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Agapostemon splendens (Lepeletier 1841)
Halictus splendens Lepeletier, 1841; Agapostemon aeruginosus Smith, 1853

Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Halictidae   Agapostemon
Subgenus: Agapostemon

Agapostemon splendens, -face 2012-06-25-141609
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Agapostemon splendens, -face 2012-06-25-141609

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Agapostemon splendens, Mid-Atlantic Phenology
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Agapostemon splendens, Mid-Atlantic Phenology
Agapostemon splendens FEM mm .x f
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Agapostemon splendens FEM mm .x f

Agapostemon splendens MALE mm .x f
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Agapostemon splendens MALE mm .x f
Agapostemon splendens, Shining Agapostemon sweat bee
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Agapostemon splendens, Shining Agapostemon sweat bee

Agapostemon splendens, Shining Agapostemon sweat bee
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Agapostemon splendens, Shining Agapostemon sweat bee
Agapostemon splendens, f, faceside, anne arundel, md
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Agapostemon splendens, f, faceside, anne arundel, md

Agapostemon splendens, f, head, anne arundel county, md
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Agapostemon splendens, f, head, anne arundel county, md
Agapostemon splendens
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Agapostemon splendens

Agapostemon splendens
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Agapostemon splendens
Agapostemon splendens
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Agapostemon splendens

Agapostemon splendens, male, side
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Agapostemon splendens, male, side
Agapostemon splendens, Barcode of Life Data Systems
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Agapostemon splendens, Barcode of Life Data Systems
Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1960 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 141.

FEMALE—Length 10 mm.; entire body brilliant blue-green, abdominal terga more or less tinged with blue or purple; mandibles somewhat reddened; apical third of clypeus blackened, this portion sparsely punctate, basal greenish part closely punctate; supraclypeal area with rather fine, distinct and close punctures; face and vertex rather coarsely rugose; cheeks coarsely striate; pubescence of head and thorax above ochraceous, becoming more whitish below, more or less intermixed with fuscous on scutum; scutum finely and very closely punctate throughout, scutellum somewhat more shining, with minute, close punctures interspersed between much coarser and more sparse punctures, these becoming closer laterally; pleura coarsely reticulate, the metapleura more definitely striate; dorsal face of propodeum with a rather distinct, median, finely reticulate triangle, somewhat more coarsely reticulate on each side of this, lateral faces very finely and regularly striate, posterior face obliquely striate on each side of central line; legs largely piceous, front and middle femora yellowish apically, front tibiae more or less yellowish anteriorly; tegulae yellowish; wings quite uniformly pale brownish, veins and stigma more ferruginous; abdominal terga minutely and very closely punctate throughout, except that the basal pruinose area of terga 2-4 have rather sparse, distinct and deep punctures clearly visible, pubescence of discs very short and inconspicuous, largely pale on the more basal terga, becoming blackish on 3 and 4, tergum 5 entirely black pubescent.

MALE—Length 11 mm.; head and thorax brilliant blue-green, abdominal terga piceous to black apically, more yellow basally; mandibles yellow, the tips reddened; labrum and apical third of clypeus yellow, clypeus green basally, this part closely and finely punctate, yellow apical part sparsely punctate; supraclypeal area strongly elevated, transversely rugoso-punctate; face finely and densely rugoso punctate; cheeks shining and rather smooth below, becoming rather obscurely striate above; scape yellow, flagellum ferruginous beneath, blackish above; pubescence of head and thorax ochraceous above, becoming somewhat paler below, that on scutum to some degree intermixed with fuscous; scutum and scutellum densely and rather finely rugoso-punctate; pleura coarsely reticulate anteriorly, more finely so posteriorly, metapleura irregularly striate; dorsal area of propodeum rather closely striate along the narrow, basal border, with an indefinite triangle, more finely reticulate on each side, lateral faces finely reticulate anteriorly, becoming rather coarsely striate posteriorly and below, posterior face irregularly reticulate; tegulae yellowish; wings uniformly pale brownish, veins and stigma more ferruginous; coxa and hind trochanters green, legs otherwise chiefly yellow, but mid femora piceous apically, tibiae with a piceous posterior blotch, hind femora very robust, length only about twice the breadth, with a fine, ventral tubercle; basal abdominal tergum piceous apically, very finely and closely punctate, apical impressed portion of discs somewhat suffused with bluish, pubescence of yellowish bands pale, that of the dark apical portions of discs subappressed and blackish; sterna 2-4 slightly swollen on each side just posterior to apical border, 5 straight apically, apical third yellow, 6 with a very faint, median, impressed line, the apical triangular point yellowish; ventral lobe of gonocoxite broad and expansive, with a conspicuous, apical fringe; gonostyli expanded dorsally and ventrally into flattened inner lobes between which they are deeply excavated, and bearing an apical slender stylus and a short basal truncate inner lobe; penis valves not keeled, with a subbasal constriction.

