Allen, 1968. Ent. Soc Amer., Ann. 61: 625, 626-627.

Phaeogenes cynarae Bragg
N. H. w. to Wash., s. to Va., Mo., and Calif. Host: Platyptilia sp., P.
carduidactyla (Riley).
Phaeogenes cynarae Bragg, 1971. Pan-Pacific Ent. 47: 58. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Lange, 1941. CaHf. Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 653: 24, 67.

Phaeogenes epinotiae Cushman
Maine. Host: Epinotia nanana (Treit.), Coleotechnites piceaella (Kft.).
Phaeogenes epinotiae Cushman, 1935. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 25: 547. ♂, ♀.




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Phaeogenes gaspesianus Provancher
N. S., Que., Maine, Ont., Ohio, Alaska, B. C, Oreg. Host: Acleris
variana (Fern.).
Phaeogenes Gasp€Hio)ius Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 331. ♀.
Phaeogeves piwplokfeH Bradley, 1918. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 13: 98. ♀.

Morphology: Peck, 1937. Canad. Jour. Res., Sect. D (Zool. Sci.) 15: 246, 251.

Phaeogenes gilvilabris Allen
N. Y., Pa., Mich., Wis. Host: Arcliips rom^iuti (L.), A. seniiferanus (Wlk.),
Sparga)iotlii.s pettifatia (Rob.).
Pliaeogenes gilrilabrin Allen, 1968. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 61: 627. <5, 9.

Phaeogenes haeussleri Uchida
Sakhalin, Japan. Introduced in Conn., N. J., Md., N. C, S. C, and Ind.

between 1934 and 1939, apparently without becoming established. Host: Grapholifha
violesta (Bsk.). G. )iiolest(i was the target host for introductions of P. haeussleri in the
U. S. Uchida (1933) gave a redescription for what he believed to be Pliaeogenes
japonicHs Ashmead, and after learning that he had misidentified P. japonicus he
published the name haeussleri in reference to his misidentification.
Phaeogenes haeussleri Uchida, 1935. Insecta Matsumurana 9: 82-83. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Uchida, 1933. Insecta Matsumurana 7: 155-156.

Biology: Haeussler, 1940. U. S. Dept. Agr., Tech. Bui. 728: 42-43. — Iwata, 1961. Acta Hym. 1:
316.

Morphology: Iwata, 1958. Acta Hym. 1: 71 (ovarian egg). —Iwata, 1961. Acta Hym. 1: 137
(ovary and egg).

Phaeogenes hebe (Cresson)
N. Y., 111.

Ichneumon Hebe Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 306. ♂, ♀.

Phaeogenes hebrus (Cresson)
Que. s. to Fla., w. to Wash.

Ichneumon hebrus Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 306. ♂, ♀.

Phygadeuon insignis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 179. 9. Barron (1975) gave label

data for the holotype.
Ichneumon ustus Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13 (no. 154): 305 (key); 13 (no. 155): 324. ♂ (♀ misdet.).
A lectotype was selected by Barron (1975).

Taxonomy: Allen, 1968. Ent. Soc Amer., Ann. 61: 625-626. —Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102:
490-491, 579.

Phaeogenes laevigatus (Cresson)
Colo.

Ichneumon laevigatus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc 3: 176. ♀. Preocc. by

Gravenhorst, 1820; not renamed here because of taxonomic uncertainties.
Phaeogenes levigatus Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 746. Unjustified emend.; preocc.
in Phaeogenes by I. laevigatus Cresson.

Phaeogenes laricellae Mason
N. B., Ont., Wis., Oreg. Host: Argyresthia laricella Kft.
Phaeogenes laricellae Mason, 1961. Canad. Ent. 93: 3. ♂, ♀.

Morphology: Eidt, 1962. Canad. Ent. 94: 32 (final-instar larva).

Phaeogenes maculicornis
***authority mismatch
hariolus (Cresson), n. status. N. S. w. to Alaska, s. to Mass., Mich., N. Mex., and

Oreg. Host: Acleris variana (Fern.), Argijrotaenia dorsolana Dyar, Choristoneura

conflictana (Wlk.), C.fumiferana (Clem.), C. occidentalis Free., C. pinus Free., Croesia

semipurpura)ia (Kft).
Ichneumon hariolus Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 305. ♀.
Phygadeuon (Bathyinefi.'i) spinicoxus Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19: 289. 9. N.

syn.
Phygadeuon (Dirophanes) plesius Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 42: 148. ♀.
Dirophanes banksianae Allen, 1967. Canad. Ent. 99: 893. ♀.

Biology: Dixon and Benjamin, 1963. Jour. Econ. Ent. 56: 267.
Morphology: Peck, 1937. Canad. Jour. Res., Sect. D (Zool. Sci.) 15: 246, 251.

Phaeogenes maculicornis
***authority mismatch
maculicornis (Stephens). Europe. Introduced in Ont. in 1950, 1955, and 1956. At
the time of release it was not suspected that the Nearctic niaculicomis hariolus
(Cresson) was conspecific The target species for releases in Ont. was the native
Choristoneura fu)nifera)ia (Clem.).
Ichneumon macnlicornis Stephens, 1835. Illus. Brit. Ent., v. 7, p. 136. ♂, ♀.




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Phaeogenes f^cutellaris Wesmael, 1845 (1844). [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Nouveaux
Mem. 18: 183. ♀.

Taxonomy: Morley, 1902. Ent. Monthly Mag. 38: 119 (syn.). —Perkins, 1953. Brit. Mus. (Nat.
Hist.) Ent., Bui. 3: 108.

Phaeogenes mellinus (Provancher)
Que. s. to N. J., w. to Mich, and Mo. Host: Ehhodios siibsignarius
(Hbn.), Arcliips semiferanus (Wlk.), Croesia se»iipurpurana (Kft.).
Phaeogenes »iellinus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 315. 9. Barron (1975) rejected the
"lectotype" selected by Gahan and Rohwer (1918), but thought the specimen fragment
he regarded as the holotype to be conspecific with the Gahan and Rohwer "lectotype".

Taxonomy: Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11: 39. —Gahan and Rohwer, 1918. Canad. Ent. 50:
133. -Barron, 1975. Nat. Canad. 102: 507.

Phaeogenes nigridens Wesmael
Mass.; Europe. Introduced. Host: Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbn.).

Phaeogenes nigridens Wesmael, 1845 (1844). [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Nouveaux
Mem. 18: 192. "? (5," 9.

Taxonomy: Cushman, 1932. In Smith, U. S. Dept. Agr., Tech. Bui. 331: 6 (redescription of
adult). -Perkins, 1953. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist) Ent., Bui. 3: 133. -Allen, 1968. Ent. See.
Amer., Ann. 61: 628-629.

Biology: Smith, 1932. U. S. Dept. Agr., Tech. Bui. 331: 21-45. —Baker, 1944. Ent. Soc. Wash.,
Proc. 46: 134. -Baker. Bradley, and Clark, 1945. U. S. Dept. Agr., Tech. Bui. 983: 113-119.
— Arbuthnot, 1950. Jour. Econ. Ent. 43: 425.

Morphology: Goidanich, 1931. R. 1st. Super. Agr., Lab. di Ent, Bol. 4: 85-90. —Smith, 1932.
U. S. Dept. Agr., Tech. Bui. 331: 5-21.
ophthaimicus americanus Allen. Colo., Wash. P. ophfhahnictis ophthahuiais Wesmael occurs
in Europe.
Phaeogenes ophthahnicits a)iiericaniis Allen, 1968. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 61: 627. ♂, ♀.

Phaeogenes orbus Provancher
Que.

Phaeogenes orbus Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 332. ♂.

Taxonomy: Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 41 (female
described).

Phaeogenes osrufus (Davis)
111.

EurylabiiN osnifus Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 353. ♀.
Ennjlabus varufusC.) Nason, 1905. Ent. News 16: 148.

Phaeogenes phycidis Ashmead
Que., N. H., Mass., Conn., N. Y., Minn. Host: Acrobasis betnlella Hist., A.
nibrifasciella Pack., A. silviella Ely.
Phaeogenes phycidis Ashmead, 1898. In Dimmock and Ashmead, Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 4:
169. ♀.

Biology: Daviault, 1935. Nat. Canad. 62: 318, 319.

Phaeogenes sitkensis (Ashmead)
Southeastern Alaska. Known only from the holotype which has the
thyridia only faintly indicated.
Eriplatys sitkensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 162.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 302.

Phaeogenes soriculatus (Provancher)
Que., N. Y., N. C.

Cryptus soriculatus Provancher, 1881. Nat. Canad. 13: 362. ♂.

Phaeogenes testaceicornis (Cameron)
Nev.

Bathywetis testaceiconiis Cameron, 1908. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 34: 245. ♀.

Taxonomy: Morley, 1914. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 409. —Townes, 1961. Ent. Soc
Wash., Proc 63: 104.

Phaeogenes walshiae Ashmead
N. J. s. to Fla., w. to 111., Kans., and Miss. Host: Walshia "amorphella"
Clem., Ancylis cou/ptana (Froel.), Epiblema strenuanum (Wlk.), Grapholitha molesta
(Bsk.), Laspeyresia caryana (Fitch), Rhyacionia frustrana (Comst.), Phaloniidae. In the
U. S. Natl. Museum collection there is a female specimen from Shady, Fla. having the




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apical tergites of the abdomen black; it demonstrates the impracticality of recognizing a

northern and southern subspecies.
Phygadeuon walshiae Riley, 1890. In Riley and Howard, U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3:

153. Nomen nudum.
Phaeogene>i walshiae Ashmead, 1896. Amer. Ent. See, Trans. 23: 205. ♂, ♀.
Phaeogenes (Centetenis) ineptifrons Gahan, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 113. ♂, ♀.
ProHCUH ivalfihiae var. australis Cushman, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82: 5. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Biology: Haden, 1935. Univ. Del. Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 194: 20-35.

Tribe GYRODONTINI

This is the Ichneumonini in the sense of Heinrich and, in part, the Joppini in the sense of
Townes. It is a very large tribe of worldwide distribution. Heinrich (1967) divided the tribe into
five subtribes, four of which are represented in North America.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1967. Synopsis and Reclassif. Ichneumoninae Stenopneusticae Africa
So. of Sahara, v. 1, p. 26-27; v. 3, p. 486-487 (keys to subtribes).

Subtribe GYRODONTINA

Genus CRATICHNEUMON Thomson

Cratichiieumon Thomson, 1893. Opusc. Ent. 18: 1945.

Type-species: Iclnieumon luteiroitris Gravenhorst. Desig. by Ashmead, 1900.
Lareiga Cameron, 1903. Ztschr. System. Hym., Dipt. 3: 13.

Type-species: Lareiga rufofeniorata Cameron. Monotypic.
Belargea Cameron, 1903. Ztschr. System. Hym., Dipt. 3: 15.

Type-species: Belargea albo))iaculata Cameron. Monotypic. The type-species is
regarded as a synonym of C. rufofemorata (Cameron).
Odontojoppa Cameron, 1903. Ztschr. System., Dipt. 3: 16, 177.

Type-species: Odontojoppa nietallica Cameron. Monotypic.
Sycaonia Cameron, 1903. Ent. Soc. London, Trans. 51: 224.

Type-species: Sycaonia rufofacies Cameron. Monotypic.
Leptothecns Cameron, 1903. Entomologist 36: 240.

Type-species: Leptothecns rufoniaculatus Cameron. Monotypic.
Tanyjoppa Cameron, 1904. Ztschr. System. Hym., Dipt. 4: 217.

Type-species: Tanyjoppa sanguineoplagiata Cameron. Monotypic.
Lissichneumon Cameron, 1906. Entomologist 39: 227.

Type-species: Lissichneumon levis Cameron. Monotypic.
Ninibolareiga Heinrich, 1969 (1968). Synopsis and Reclassif. Ichneumoninae
Stenopneusticae Africa So. of Sahara, v. 4, p. 933.

Type-species: Ninibolareiga rnenicapitis Heinrich. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This is a very large and widely distributed genus which is particulary difficult taxononomi-
cally.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1973. Amer. Ent. Inst, Mem. 19: 304 (generic syn.).

Cratichneumon acronictae Heinrich
Que., Maine, N. ¥., N. C. Host: Acronicta sp.

Cratichneunion acronictae Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 125. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 984.

Cratichneumon alternans (Provancher)
Que., Maine.

Phygadeuon alternans Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13 (no. 155): 335 (key); 13 (no. 156):
358. ♀.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 986-989 (male described and included in key).

Cratichneumon anisotae Heinrich
Que. s. to Va., w. to Wis. Host: Anisota senatoria (J. E. S.), Dryocampa
rubicunda rubicunda (F.).
Cratichneunion a^iisotae Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 119. ♂, ♀.

Cratichneumon annulatipes (Provancher)
Que. s. to D. C, w. to Mich, and Mo.

Phaeogenes annulatipes Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 43. ♀.




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Aniblyteles {Pierocor»ius) quintilis Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.

Survey Bui. 22: 354, 357. ♂.
Cratichneumon anmdatipes facetops Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 147. 6. N.

syn.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1959. Ent. News 70: 214 (syn.).

Cratichneumon annulatus (Provancher)
Que. s. to Pa., w. to Mich.

MeHOsfenus (lyi)Uilatus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 265. ♂.

Cratichneumon arizonensis
***authority mismatch
(Viereclt). Ariz. According to Heinrich (1961) this species is closely related to
takoinae Heinrich.
Ichneumon (Eurylabus) arizonensis Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19: 295. ♀.

Cratichneumon ashmeadi (Schulz)
Que., Maine, N. H., Colo., Alaska, B. C, Wash., Oreg.

Ichneumon imitator Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 151. ♂. Preocc. by Villers,

1789.
Ichneumon Ashmeadi Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 128. N. name for /. imitator Ashmead.

Cratichneumon astutus (Holmgren)
Calif.

Ichneumon astutus Holmgren, 1869 (1868). Eug. Resa, pt. 2 (Zool.), sect. 1 (Ins.), p. 394.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1961. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 63: 106.

Cratichneumon austropiceipes Heinrich
Ga., Miss.

Cratichneumon austropiceipes Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 992. ♂, ♀.

Cratichneumon boreoalpinus Heinrich
Newfoundland (insular), N. H.

Cratichneumon boreoalpinus Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 168. ♀.

Cratichneumon boreovagans Heinrich
Que., Maine. According to Heinrich, this may be a northern variant of
C. paraparatus Heinrich.
Cratichneumon boreovagans Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 29: 870. ♀.

Cratichneumon brevipennis (Cresson)
Maine, N. H., Mass., R. I., Pa., Md., Va., Fla., Ont., Iowa, Mo., Colo.
Host: Faronta diffusa (Wlk.).
Ichneumon brevipennis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 174. ♀.
Ischnus volens Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 192. ♂.

Ichneumon brevipennis var. obsoletus Riley, 1877. Mo. State Ent., Ann. Rpt. 9: 55. ♀.
Preocc. by Gmelin, 1790 and Fabricius, 1798; Heinrich (1961) erroneously stated that the
holotype is lost.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1959. Ent. News 70: 214 (syn.). —Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent.

Sup. 18: 170.

Cratichneumon broweri Heinrich
Maine.

Cratichneiimon broweri Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 998. ♀.

Cratichneumon carolinae Heinrich
N. C, Ga.

Cratichneumon carolinae Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 991. ♀.
citrinops kincaidi (Ashmead). Sask., Alaska. C. ciirinops citrinops (Wesmael) is European.

Ichneumon kincaidi Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 152. ♂.

Cratichneumon alaskensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 157. ♂.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1959. Ent. News 70: 213 (status).
duplicatus (Say). Mass. s. to Va., w. to Wis.

Ichneumon duplicatus Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 230. ♂.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1951. In Muesebeck et al., U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2:
288.

Cratichneumon erythroscuta Heinrich
Mass. Heinrich supposed that erythroscuta may prove to be the female
of C. vaccina Heinrich.
Cratichneumon erythroscuta Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 142. ♀.

Cratichneumon expers Heinrich
N. C, n. Fla., Miss.

Cratichneumon expers Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 178. ♂, ♀.

Cratichneumon expers circumflavidus Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 180. ♀. N. syn.

Cratichneumon facetus (Cresson)
R. I. s. to N. C, w. to Mich, and Ky.

Ichneumon facetus Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 311. ♂.




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Cratichneumon ferrugops Heinrich
Que., Ont., Mich.

Cratichneunion ferrugops Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 124. ♀.

Cratichneumon flaschkai Heinrich
Colo.

Cratichnennion flaschkai Heinrich, 1973. Nat. Canad. 100: 461, 463. ♂, ♀.

Cratichneumon flavipectus (Provancher)
Que. s. to Ga., w. to Mich, and Miss.

Cryptusflavipechifi Provancher, 1879. Nat. Canad. 11 (no. 125): 134. "♀"=♂.

Ichneumon pi/gmaeuft Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 350. ♀. Preocc. by
Poda, 1761."

Cratichneumon ericaeus Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 335. N. name for I.
pygmaeus Davis.

Craficlineunion flavipectus mississippi Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 989. N. syn.

Cratichneumon floridensis Heinrich
Fla.

Cratichneumon floridensin Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 181. ♂, ♀.

Cratichneumon fuscior Heinrich
Ga.

Cratichneunion fuxcior Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 996. ♀.

Cratichneumon georgius Heinrich
Southern Ga.

Cratichneunion georgius Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 995. ♀.

Cratichneumon horani Heinrich
Northern Fla., Miss.

Cratichneunion horani Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 180. ♂, ♀.

Cratichneumon howdeni Heinrich
N. C.

Cratichneunion howdeni Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 172. ♀.

Cratichneumon insulae Heinrich
R. I., N. J.

Cratichneunion inxulae Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 151. ♀.

Cratichneumon involutus (Cresson)
Colo.

Ichneumon inrolutus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 183. ♀.

Cratichneumon naumanni Heinrich
Ga.

Cratichneniiion nau)nan)ii Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 994. ♀.
nigritarius acerbus (Cresson). Newfoundland (Labrador) s. to N. Y., w. to S. Dak. and Colo.
Host: Isturgia tru)icataria (Wlk.), Protoboarinia porcelaria (Gn.), Semiothisa
sexmaculata (Pack.). C. nigritarius nigritarius ((jravenhorst) is Eurasian.

Ichneu7non acerbus Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 293. ♂.

Ichneumon corvinus Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 145. ♀.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1953. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 43: 149-150.