DISTRIBUTION — North Dakota to Maine, south to Texas and Florida, April to October, with records in Florida of February, March and November.

FLOWER RECORDS—Afzelia, Aster, Berlandiera, Bidens, Brassica, Cephalanthus, Chamaecrista, Chrysopsis, Cicuta, Cirsium, Coreopsis, Cucumis, Eupatorium, Euphorbia, Flaveria, Gaillardia, Galactia, Gelsemium, Gerardia, Haplopappus, Ilex, Ligustrum, Melilotus, Monarda, Opuntia, Pentstemon, Phaseolus, Polygonum, Prunus, Pyrrhopappus, Rhus, Silphium, Solidago, Stokesia, Trilisa, Vaccinium and Vicia. Robertson (1929) records splendens on the following additional genera: Blephilia, Claytonia, Osmorrhiza, Petalostemon, Salix and Verbena.

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Extracted from: Roberts, 1972. REVISION OF THE BEE GENUS AGAPOSTEMON. Agricultural Experimental Station. The University of Kansas. Halictus splendens Lepeletier 1841. Type $, Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
Agapostemon aeruginosas Smith 1853. Type 2, British Museum (Natural History).
Agapostemon splendens. Robertson, 1897.

I have seen the type of Halictus splendens, which was loaned to me by
Dr. S. Kelner-Pillault. The type of A. aeruginosas was examined by Cock-
erell, and more recently by Michener, and both believe it is conspecific with
A. splendens.

Distribution (Fig. 19). Agapostemon splendens is the most common
species of Agapostemon in the southeastern United States and along the
Gulf Coast. It is also common in the sandy areas of the Central States and
Michigan. It is found as far south as Veracruz, Mexico, as far north as
southern Saskatchewan, Canada, and as far west as south-central Utah. In
Canada females have been collected in May, June, July and August; males in
August and September. In Kansas females have been collected from April
through October and males from July through October. In Florida both
sexes have been collected every month of the year. While more common at
elevations of less than 2,000 ft. (610 m), A. splendens has been collected as
high as 6,600 ft. (2,012 m) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park
in Tennessee and 3,700 ft. (1,127 m) near Wray, Colorado.

Diagnosis. The male may be distinguished from other species by its
toothed hind femora, the grooved basal ridge on its basitarsus, the apical
stylus on its gonostylus, and its brown wings. The female may be dis-
tinguished from other species by its metallic green metasomal terga, rounded
lateral pronotal angle, punctate mesoscutum and brown wings.


male (Figs. 71-72, 166, 179, 200)