Cratichneumon paraparatus Heinrich
N. Y., N. J., Md., N. C, S. C. Heinrich's description of paraparatus was
based upon 12 female specimens, apparently including the specimen ("neallotype") upon
which Heinrich (1961) based his description of what was presumed to be the female of
C. cinnulus (Cresson). Because the description of paraparatus was not accompanied by
the description of a female which could more definitely be associated with vinnulus
males, the status of the name paraparatus seems dubious.
Cratichneunion paraparatus Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 29: 869. ♀.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 100, 138-140. —Heinrich, 1971. Nat.

Canad. 98: 988 (key including male thought possibly to be conspecific with paraparatus).

Cratichneumon paratus (Say)
Que. s. to Fla., w. to N. Dak. and Mo. Host: Lanibdina pellucidaria (G. and R.),
Heterocanipa guttivitta (Wlk.), H. nianteo (Dbidy.).

Ichneumon parata Say, 1829. Contrib. Maclurian Lyceum to Arts and Sci. 1: 68. ♂.

Ichneumon annulipes Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc 3: 170. ♀.

Ichneumon pusillus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc Phila., Proc 3: 171. ♀.

Cratichneunion paratus pseudovinnulus Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 137.
i, 9. N. syn.

Cratichneumon pertenuis Heinrich
Maine, N. Y.

Cratichneumon pertenuis Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 169. ♀.

Cratichneumon petulcus (Cresson)
Southern Calif.

Ichneumon petulcus Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 185. ♀.

Cratichneumon piceipes Heinrich
Que., Maine, Mich.

Cratichneumon piceipes Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 130. ♂, ♀.




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Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 993.

Cratichneumon pilosulus (Provancher)
Newfoundland (insular), Que., Maine, N. H., Pa., Mich., S. Dak.

Ichneunion piloxulus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 25. ♀.

Cratichneumon popofensis Ashmead
Que., Alaska. Although this species was recorded from Que. by Townes
and Townes (1951), Heinrich (1961) did not mention the species in his revision of the
stenopneusticae of the Northeast. Ashmead appears to have correctly associated the
se.xes of popofen.'iis, and the suppression of popofensis as a synonym of yakutatensis
Ashmead by Heinrich (1959) appears to be incorrect.
Cratichneunion popofensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 159. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1951. U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 288. —Heinrich, 1959.
Ent. News 70: 214.

Cratichneumon promptus (Cresson)
Que., Maine, N. H., Man. Host: Protoboarmia porcelaria (Gn.).

Ichuentnoyi protnptus Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 152. ♂, ♀.

Cratichneumon proximus (Cresson)
N. Y. s. to Ala., w. to 111. Host: Syynmerista ca7iicosta Francl.
Ischnus proximus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 187. ♂.
Ichneumon sagus Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 294. 9 (male misdet.).

Cratichneumon pseudanisotae Heinrich
N. Y., N. J., Md.

Cratichneunion pseudanisotae Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 133. ♀.

Cratichneumon pteridis Townes
Newfoundland (insular). Que., Maine, N. H., N. Y., Pa., Ont., Mich., Man.,
Alaska. Host: Ectropis crepuscularia (D. and S.), Protoboarynia porcelaria (Gn.),
Semiothisa sp., Heterocaynpa gnttivitta (Wlk.).
Phygadeuon proximus Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 283. ♀. Preocc. in Cratichneunion

by Cresson, 1864.
Cratich)ieu)non pteridis Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 339. N. name for P.
proxi7nns Provancher.

Cratichneumon puncticoxa Heinrich
Que., Maine, Mass., N. Y., Pa., Mich.

Cratichneumon puncticoxa Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 133. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 986 (amendments to description).

Cratichneumon remanens Heinrich
Maine, N. Y., Md., N. C, Ont.

Cratichneu)no)i re)nanens Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 157. ♂.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 988 (inclusion in revised key).

Cratichneumon ritus Heinrich
Maine, Va., N. C, Ont., Mich., Ind., Iowa. Host: Phigalia titea (Cramer).

Cratichneunion ritus Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 143. ♂, ♀.

Cratichneumon rubricoides Heinrich
Que., Maine, N. Y., N. C, Mich.

Cratichneumon rubricoides Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 165. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 990-991 (additional differences from rubriciis
[Provancher]).

Cratichneumon rubricops Heinrich
Que., Maine, N. Y., Ont.

Cratichneumon rubricops Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 167. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 988 (inclusion of male in revised key).

Cratichneumon rubricus (Provancher)
P. E. I., Que., Maine, N. Y., Mich.

Phygadeuon rubricus Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13 (no. 155): 335 (key); 13 (no. 156):
358. ♀.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 989 (inclusion of male in revised key).

Cratichneumon russatus (Cresson)
Colo., Ariz., Idaho, B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif. Townes (1961) said that

Cratichneumon russatus
***authority mismatch
is probably a synonym of astutus (Holmgren).
Ichneumon russatus Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 183. ♀.
Ichnetwion (Barichneunion) citrinifacialis Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19: 297. ♂.
Taxonomy: Townes, 1961. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc 63: 106.

Cratichneumon scitulus (Cresson)
Que. s. to Va., w. to 111.

Ischnus scitulus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 193. ♂.




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Ichneumon nanus Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. See, Trans. 4: 184. ♀. Preocc. by Ratzeburg,

1848.
AmbhjteleH nanodes Cushman, 1925. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 15: 388. N. name for /. nanus

Cresson.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 989 (inclusion of male in revised key).

Cratichneumon signatipes (Cresson)
Que. s. to D. C, w. to Kans. Townes and Townes (1951) said that

Cratichneumon signatipes
***authority mismatch
males had often been misidentified as C. duplicatus (Say), and Heinrich

(1961, 1962) erroneously suppressed signatipes as a synonym of C. w-albuni (Cresson)

(which see).
Ichneumon signatipes Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 308. ♀.
Ichneumon lobatun Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (1): 23 (key); 7 (3): 77. ♂.
Ichneumon/ (Sfiboscopufsf) oryxicornis Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19: 324. ♂.
Amblyteles {BarichneumonO duplicatiformis Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and

Nat. Hist. Survey, Bui. 22: 354, 360. ♂.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1951. In Muesebeck et al., U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2:
289. -Heinrich, 1961 (1960); 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 126-130; 29: 868.

Cratichneumon suadus (Cresson)
Que., Maine, R. I., Conn., N. Y., Pa., Ont., Wis.

Ichneumon suadus Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 160. ♂.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 988 (inclusion of male in revised key).

Cratichneumon subfilatus Heinrich
Que. s. to N. C, w. to Mich. Host: Lambdina pellucidaria (G. and R.).

Cratichneumon subfilatus Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 131. ♂, ♀.

Cratichneumon sublatus (Cresson)
Que. s. to Va., w. to 111. Host: Heterocampa biundata Wlk., H. guttivitfa
(Wlk.), Ht/dria pru)iii'orata (Ferg.).
Ischnus sublatus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 186. ♂.
Ich)ieu)non prams Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 151. ♀.

Biology: Patch, 1908. Maine Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 161: 340.

Cratichneumon takomae Heinrich
Southern Maine?, Md.

Cratichneunion takomae Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 116. ♂.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 984.

Cratichneumon tyloidifer Heinrich
Maine, N. Y., N. J., Pa., Md., Va., N. C, Ont., Mich.

Cratichneumon tyloidifer Ueinrkh, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 115. ♂.

Cratichneumon unifasciatorius (Say)
Que. w. to s. B. C, s. to Fla., Utah, and Oreg. Host: Orgyia antiqua (L.),
0. leucostign/a (J. E. S.), Hemileuca sp., Diacrista virginica (P.), Halisidota argentata
(Pack.), H. caryae (Harris), H. tesselaris (J. E. S.), Acronicta oblinita (J. E. S.).
Ichneumon unifasciatorius Say, 1825. Amer. Ent. 2: 48. ♂.

Ichneumon malacus Say, 1829. Contrib. Maclurian Lyceum to Arts and Sci. 1: 72. ♀.
Ichneumon niger Brulle, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 302. ♂, ♀.

Preocc by Gmelin, 1790 and Fabricius, 1798.
Ichneumon Afer Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc 3: 138. ♀.
Ichneumon scriptifrons Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 144. ♂.
Ichneumon Vancouverie7isis Provancher, 1885. Canad. Ent. 17: 114. ♂.
Ichneumon aterrimus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 30. ♀.
Preocc. by Foerster, 1771.

Cratichneumon vaccinii Heinrich
Que., Maine, Pa., Ont, Mich.

Cratichneunion mccinii Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 141. ♂.

Cratichneumon valdefuscus Heinrich
N. Y. s. to n. Fla., w. to La.

Cratichneumon valdefuscus Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 177. ♂, ♀.

Cratichneumon vescus (Provancher)
Que., Maine, N. H., Vt., N. Y., Pa., Ont., Mich., N. Mex., Alta., B. C. Host:
Protoboarniia porcelaria (Gn.).

Ichneumon vescus Provancher, 1877. Nat. Canad. 9: 9. ♂.

Cratichneumon vinnulus (Cresson)
Que. s. to N. C, w. to Wis. and Ky.

Ischnus vinnulus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 189. ♂.

Cratichneumon gracilior Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 147. 9 (male misdet.).

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 29: 868 (syn.).




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Cratichneumon vockerothi Heinrich
N. H. Ecology: The holotype was collected on the summit of Mt.
Washington, N. H. (elevation 6100 to 6288 ft.).

Cratichneunion vockerothi Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 158. ♀.

Cratichneumon w-album (Cresson)
Que. s. to Ga., w. to Wis. and Ala. Host: Heterocanipa guttivifta (Wlk.),
Dryocampa rubicunda rubicunda (F.). Heinrich (1959, 1961) erroneously applied the
name iv-albit)» to C. aignatipes (Cresson) because of the fact that Cresson's (1916)
lectotype for w-albuiii does not agree in decisive respects with the original description.
Although Cresson made no mention of variation to indicate that he used more than one
of his syntypes in writing his original description of w-albH))i, the fact that he had more
that one type-specimen is indicated by his statement: "Hab[itat]- Pennsylvania (C. A.
Blake); Delaware (Dr. Wilson); New Jersey (Cresson)." Unless it can be shown that
Cresson's (1916) lectotype from Pa. was not the specimen from C. A. Blake, there is no
basis for disregarding it as the legitimate lectotype. Although it is possible that
Cresson's lectotype is not one of the original syntypes, but instead a specimen aquired
later and used in making his 1867 expanded description of iv-albii»i, lack of agreement
with the original description is not proof of this.

Ischnus W-albunt Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 191. ♂.

Isclnius variegatus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 250. ♂.

Cratichneunion variegatiiH insigyiituN Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 985. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Taxonomy: Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 309. —Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc,
Trans. 6: 179-180 (redescription based on specimens from Canada, N. H., and Mass.).
—Cresson, 1916. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 1: 63 (lectotype selection). —Heinrich, 1959. Ent.
News 70: 190. —Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 122-124, 126-127, 129.

Cratichneumon yakutatensis Ashmead
Alaska.

Cratichneuvion yakutatensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 157. ♂.

Genus CRYPTEFFIGIES Heinrich

AcuUchneumon subg. Crypteffigies Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 15: 17.
Type-species: Cratichneumon confusus Ashmead. Monotypic and orig. desig.

According to Heinrich (1969) Crypteffigies is Holarctic

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 178-180. -Heinrich, 1969 (1968).
Synopsis and Reclassif. Ichneumoninae Stenopneusticae Africa So. of Sahara, v. 5, p. 1106.

Crypteffigies confusa (Ashmead)
Que., N. Y., Alaska, B. C.

Cratichneumon confusus Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc 4: 158. ♂.
Plectocryptus popofensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 183. ♀.
. Plectocryptus yakutatensis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 183. ♀.

Crypteffigies megalura Heinrich
Maine, Ont. Specimens in the U. S. Natl. Museum collection appear to
indicate that viegalurus will not likely prove to be deserving of anything more than
suppression as a synonym of confusus.
AcuUchneumon (Crypteffigies) confusus 7)iegaluri(s Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent.
Sup. 18: 180, 205. 9. The alternate spelling "niogalnrus" appears on p. 205.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 1003-1004 (description of male and elevation to
species status).

Genus HOMOTHERUS Foerster

Homotherus Foerster, 1868. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verb. 25: 185.

Type-species: Ichneumon locutor Thunberg. Monotypically included and desig. by
Perkins, 1960.

This is a small genus of Holarctic distribution.

Taxonomy: Perkins, 1960. Handb. Ident. Brit. Ins., v. 7, pt. 2 (aii), p. 153. —Heinrich, 1971.
Nat. Canad. 98: 1000 (key for some males).

Homotherus erythromelas (MacLachlan)
Northern N. W. T.; w. Greenland. Dr. W. R. M. Mason informed
me that there are specimens from Greenland in the Canadian National Collection, but




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none from Canada. The holotype, which is from northern Ellesmere Island is apparently
the only Canadian specimen known.
Ichne^imon enjtiironielas MacLachlan, 1879 (1878). Linn. Soc. Zool., Jour. 14: 106. ♀.

Ta.xonomy: Strand, 1905. Rpt. Second Norwegian Arctic Exped. in the "Fram" 1898-1902, no.

3, p. 6. —Roman, 1930. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 5: 282. -Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent.

Sup. 29: 871-872.

Homotherus magus (Wesmael)
Newfoundland (insular); Greenland; Europe.

Ichneumon magus Wesmael, 1855. [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Bui. 22: 389. ♂, ♀.

Honiotherus uiagus nearcds Heinrich, 1976 (1975). Nat. Canad. 102: 753, 766. ♀. N. syn.
Based upon a single female from insular Newfoundland. The variant spelling
"nearcticus" which appears on p. 583 (French resume and English abstract) is here
rejected in favor of nearctis.

Phaeogenen nitidus Bridgman, 1886. Ent. Soc. London, Trans. 34: 337. ♂.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1938. In Carpenter, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 1: 538. —Perkins, 1953.

Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 3: 116, 134, 136. -Perkins, 1960. Handb. Ident. Brit. Ins.,

V. 7, pt. 2 (aii), p. 121, 138, 145, 147.

Homotherus porcelariae Heinrich
Newfoundland (Labrador), N. B., Maine, Ont., Mich., Man. Host:
Eufidonia notataria (Wlk.), Pwtoboaniiia porcelaria (Gn.), Sewiotliisa sp. '

Honiotherus porcelanae Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 173.

Homotherus pseudoporcelariae Heinrich
Newfoundland (insular), Maine.

HoniotheruK pseudoporcelariae Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 1001. ♂, ♀.

Homotherus semiaoplus Heinrich
Newfoundland (insular), Que., Maine, W. Va., Mich.

Homotherns semiaoplus Heinrich, 1961 (1960. Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 173. ♂, ♀.

Homotherus smileyi Heinrich
N. Y.

Homotherns smileyi Heinrich, 1968. Nat. Canad. 95: 717. ♂, ♀.

Homotherus townesi Heinrich
Newfoundland (insular), Que., Maine, N. Y., N. C, Ont, Mich.
Homotherns townesi Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 18: 175. ♂, ♀.

Genus EUPALAMUS Wesmael

Eupalamns Wesmael, 1845 (1844). [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Nouveaux Mem. 18: 14.

Type-species: Eupala)nus oscillator 'Wesmael Monotypic.
Lagenesta Cameron, 1901. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 7: 376.

Type-species: Lagenesta ferrnginea Cameron. Monotypic.
Xestojoppa Cameron, 1901. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 7: 379.

Type-species: Xestojoppa olivacea Cameron. Monotypic.
Cosmiojoppa Cameron, 1902. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 2: 395.

Type-species: Cosmiojoppa violaceipennis Cameron. Monotypic.
Lynieria Cameron, 1904. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 4: 220.

Type-species: Lynteria violaceipennis Cameron. Monotypic. The type-species is a
synonym of £. cyanopteryx Townes, Townes, and Gupta.
Faesula Cameron, 1904. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 4: 338.

Type-species: Faesula maculata Cameron. Monotypic.
Mesophadnus Cameron, 1907. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 50: 75.

Type-species: Mesophadnus spiloptenis Cameron. Monotypic.

Taxonomy: Townes, Momoi, and Townes, 1965. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 5: 447 (syn.).

Eupalamus andersoni Heinrich
B. C.

Eupalanius andersoni Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 385. ♀.

Eupalamus melacneme Heinrich
Que., Ont.

Eupalamns melacneme Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 386. ♂, ♀.

Genus ANISOPYGUS Kriechbaumer

Anisopygus Kriechbaumer, 1888. Wien. Mus. der Naturgesch., Ann. 3: 36.
Type-species: Amblyteles pseudonymus Wesmael. Monotypic.




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Anisopygus americanus Heinrich
Newfoundland (insular) w. to s. B. C, s. to Maine, Wis., and Calif. Host:
Ichthyura apicalis Wlk.
AniftopyguH a}iiericanits Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 379. ♂, ♀.
pseudonymus nearcticus Heinrich. Colo., Alta., B. C. Host: Notodontid. A. pseiidonymus

pseu(lo)iy)ni(s (Wesmael) is Eurasian. Heinrich's description of p. }iearcticHS seems to
indicate that the difference from the nominate form are so slight as to make the
distinction of dubious worth.
Anisopygus pseudonynius nearcticus Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 378. ♂, ♀.

Genus MELANICHNEUMON Thomson

Melanichnemiion Thomson, 1893. Opusc. Ent. 18: 1954.

Type-species: IcInieiDiion spectabilis Holmgren. Desig. by Ashmead, 1900.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 201-203 (key to spp. of southeastern U. S.).

Melanichneumon absconditus (Provancher)
Newfoundland (insular), Maine, N. H., N. C.?, Mich., Colo., Alta.,
Wash.
Icluu'itinon abscondittia Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 31. ♂.

Melanichneumon disparilis (Cresson)
Maine s. to n. Fla., w. to Mich, and La.

Ichneumon disparilis Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 307. ♀.
Melanichnemnon disparilis flavidops Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 203. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Melanichneumon dreisbachi Heinrich
Maine, Mich.

Melanichneitnion (Mela)ticlineu))ton) dreisbachi Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 585. ♂, ♀.

Melanichneumon flavicarina Heinrich
Que., Maine, Ont., Mich., Man. Host: Protoboarnna porcelaria (Gn.).