General coloration of head and mesosoma bright metallic green, meta-
soma with black and yellow bands. Head (Figs. 71-72): pubescence white,
yellowish on vertex. (1) Labrum as in A. texanus. (2) Clypeus with large,
shallow, scattered punctures on lower l / 2 , becoming contiguous above. (3)
Interocular area with deep, contiguous, medium punctures below ocelli,
becoming rugose laterally and below; sculpturing of supraclypeal protuber-
ance like that of adjacent clypeal area. (4) Vertex with deep, contiguous,
medium punctures anteriorly, becoming rugose laterally, posteriorly and
between ocelli. (5) Genu with short coarse carinae extending dorso-laterally
from antero-ventral margin. (6) Malar area bright yellow, short. (7) Man-
dible bright yellow, pale ferruginous on apical V4-V3- (8) Antenna black
above with yellow sometimes present on basal x A- x /i of scape and present on
apical flagellomere; scape yellow below, pedicel with yellow spot on under-
side, and underside of flagellum pale amber. Mesosoma: pubescence yellow to amber on mesonotum and metanotum, white elsewhere. (9)
Pronotum with lateral angle rounded and rugose above; postero-lateral area
with large vertical carina just anterior to several irregular horizontal carinae.
(10) Mesoscutum with coarse contiguous punctures becoming rugose antero-
laterally. (11) Mesoscutellum with coarse contiguous punctures anteriorly,
becoming rugose posteriorly. (12) Metanotum rugose. (13) Mesepisternum
coarsely rugose anteriorly, only slightly less coarse posteriorly. (14) Metepi-
sternum with very coarse irregular horizontal carinae or coarsely rugose.
(15) Propodeum with propodeal carinae distinct; propodeal shield coarsely
rugose; very coarsely rugose postero-laterally, becoming rugulose antero-
laterally; coarsely rugose dorsally with triangular medial area depressed,
rugulose. (16) Wing yellowish brown, conspicuously darker on distal x A- x /i\
veins and pterostigma amber to brown with radius conspicuously darker
than other veins. (17) Tegula pale transparent amber with green tints
antero-basally and short transverse yellow band on anterior area curving
rearward and almost reaching distal margin. (18) Fore leg yellow with
coxa metallic green and trochanter with amber tints dorsally. (19) Middle
leg yellow with metallic tints on coxa and dark brown streak centrally on
postero-dorsal surface of tibia. (20) Hind leg (Fig. 166) yellow; coxa and
trochanter metallic green; femur with brown on apical x A- x /i of anterior,
dorsal and posterior surfaces; tibia with brown posteriorly on distal l / 2 ,
antero-dorsally on proximal l / 2 , basally, and apically on anterior and dorsal
surfaces; basitarsus with amber on grooved portion of basal ridge and on
apical groove. Metasoma: (21) Terga brown to brown-black with yellow
bands on basal halves of terga 2-6, and with central yellow band on
tergum 1; anterior face of tergum 1 pale amber to brown. Pubescence short,
minute and dense on dorsal areas, brown-black on brown surfaces and white
on yellow or amber surfaces; pubescence longer on anterior surface of
tergum 1 and ventro-laterally on terga 5-7. (22) Sterna brown apically with
varying amounts of yellow basally (always some yellow present); low,
transverse, subapical ridge on sternum 4 (and sometimes 3) largest laterally;
long, white, scattered pubescence on exposed areas. (23) Genitalia (Figs.
179, 200) with ventral lobes large and fringed with hairs distally.

female (Figs. 69-70)

General coloration of head, mesosoma and metasoma bright metallic
green to blue-green. Head (Figs. 69-70): pubescence white to yellowish
on clypeus and intcrocular area, becoming yellow to amber on vertex; white
on gena. (1) Labium as in A. texanus. (2) Clypeus with large scattered
punctures below, becoming subcontiguous on upper %. (3) Interocular area
rugose with coarse contiguous punctures below ocelli; supraclypeal pro-
tuberance with coarse punctures and faint horizontal carinae. (4) Vertex with coarse contiguous punctures anteriorly, becoming rugulose laterally
and between ocelli to rugose posteriorly. (5) Gena with coarse carinae ex-
tending postero-dorsally from antero-ventral margin. (6) Malar area very
short, dark brown. (7) Mandible yellowish to amber with apical YrYz
ferruginous. (8) Antenna dark brown to brown-black with underside of
flagellum slightly paler. Mesosoma: pubescence white, becoming yel-
lowish on mesonotum and metanotum. (9) Pronotum with lateral angle
rounded; dorsal aspect of lateral angle and posterior lobe shallowly rugose;
postero-lateral area with several carinae extending postero-ventrally and
antero-dorsally. (10) Mesoscutum with coarse, deep, contiguous punctures
becoming rugose antero-laterally (punctures sometimes appearing to be of
two sizes as in A. texanns but surface never as shiny). (11) Mesoscutdhtm
with large scattered punctures and with much smaller contiguous punctures;
central region just lateral to mid-line often shiny and devoid, or nearly
devoid, of small punctures. (12) Metanotum rugose to rugulose. (13)
Mesepisternum coarsely rugose. (14) Metepistemum rugose or with very
irregular horizontal carinae. (15) Propodeum with strong propodeal carina;
propodeal shield coarsely rugose or with irregular carinae extending dorso-
lateral^ from medial groove. (16) Wing as in $ . (17) Tegula as in 6
but slightly darker amber. (18) Fore leg dark brown to brown-black; coxa
metallic green; femur with pale yellow anteriorly, dorsally and posteriorly
at apex; tibia with basal yellow spot dorsally and pale brown on anterior
surface; tarsus pale brown; pubescence white to amber. (19) Middle leg
like fore leg but with coxa largely brown and with pubescence brown-black
dorsally on tibia and basitarsus. (20) Hind leg brown to brown-black, coxa
with metallic tints dorsally; pubescence white to amber, becoming brown-
black dorsally on tibia and basitarsus. Metasoma: (21) Terga bright me-
tallic green to blue dorsally, becoming brown ventro-laterally and brown
basally on tergum 1. Pubescence white, becoming black on terga 5-6; long
ventro-laterally on anterior surface of tergum 1 and dorsally on terga 5-6;
terga 2-5 with basal bands of white tomentum. (22) Sterna brown to brown-
black with long white hairs scattered on exposed areas.