Melanichnemuon (Mela)iichneunion) flai'icarina Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 594. ♂, ♀.
The variant spelling "flarocarina" is on p. 583, but Peck (1964) made the first
revisor decision in favor of flai'icarina.
Melanichneu)no)i flarocarinail) Heinrich, 1973. Nat. Canad. 100: 465.

Taxonomy: Peck, 1964. Ent. Soc. Canada, Mem. 35: 892.
foxlcei Heinrich. Southern B. C.

Melanichneitnion {Melanichnemnon) foxleei Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 586. ♂.

Melanichneumon heiligbrodtii (Cresson)
Fla., Tex.; Mexico.

Ichneumon Heiligbrodtii Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 168. ♂.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 597-598 (redescription of male). —Heinrich,
1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 202, 204, 207 (inclusion of both sexes in keys).

Melanichneumon honestus (Cresson)
Md. s. to Fla., w. to s. Mich, and La.

Ichneumon honestus Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 170. ♂.
Melanichiieumon honestus milleri Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 205. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Melanichneumon indecoratus Heinrich
P. E. L, Que., Maine, N. Y.?, Ont.

Melanichneumon {Melanichneumon) indecoratus Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 589. ♂, ♀.

Melanichneumon leviculops Heinrich
Newfoundland (insular), Que., Maine, Ont.

Melanichneumon {Melanichneumon) leviculops Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 600. ♀.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1976 (1975). Nat. Canad. 102: 767-768 (male described).

Melanichneumon leviculus (Cresson)
Que. s. to N. C, w. to Mich. Host: Coryphista meadi (Pack.).

Ichneumon leviculus Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 170. ♂.

Melanichneumon lissorufus Heinrich
Newfoundland (Labrador and insular). Que., Maine, N. Y., Ont., Mich.
Melanichneumon {Melanichneumon) lissorufus Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 591. ♂, ♀.
Melanichneumon lissorufus radtkei Heinrich, 1976 (1975). Nat. Canad. 102: 768. 6, 9. N.
syn. Described from five specimens from one locality in insular Newfoundland.

Melanichneumon margaritae Heinrich
Tenn., Ark.

Melanichneu)non niargaritae Heinrich, 1973. Nat. Canad. 100: 464. ♂, ♀.




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Melanichneumon mystificans Heinrich
Ga.

MelanichneiOHon viyfitificana Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 207. ♂, ♀.

Melanichneumon neoleviculops Heinrich
Maine, Ohio.

Melanichneunion neoleviculops Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 1015. ♂, ♀.

Melanichneumon pluto (Viereck)
revised status. N. Y., Ont., Mich., Ohio, N. Mex. The name piiito has been

erroneously suppressed in synonymy since 1944, most recently by Heinrich (1959, 1962),
who did not realize that Ich)teH))io)i iiigripes Provancher is preoccupied.
Ichneuiuon nigripes Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13 (no. 154): 310 (key); 13 (no. 155):

324. ♂. Preocc. by Gravenhorst, 1829.
Cmticlnieimion pluto Viereck, 1903. In Skinner, Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 79. ♂.
Aniblyteles ohioensis DeGant, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (11): 1. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 325. —Heinrich, 1959. Ent. News 70:
212. -Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 601-602.

Melanichneumon texanus (Cresson)
Maine, R. I., N. Y., Mich., Tex., Alta. Discovery of the female of this species
may show that it belongs in Vulgichnemnon instead oi Melanichneuvwn (see Heinrich,
1962).
Ichneumon texanus Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 159. ♂.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 632-633.

Melanichneumon townesi Heinrich
R. I., N. Y., Mich.

Melanichneunion (Melanich7ieu)>io)i) townesi Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 596. ♂, ♀.

Melanichneumon xanthogrammus (Ashmead)
Kans., Tex.

Ichneumon xanfhogramvnis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 12: 390. ♂.

Genus BARICHNEUMON Thomson

Barichneumon Thomson, 1893. Opusc Ent. 18: 1959.

Type-species: Ichneumon anator Fabricius. Desig. by Ashmead, 1900.
Gurfyia Cameron, 1903. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 3: 178.

Type-species: Gurfyia albipilosa Cameron. Monotypic
Harsaces Cameron, 1903. Entomologist 36: 238.

Type-species: Harsaces nigripes Cameron. Monotypic.
Darpasus Cameron, 1904. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 4: 344.

Type-species: Darpasus pilosus Cameron. Monotypic.
Stictichneumon Cameron, 1905. Spolia Zeylanica (Ceylon Jour. Sci., Sect. B) 3: 105.

Type-species: Stictichneumon macariae Cameron. Monotypic.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1966. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 8: 261 (generic syn.).
—Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 184-190 (keys to spp. of e. N. Amer.).

Barichneumon anator (Fabricius)
Que. s. to Pa., w. to Minn, and 111.; Europe. Host: Ostrinia nnbilalis (Hbn.)?
Ichneumon anator Fabricius, 1793. Ent. System., v. 2, p. 169. Sex not indicated.
Ichneumon femoratorius Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem.

8: 253; 9: 289. [female].
Ichneumon bulimorius Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8:

255; 9: 295. [female].
Ichneumon dealhafor Thunberg, 1822; 1824. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8:

272; 9: 341. Unnecessary n. name for /. anator Fabricius, which was not preocc. in

Ichneumo)i by Bracon anator Fabricius.
Ichneumon retusorius Thunberg, 1922; 1924. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Mem. 8:

278; 9: 355. [male].
Ichneumon held pes Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 310. ♂.
Phygadeuon niger Provancher, 1876. Nat. Canad. 8: 317. ♀. Preocc. by Provancher, 1874.
Phygadeuon afer (!) Provancher, 1878. Nat. Canad. 10: 299. Lapsus for P. niger

Provancher, 1876.
Phygadeuon electus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 51. "♀"=♂.




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Taxonomy: Roman, 1912. Zool. Bidr. Uppsala 1: 240, 249, 255, 277 (syn.). — Heinrich, 1953.
Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 43: 149. -Heinrich, 1959. Canad. Ent. 91: 806. —Heinrich, 1962.
Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 621-622.

Barichneumon archboldi Heinrich
Fla.

Barichneumon archboldi Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 196. cJ, 9.

Barichneumon californicus Heinrich
Calif.; Hawaii.

Barichneumon califoniicus Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 1013. ♀.

Barichneumon carolinensis Heinrich
N. C, Ga., Fla., La.

Barichneumon carolinensis Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 199. ♂, ♀.

Barichneumon crassipunctus Heinrich
Ga.

Barichneumon crassipunctus Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 1009. ♀.

Barichneumon danieli Heinrich
N. Y.

Barichueumon danieli Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 200. ♂.

Barichneumon excelsior (Heinrich)
Que., Maine, Va., Ont., Mich., Ky.

Melanichneumon (Barichneumon) excelsior Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 627. ♀.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 1005-1006 (male described).

Barichneumon flaviscuta Heinrich
Ga., Miss.

Barichneumon flaviscuta Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 1007. ♂, ♀.

Barichneumon floridanus Heinrich
Fla.

Barichneumon floridanus Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 198. ♂, ♀.

Barichneumon fuscosignatus Heinrich
Ga., Fla., Miss., La.

Barichneumon fnscosignatus Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 197. ♂, ♀.

Barichneumon libens (Cresson)
Maine s. to s. Fla., w. to Mich., Ill, and La.

Ichneumon libens Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 181. ♂.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 194.

Barichneumon neosorex Heinrich
Ga., Fla., Miss., La.

Barichneumon neosorex Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 195. ♂, ♀.

Barichneumon peramoenus
***authority mismatch
calliandros Heinrich. Fla.

Barichneumon peramoenus calliandros Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 193. ♂, ♀.

Barichneumon peramoenus
***authority mismatch
peramoenus (Heinrich). Que. s. to Ga., w. to Mich, and La.

Melanichneumon peramoenus Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 631. 6. Heinrich was
uncertain as to the subgeneric placement of this species.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 192-193 (female described).

Barichneumon seticornutus Heinrich
Ga.

Barichneumon seticornutus Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 1011. ♂, ♀.

Barichneumon sorex (Heinrich)
Que. s. to Ga., w. to Mich. Heinrich (1972) said that sorex is "probably [a]

synonym or subspecies of libeyis [(Cresson)]," and that the allotype male may actually be
B. sphageti Heinrich.
Melanichneumon (Barichneumon) sorex Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 624. 9 (6
misdet.?).
Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 186, 190, 191, 194.

Barichneumon soror (Cresson)
Que. s. to Del., w. to Mich.

Ichneumon soror Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 185. ♀.

Ichneumon bimaculatus Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 357.

S. Preocc. by Schrank, 1776; Gmelin, 1790; Christ, 1791; and Fabricius, 1793.
Ichneumon bimacularis Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 863. N. name for /.
bimaculatus Provancher.

Barichneumon sphageti Heinrich
Maine, N. Y., Miss. Ecology: The holotype was collected in a spruce (Picea
mariana) bog.
Barichneumon sphageti Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 1008. ♀.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 194-195.




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Genus VULGICHNEUMON Heinrich

Melanichneunion subg. V idgichneumon Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 15: 17.
Type-species: IcInieiDiion brevicinctor Say. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1968 (1967). Synopsis and Reclassif. Ichneumoninae Stenopneusticae
Africa So. of Sahara, v. 3, p. 615-616 (placement in Pterocormina [=Ichneumonina sensu
Heinrich]). —Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 1014 (placement in Gyrodontina
(=Cratichneumonina]).

Vulgichneumon albomarginatus (Cresson)
Que., Maine, N. H., Vt., N. Y., N. J., Ont., Mich., Ohio, Ind., Miss.

IcInieiuHOH (ilboniargiiiatua Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 297. ♂.

Vulgichneumon brevicinctor (Say)
Que. w. to B. C, s. to Fla., Tex., and Calif. Host: Achatodes zeae (Harris),
Bleptina sp., Cullopistria floridennis (Gn.), La.scoria ay)ibigualis (Wlk.), Macronodua
otiusta (Grt.), Plathypeua licabra (F.), Pseudaletia unipiincta (Haw.), Trichophisia ni
(Hbn.), Ostritiia nnbilali.s (Hbn.), Hyphantria cunea (Drury).
Idtneumon brevicinctor Say, 1825. Amer. Ent. 2: 49. ♂.
IchneuniOH extreniatis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 149. ♀.
Ichneumon extreniatatis (!) Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 290.
Phygadeuon niger Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 280. ♀.

Vulgichneumon heleiobatos (Porter)
N. J., Mich. Ecology: This species has been collected only in and around
swamps where the vegetation was predominantly grasses interspersed with Salix
bushes.
MelauiclnieiDnon {Viilgiclineunio)i) heleiobatos Porter, 1964. Psyche 71: 130. ♂, ♀.

Vulgichneumon mimicus (Cresson)
Newfoundland (insular). Que., Maine, Mass., Conn., N. Y., Mich., S. Dak.,
Idaho, Oreg.
Ichneu»no)i )ni)iiicHs Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 300. ♂.

Vulgichneumon phaeogenops Heinrich
N. C, Fla., Miss.

VjilgichneiDiion phaeogenops Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 209. cJ, 9.

Vulgichneumon saevus (Cresson)
Maine, N. Y., R. I., 111.

Ichneumon saecus Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 296. ♀.

Vulgichneumon subcyaneus (Cresson)
Que. s. to Ga., w. to B. C. and Calif.; Mexico? Host: Diacrisia virginica
(F.), Hyphantria cunea (Drury), Tyria jacobaeae (L.).

Ichneumon puUatus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 146. ♂.

Ichneumon cordatus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 146. ♂. N. syn.

Ichnetimon subcyaneus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc Phila., Proc. 3: 148. ♀.

Ichneumon solitus Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 144. ♀. N. syn.

Ichneumon odiosus Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 145. ♂. N. syn.

Ichneumon neutralis Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 149. ♂. N. syn.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1959. Ent. News 70: 212. — Townes and Townes, 1966. Amer. Ent. Inst.,
Mem. 8: 264 (oversight of Heinrich [1959]).

Vulgichneumon terminalis (Cresson)
Que. s. to N. C, w. to Minn, and Mo.

Ichneumon terminalis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 184. ♀.

Ichneumon finitini us Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 302. "♀"=♂.

Mesostenus apicalis Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 266. ♂.

Phygadeuon brevicaudus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 54. ♀.
Melanichneu)uo)t (Vulgichneujuon) terminalis carolinensis Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent.
Sup. 26: 619. ♀. N. syn.

Vulgichneumon zebratus (Cresson)
N. Y. w. to s. B. C, s. to Ga., Tex., and Calif. Host; Prochoerodes forficaria
(Gn.).
Ichneumon zebratus Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 299. ♀.

Genus RICHTICHNEUIVION Heinrich, n. status?

Melanichneunion subg. Richtichneumon Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 15: 17.
Type-species: Ichneumon residuus Say. Monotypic and orig. desig.




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belfragei (Cresson), n. comb. La., Tex., e. Wyo., s. w. Utah. The discovery of two females in the
collection of the U. S. Natl. Museum shows that this species should be removed from
Melanichneunion (see Heinrich, 1959) and placed in Richtichneumon by virtue of
general agreement with Heinrich's definition of the latter.

Ichneumon Belfragei Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. See, Trans. 4: 156. ♂.
residuus (Say). Mass. s. to Md., w. to N. Dak. and Kans. Host: Alsophila pometaria (Harris).

Ichneinnon residuus Say, 1829. Contrib. Maclurian Lyceum to Arts and Sci. 1: 73. ♀.

Ichneumon utilis Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 311. ♂.

Platylabus {Colocnema?) omniferrugineus Viereck, 1905. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 19:
322. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cushman and Gahan, 1921. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 23: 167.

virginicus (Cresson). W. Va.

Ichneumon virginicus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 165. ♂.
Ichneumon omatipes Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 294. ♂.

Genus STENOBARICHNEUMON Heinrich

Stenobarichneumon Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 15: 16.

Type-species: Ichneumon citator Thunberg. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This is a small genus of Holarctic and Neotropic distribution.

Stenobarichneumon agitator Heinrich
Que., Maine, Ont., Mich.

Stenobarichneumon agitator Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 639. ♂, ♀.

Stenobarichneumon duplicans Heinrich
Maine.

Steywbarichneumon duplicans Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 638. ♂, ♀.

Stenobarichneumon melanocephalus Heinrich
Newfoundland (insular).

Stenobarichneumon melanocephalus Heinrich, 1976 (1975). Nat. Canad. 102: 770. ♂.

Stenobarichneumon pergracilis Heinrich
Newfoundland (insular). Que., Maine, Ont., Mich.

Stenobarichiieumon pergracilis Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 635. ♂, ♀.

Stenobarichneumon pygmaeops Heinrich
Newfoundland (insular). Que., Maine, Ont., Mich.

Stenobarichneumon pygnmeops Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 637. ♂, ♀.
Stenobarichneumon pygmaeops insulanus Heinrich, 1976 (1975). Nat. Canad. 102: 771. ♂, ♀. N. syn.
The specimens in the type series, which are from two localities in insular
Newfoundland, were described as showing, "on the average, a markedly increased
melanism in comparison with populations from the type locality ([Dryden], Maine)."

Stenobarichneumon saundersi (Cresson)
Que., Maine, N. Y., Alta.

Ichneumon Saundersi Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 141 (key), 177, 211 (index). ♂.
The spelling Saundersii appears on pages 177 and 211, but Walkley (1958) appears to have chosen the alternate spelling Sauiidersi.

Taxonomy: Walkley, 1958. In Krombein et al., U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2, sup. 1, p. 49.

Genus MENKOKIA Heinrich

Melanichneunion subg. Menkokia Heinrich, 1934. Berlin Zool. Mus., Mitt. 20: 209.
Type-species: Melanichneunion {Menkokia) major Heinrich. Orig. desig.

This genus is Oriental and Nearctic Heinrich (1969, 1971) placed the genus in the Pterocor-
mina, but I doubt that he is correct.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1969 (1968). Synopsis and Reclassif. Ichneumoninae Stenopneusticae
Africa So. of Sahara, v. 5, p. 1147. -Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 971-973.

Menkokia blandii (Cresson)
N. Y. s. to N. C, w. to Mich., Kans., and Ark.
Ischnus blandii Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc Phila., Proc 3: 188. ♂.

Genus RUBICUNDIELLA Heinrich

Rubicundiella Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 15: 15.

Type-species: Ichneumon mucronatus Provancher. Monotypic and orig. desig.




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Rubicundiella annulicornis (Ashmead)
N. J., Ga., Fia., Mich, La. Host: Plathypena scabra (F.), Hellula
rogatalis (Hulst), Herpetograinma sp., Udea ntbigalis (Gn.).
ColpognathuH annulicornis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 396. ♀.

Rubicundiella blanchardi (Davis)
Que., Maine, N. H., Mass., Mich.

Ichneumon blanchardi Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 350. ♀.
Ichneumon blanchardii Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 865. Emend.

Rubicundiella deuteromelas Heinrich
Maine, Mich., Yukon.

Rubicundiella deuteromelas Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 573. ♂.

Rubicundiella mucronata (Provancher)
Que., Md., Kans.

Ichneumon mucronatus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (1): 24 (key); 7 (3): 81. "♀"=♂.

Rubicundiella perturbatrix Heinrich
Maine w. to Oreg., s. to Ga., s. Tex., and Calif.; Bermuda; Hawaii. Host:
Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbn.), Macronoctua onusta Grt., Spodoptera exigua (Hbn.).
Ichneumon rubicundus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 176. ♀. Preocc. by

Geoffroy, 1785.
Rubicundiella perturbatrix Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 577. N. name for /.

rubicundus Cresson.
Rjibicundiella perturbans(l) Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 195.

Biology: Wishart, 1949 (1948). Canad. Ent. 80: 118-137.

Rubicundiella simplicior Heinrich
Southern Sask., s. w. B. C, w. Oreg. Host: Fishia discors (Grt.), Heliothis
oninis (D. and S.), Synanthedon bibionipennis (Bdv.).
Rubicundiella simplicior Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 575. ♂, ♀.

Genus LIMONETHE Townes

Linionetlie Townes, 1946. Bol. Ent. Venezolana 5: 56.

Type-species: Ichneumon insolois Cresson. Orig. desig.

Limonethe maurator
***authority mismatch
(BruUe). Que. s. to Fla., w. to Minn, and Tex.

Joppa maurator Brulle, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 287. ♂, ♀.
Ichneumon insolens Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 302. ♂, ♀.
Joppa Canadensis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 336. ♀.
Tetragonochora mauratrix Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 129. Emend.