Extracted from: Robertson, C. (1897). North American Bees - Description and Synonyms. Transactions of the Academy of Science od St. Louis. Vol. 7. No. 14.

Female - Large, golden-green, the abdomen often showing bluish; metathorax with a triangular space on disc which is less coarsely reticulated; mesonotum densely and finely punctured, or more sparsely and coarsely so; scutellum with large scattered punctures, the intervening spaces densely and finely punctured, or shining and almost impunctate; wings uniformly rufo-hyaline, or the apical margins darker.

Male - 'Vings and metathorax as in the female; anterior and midllle trochanters yellow, sometimes more or less blackish above and behind, posterior green, sUbcampanulate; femora yellow, usually with a little blackish at base behind, middle sometimes with spot at tip, posterior strongly incrassate, about one-half as wide as long; anterior and middle tibiae with a brownish streak behind, sometimes wanting on first, hind tibiae black at base, streaked ~eyond and with a spot at tip exteriorly, a streak towards tips within; abdomen black, with a brown spot at base, six fasciate, ventral segments with yellow basal fasciae, usually wanting on last, third from last short, thickened, widely emarginate, hind metatarsi presenting a dentiform angle. Length 11-13 mm.

The following are sex names of nny one of the foUl' preceding species. It is fairly impossible to determine them without seeing the insects on which they were based. In that case the first two would probably replace names above adopted.

Scientific source:

Supported by

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Asclepiadaceae  Asclepias incarnata @ I_SIF (1)
Asteraceae  Achillea millefolium @ UCMS_ENT (3)

Anthemis cotula @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Aster sp @ BBSL (2)

Aster @ AMNH_BEE (1); I_JSA (2)

Cichorium intybus @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Cirsium sp @ UCMS_ENT (2)

Cirsium vulgare @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Helianthus petiolaris @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Leucanthemum vulgare @ UCMS_ENT (11)

Liatris punctata @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Pluchea odorata @ UCMS_ENT (3)

Pluchea purpurascens @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Solidago rugosa @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Solidago sempervirens @ UCMS_ENT (3)

Solidago tenuifolia @ UCMS_ENT (9)

Taraxacum officinale @ AMNH_BEE (2)
Brassicaceae  Barbarea vulgaris @ UCMS_ENT (5)

Raphanus raphanistrum @ UCMS_ENT (2)
Convolvulaceae  Convolvulus sepium @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Cucurbitaceae  Cucurbita pepo @ BBSL (7)
Euphorbiaceae  Euphorbia heterophylla @ BBSL (2)
Fabaceae  Lathyrus japonicus @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Iridaceae  Iris versicolor @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Lamiaceae  Lycopus sp @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Nepeta cataria @ UCMS_ENT (3)

Teucrium canadense @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Loasaceae  Mentzelia sp @ BBSL (1)
Lythraceae  Lythrum salicaria @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Oleaceae  Ligustrum sp @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Ligustrum vulgare @ UCMS_ENT (3)
Onagraceae  Ludwigia alternifolia @ BBSL (1)

Oenothera @ AMNH_BEE (3)
Polygonaceae  Persicaria bungeana @ UCMS_ENT (3)

Polygonum sp @ UCMS_ENT (5)
Rhamnaceae  Ceanothus americanus @ NDB (1)
Rosaceae  Rosa rugosa @ UCMS_ENT (4)
Rubiaceae  Cephalanthus occidentalis @ AMNH_BEE (3)
_  Withheld @ BBSL (23)

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