Genus CARINODES Hancock

Carinodes Hancock, 1926. Entomologist 59: 189.

Type-species: Carinodes spinosus Hancock. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Ditremops Townes, 1946. Bol. Ent. Venezolana 5: 52.

Type-species: Ichneumon abjectus Cresson. Orig. desig.

This is a very large genus. Except for the two species with ranges that extend into the United
States, Carinodes is Neotropic.

Taxonomy: Walkley, 1958. In Krombein et al., U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2, Sup. 1, p.
48-49 (syn.). — Fitton, 1975. Studia Ent. 18: 381 (holotype of C. spinosus Hancock found).

Carinodes albipectus (Brulle)
Fla.; Cuba, Jamaica.

Ichneumon albipectus Brulle, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 306. ♂.
Ichneumon btii-rus Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 14. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes and Townes, 1966. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 8: 255 (syn.).

Carinodes havanensis (Cameron)
Fla.; Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Croix. Host: Anticarsia gemmatalis Hbn.
The host record pertains to a Cuban specimen in the U. S. Natl. Museum collection.
Ichneumond) haranoisis Cameron, 1906. Cuba, Estac. Expt. Agron., Informe, p. 277. ♂.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1937. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 20: 262.

Genus AOPLUS Tischbein

Aoplus Tischbein, 1874. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 35: 137.

Type-species: Aoplus inermis Tischbein. Monotypic.
Trachichneumon Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 42: 645.

Type-species: Ichneumon confinnatus Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig.




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Aoplus cestus (Cresson)
Idaho, B. C, Wash., Oreg. Host: Lambdi7ia fiscellaria iugubrosa (Hulst),
Melanolophia iviitata (Wlk.).
Ichneuhion cestus Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 182. ♀.
Platylabus opacitus Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 353. ♂.

Aoplus confirmatus (Cresson)
Que. s. to Ga., w. to Colo.

Ichneumon confirmatus Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 178. ♀.
Pkygadeuon potens Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 47. ♀.
Phygadeuon jocosus Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 53. ♀.
This name was based upon the same type-specimen or specimens as was P. potens
Provancher, the latter being the name Provancher used in his key.

Aoplus groenlandicus (Lundbeck)
Greenland.

Ichneuvion grooilandicus Lundbeck, 1897 (1896). Dansk Naturhist. For. Kjobenhavn,
Vidensk. Meddel., p. 223. ♀.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1961. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 63: 108 (generic placement).

Aoplus limbatae Heinrich
Mich., B. C. Host: Ne)iiotoco))ipo filia))ie)itaria Gn.

Aoplus liwbatae Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 542. ♂, ♀.

Aoplus mathewi (Cameron)
Southwestern B. C.

Iclniennioii iiiatheivi Cameron, 1907. Entomologist 40: 277. ♂.

Aoplus melanisticus Heinrich
Ont., Yukon.

Aoplus melanisticus Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 547. ♀.

Aoplus moilietti Heinrich
Alta. Host: Enypia griseata Grossb.

Aoplus moilietti Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 544, 671. 9. The name is a mispelling
of a host name now in synonymy with E. griseata; the name appears as "nioiletti
Cress." on p. 671 (index).

Aoplus monotonus Heinrich
Colo., Alta., B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif. Host: Geometrid on Polygonum .
Aoplus ))io)ioto)ius Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 548. cJ, 9.

Aoplus ochropis
***authority mismatch
coloradensis Heinrich. Newfoundland (insular). Que., Colo., Alta.

Aoplus ochropis coloradoisis Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 556. ♂, ♀.

Aoplus ochropis
***authority mismatch
ochropis (Gmelin). Alaska; Eurasia.

Ichneumon ochropis Gmelin, 1790. In Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 13, p. 2679. Sex not

indicated.
Melanichneumon seldoviae Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 155. ♂.

Aoplus permutabilis Heinrich
Newfoundland (insular), s. to Md., w. to Mich, and Mo.

Aoplus permutabilis permutabilis Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 541. ♂, ♀.
Aoplus penuutabilis leucorbis Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 542. ♀.

Aoplus pseudovelox Heinrich
Que., Maine, N. H., N. Y., Pa., Ont., Mich., Alta.

Aoplus pseudovelox Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 556. ♂, ♀.

Aoplus rarior Heinrich
Que., Ont.

Aoplus rarior Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 546. ♀.
ruficeps sitkensis (Ashmead). Newfoundland (insular) w. to Alaska, s. to Maine, Mich., Colo.,
and Wash. Host: Macaria sp., Rheumaptera hastata (L.). A. ruficeps ruficeps
(Gravenhorst) is Eurasian.
Ichneumon mgans Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (1): 22 (key); 7 (2): 51. 6. N. syn.;

preocc. by Olivier, 1792.
Ichneumon sitke)isis Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc 4: 152. ♂.
Ichneumon simulator Ashmead, 1902. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 4: 153. 6. Uncertain syn.;
preocc. by Olivier, 1792.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1959. Ent. News 70: 211 (syn.).

Aoplus thujarum Heinrich
Que., Ont.

Aoplus thujarum Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 543. ♀.

Aoplus torpidus (Wesmael)
Newfoundland (insular). Que., Maine, Ont, Mich., Alta.; Europe.
Ichneumon torpidus Wesmael, 1857. [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Bui. 24: 385. ♀.




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Aoplus velox (Cresson)
Newfoundland (insular) w. to Alaska, s. to Pa., 111., Colo., and Calif. Host:
La)ubdina ferviduria atha.saria (Wlk.), L.fiscellaria fiscellaria (On.), L.fiscellaria
Ingubwaa (Hulst), Nepi/tia canosaria (Wlk.)., S>j»iniei-i.sta leucitys Francl.

IcIineiDimn relax Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 185. ♀.

IcIineiiiiioH puerili-s Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 296. ♂.

Iclnieumon wellicoxtin Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (1): 21 (key); 7 (2): 48. ♂.

PhygadeuoH apicafim Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (6): 180. ♀.

Pliijgadeuon crea.ioni Provancher, 1876. Nat. Canad. 8: 318. ♀.

IcInieiDiioii occidentalix Harrington, 1894. Canad. Ent. 26: 210. ♀.

Biology: Schedl, 1931. Ztschr. f. Angew. Ent. 8: 270-273.

Genus HEMIHOPLIS Heinrich

He)iiihopli.s Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 15: 15.

Type-species: HoplimiieiiKs teres Swift. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Hemihoplis teres (Swift)
N. Y. s. to Fla., w. to Mich., 111., and La. Host: Precis lari)tia Cr.
Hoplisiiieiius teres Swift, 1946. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 39: 409.

Genus PLATYLABOPS Heinrich

Plattjiabops Heinrich, 1950. Naturw. Mus. Aschaffenburg, Mitt. d. Sammelstelle f.
Schmarotzerbestimmung 27: 4.

Type-species: Platt/labops liifizi Heinrich. Monotypic.

This is a small Holarctic genus.

apricus nearcticus Heinrich. Maine, N. Y. P. apricus apricus (Gravenhorst) is European.

Platylabops apricus Hearcticiis Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 648. ♂, ♀.

Platylabops eupitheciarum Heinrich
Alta., B. C. Host: Enpithecia ornata (Hulst), E. placidata Tay., E.
unicolor (Hulst).

Platylabops eupitheciarnn/ Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 648. ♂.

Platylabops fraterculus Heinrich
Newfoundland (insular), Maine, Vt., N. Y.

Platylabops fratercultis Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 644. ♂, ♀.

Platylabops holoerythrus Heinrich
Newfoundland (insular), B. C. Host: Enpithecia transcanadata MacK.

Platylabops holoerythrus Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 645. ♀.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1976 (1975). Nat. Canad. 102: 771-772 (male described).

Platylabops leucopsis (Ashmead)
Wash., Oreg., Calif. According to Riley and Howard (1890), the holotype
was reared from a "Tortricid pupa on oak."
Ichneumon leucopsis Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 391. ♂.

Biology: Riley and Howard, 1890. U. S. Dept. Agr., Insect Life 3: 152.

Platylabops novaescotiae Heinrich
Newfoundland (insular), N. S. Heinrich (1976) made a subspecific
distinction between the two specimens from which this species is known.
Platylabops pecki novaescotiae Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 643. ♀.
Platylabops novascotiaeV.) Peck, 1964. In Heinrich, Ent. Soc. Canada, Mem. 35: 918.
Platylabops novaescotiae nigrinionbris Heinrich, 1976 (1975). Nat. Canad. 102: 773. 9. N.
syn.

Platylabops pecki Heinrich
Sask.

Platylabops peck-i pecki Heinrich, 1962. Canad. Ent. Sup. 26: 642. ♂, ♀.

Ta.xonomy: Heinrich, 1976 (1975). Nat. Canad. 102: 773.

Unplaced Taxa of Gyrodontina

Ichneumon limbifrons Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 182. 6. Colo.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 326.
Ichneunion pectoralis Say, 1829. Contrib. Maclurian Lyceum to Arts and Sci. 1: 72. ♂.

Southwestern Ind. Heinrich (1961) misinterpreted Say's use of the term pectus. In his
writings on Hymenoptera, Say used both the terms pectus and postpectus, and it




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consequently seems evident that his usage of pectus is essentially synonymous with
mesosternum. In his statement that the pectus of pectoralis is "black with a large
yellow spot between the intermediate and posterior feet," Say presumably intended to
write: intermediate and anterior feet.

Taxonomy: Say, 1836. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 231 (coloration of propodeum). — Cushman
and Gahan, 1921. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 23: 166. — Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup.
18: 172-173.
Ichneumon vultus Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 165. cJ. Colo.

Taxonomy: Townes, 1944. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 11: 332.

Subtribe AMBLYTELESINA

All available evidence seems to indicate that the females of species in this subtribe oviposit
into the host larva rather than the pupa. In some of the genera, inseminated adult females are
apparently the only overwintering life stage.

Genus ECTOPIMORPHA Viereck

Ectopiviorpha Viereck, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 43: 589

Type-species: Ichjietimon anceps Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig.

This genus is apparently restricted to the Nearctic Region.

Ectopimorpha boops Heinrich
Calif.

Ectopimorplia boops Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 494. ♂.

Ectopimorpha californica Heinrich
Calif.

Ectopimorpha californica Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 486. ♀.
hiuica (Cresson). B. C. Known only from the holotype which, according to Cresson (1879), was
collected at "Lake Lahache" (i.e. Lac la Hache), B. C.

Amblyteles hiulcus Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 172. "♂"=♀.

Taxonomy: Cresson, 1879 (1878). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 30: 355-356.

Ectopimorpha hiulcops Heinrich
Sask., B. C.

Ectopimorpha hiulcops Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 486. ♀.

Ectopimorpha indemnis (Cresson)
Sask., B. C.

Ichneumon indemnis Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 172. "♂"=♀.

Ectopimorpha limerodops Heinrich
Calif.

Ectopimorpha li)}ierodops Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 487. ♀.

Ectopimorpha luperinae Cushman
Newfoundland (insular), Maine, Mass., N. Y., Mich., Ohio, Iowa, Sask.?
Host: Luperina stipata (Morr.).

Ectopimorpha luperinae Cushman, 1931. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 79 (14): 1. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Decker, 1930. Iowa Agr. Expt. Sta., Res. Bui. 125: 159. —Decker, 1935. Iowa State
Col. Jour. Sci. 9: 571.

Ectopimorpha scibilis (Cresson)
111.

Ichneumon scibilis Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 183. ♂.

Ectopimorpha utahensis Heinrich
Utah.

Ectopimorpha utahensis Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 493. ♂.

Ectopimorpha wilsoni (Cresson)
Que. s. to Ga., w. to Iowa and Mo.

Ischnus u'ilsoni Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc 3: 188. ♂.

Ichneumon anceps Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 309. 9, "6" = 9. Preocc. by
Villers, 1789.

Ichneumon wilsoni i Dalla Torre, 1902. Cat. Hym., v. 3, p. 1017. Emend.

Genus EXEPHANES Wesmael

Exephanes Wesmael, 1845 (1844). [Brussels] Acad. Roy. de Belg., Nouveaux Mem. 18: 17.

Type-species: Ichneumon hilaris Gravenhorst. Desig. by Ashmead, 1900.
Octatonius Tischbein, 1881. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 42: 186.




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Type-species: Octatonms tricolor Tischbein. Monotypic. The type-species is
regarded as a synonym of E . femoralis Brischke.

Heinrich (1976) placed Exepltanes in the Pterocormina, but did not indicate his rationale for
doing so.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1976 (1975). Nat. Canad. 102: 763.

Exephanes californicus Heinrich
Colo., Utah, Ariz., Calif.

Exephanes californicus Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 480. cJ, 9.

Exephanes subfulvus (Cresson)
Que.?, Sask., Colo., Alta.

Ichneumon subfulvus Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 258. ♀.

Exephanes terminalis (Provancher)
Newfoundland (insular). Que., Maine, Conn., Ont., Mich., Minn., s. N.
W. T., Colo.
Phygadeuon temiinalis Provancher, 1874. Nat. Canad. 6: 284. ♀.
Ichneumon caudafus Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7 (1): 24 (key); 7 (3): 82. ♀.
Ichneumon pomilius Provancher, 1877. Nat. Canad. 9: 9. ♂.

Phygadeuon Geddessii Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 54. ♀.
Amblyteles Cookii Ashmead, 1890 (1889). U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 12: 392. ♀.
Exephanes terminalis immaculatus Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 479. S, 9. N.
syn.

Genus LIMERODOPS Heinrich

Limerodops Heinrich, 1949. Muenchner Ent. Gesell., Mitt. 35-39: 44.

Type-species: Amblyteles subsericans var. elongatus Brischke? Monotypic and, in
part, orig. desig. Heinrich's original designation was "Amblyteles elongatus
Brischke = A. subsericans Gr[avenhorst] partim = A. fossorius L[innaeus] (nach
Roman [1932])." See discussion of type-species of Probolus.

This is a small genus of Holarctic distribution.

Taxonomy: Roman, 1932. Ent. Tidskr. 53: 6. —Heinrich, 1953. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 43: 150.
—Perkins, 1953. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent., Bui. 3: 106. — Townes, Momoi, and Townes,
1965. Amer. Ent. Inst., Mem. 5: 503.

Limerodops belangeri (Cresson)
N. S. w. to Alaska, s. to N. Y., Mich., Colo., Wash. Host: Euxoa divergens
(Wlk.).
Amblyteles Belangeri Cresson, 1877. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 6: 190. ♀.
Cry plus dubius Provancher, 1886. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 71. "♂"=♀.
Preocc. by Taschenberg, 1865.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1953. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 43: 150.

Limerodops mariannae Heinrich
N. S., Maine, Mass., Ont., Mich.

Limerodops mariannae Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 383. ♂, ♀.

Genus NEAMBLYMORPHA Heinrich

Neamblymorpha Heinrich, 1961 (1960). Canad. Ent. Sup. 15: 19.

Type-species: Ichneumon milvus Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig.

A single species is known.

Neamblymorpha milva (Cresson)
Newfoundland (insular) s. to N. C, w. to Mich.

Ichneumon (Ichneumon) milvus Harris, 1835. In Hitchcock, Rpt. Geol. Mineral. Bot. Zool.

Mass., Ed. 2, p. 585. Nomen nudum.
Ichneumon milvus Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 305. ♂.
Ichneumon Clopini Provancher, 1875. Nat. Canad. 7: 250. ♂.

Genus EUTANYACRA Cameron

Eutanyacra Cameron, 1903. Ent. Soc. London, Trans. 51: 227.

Type-species: Eutanyacra pallidicoxis Cameron. Monotypic.

This large genus is Neotropic, Holarctic, and Oriental.




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Eutanyacra chillcotti Heinrich
Northern Que., N. W. T.

Eutanyacra chillcotti Heinrich, 1956. Canad. Ent. 88: 478. ♂, ♀.

Eutanyacra consignata (Cresson)
Maine. Mass., N. Y., N. J., Md., W. Va., Ohio, Wis., 111., Kans.

Ichneumon consignatus Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 298. ♂.

Eutanyacra hiemans Heinrich
Que., Maine, Pa., Ont., Ohio, Mich.

Eutanyacra hiemans Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 436. ♀.

Eutanyacra improvisa (Cresson)
N. S. s. to Md., w. to B. C. and Oreg. Host: Anomogyna perquiritata
(Morr.), Ceramica picta (Harris).

Ichneummi improvisus Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 296. ♂.

Amblyteles tetricus Provancher, 1877. Nat. Canad. 9: 10.
Eutanyacra improvisa columbiana Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 428. ♂, ♀. N. syn.

Eutanyacra melanotarsis Heinrich
Fla., La.

Eutanyacra melanotarsis Heinrich, 1972. Nat. Canad. 99: 173, 176. cJ, 9. I here reject the
alternate spelling nigritarsis which appears on p. 173 (abstract).

Eutanyacra miraculosa Heinrich
Maine.

Eutanyacra miraculosa Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 434. ♀.

Eutanyacra munifica (Cresson)
N. S. s. to Va., w. to Sask.

Ichneumon nobilis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 155. ♂. Preocc. by Wesmael,

1857.
Ichneumon munificus Cresson, 1867. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 290. N. name for /. nobilis

Cresson.

Taxonomy: Heinrich, 1971. Nat. Canad. 98: 979-980.

Eutanyacra perannulata (Hopper)
Que., Maine, N. Y., Pa., W. Va.

Amblyteles perannulatus Hopper, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 98. ♀.

Eutanyacra pycnopus Heinrich
D. C, Ont., Ohio, Iowa, Ark.

Eutanyacra pycnopus Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 435. ♂, ♀.

Eutanyacra saguenayensis (Provancher)
Que., Maine, Mich.

Ichneumon saguenayeiisis Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p.
356. ♂.

Eutanyacra solitaria Heinrich
Que., Maine, N. Y., Ont., Mich.

Eutanyacra solitaria Heinrich, 1961. Canad. Ent. Sup. 23: 442. ♂, ♀.

Eutanyacra succincta (BruUe)
N. Y. s. to Tenn., w. to S. Dak. and Colo. Host: "Amathes c-nigrum (L.)."

Ichneumon succinctus Brulle, 1846. In Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 4, p. 301. ♂.

Ichneumon sandix Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 174. ♀.

Eutanyacra suturalis (Say)
Newfoundland (Labrador) w. to