Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1960 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 141. |
FEMALE—Length 8 mm.; black; face slightly shorter than distance between eyes above; eyes subparallel; cheeks slightly narrower than eyes; lower half of clypeus, an apical spot on process of labrum, basal spots on mandibles, and small lateral facial maculae creamy yellow, the spot on clypeus interrupted above by the intrusion of black medially, lateral maculae not extending above upper margin of clypeus; process of labrum somewhat broader than long, rounded apically; facial foveae very shallow and obscure, rather broad, terminated slightly above level of antennae; space between margin of vertex and lateral ocelli about half the distance between them; flagellum obscurely reddened beneath, median segments about as broad as long; face shining, area between ocelli and antennae doubly punctate, the fine punctures exceedingly minute and quite close, with much coarser, more shallow and sparse punctures superimposed upon this field, cheeks and area between eyes and ocelli shining and almost impunctate, punctures below antennae somewhat more coarse and deep, well separated on black areas, very sparse and obscure on maculated areas; pubescence of head and thorax rather dense but not hiding surface, elongate on vertex and dorsum of thorax, where it is mostly yellow, becoming more whitish below; tubercles and tegulae dark; wings subhyaline, quite strongly violaceous, veins and stigma brownish-testaceous; recurrent veins entering 2nd submarginal cell subequally distant from base and apex; legs dark, but front tibiae with a small, basal, yellow spot, spurs testaceous; dorsum of thorax shining, punctures of scutum quite deep and distinct, rather close anteriorly, becoming very sparse posteriorly and on scutellum, pleura shining, with coarse, deep, distinct, well separated punctures; apical margins of abdominal terga rather evenly depressed, these areas becoming yellowish-hyaline toward rims, very minutely and rather sparsely punctate, discs of terga shining, that of the 1st almost impunctate, but 2nd and following terga rather closely, deeply and distinctly, although finely, punctate; apical margins of abdominal terga with rather obscure, whitish, apical fasciae, interrupted to some degree medially on the more basal segments, discal pubescence very short, thin and obscure, more fuscous, tergum 5 with a quite pronounced, apical, brownish fimbria.
MALE—Length 7 mm.; black; length of face slightly shorter than distance between eyes above; eyes somewhat convergent below; cheeks much narrower than eyes; clypeus except the very narrow upper border, apical half of process of labrum, base of mandibles, and lateral facial maculae yellow, the maculae extending up inner margin of eye slightly beyond level of antennae, acute above; process of labrum considerably broader than long, broadly rounded apically; facial foveae very shallow and obscure, barely visible; space between margin of vertex and lateral ocelli very slightly less than distance between them; flagellum dull reddish, median segments nearly as broad as long; space between antennae and ocelli dull, punctures very fine and close, subrugose, becoming rather sparse and irregular between eyes and ocelli, minute and well separated on the shining cheeks, blackened areas below antennae quite closely, finely and deeply punctate, the punctures becoming quite coarse but rather obscure on clypeus, the lateral maculae finely but obscurely punctate; pubescence of head and thorax yellowish above, more whitish below, rather long and dense but not hiding surface; tubercles and tegulae dark; wings subhyaline, rather strongly violaceous, veins and stigma brownish-testaceous; recurrent veins entering 2nd submarginal cell subequally distant from base and apex; tarsi dull testaceous, spurs yellowish, legs otherwise dark except for a yellow anterior stripe on front tibiae, and basal yellow spots on front and mid tibiae; dorsum of thorax shining, punctures deep and distinct, rather coarse, quite close on scutum anteriorly, becoming very sparse in center posteriorly and on scutellum, pleura shining, with deep, coarse, well separated punctures; apical margins of abdominal terga rather broadly depressed, these areas becoming reddish-hyaline along rims, rather smooth, with only microscopic punctures, discs of the terga shining, with rather deep and distinct but fine punctures, these well separated on basal tergum but close on the others; apical margins of abdominal terga with thin, obscure, pale yellowish, apical fasciae, the discal pubescence very short but very dense, not at all hiding the surface, brownish in color; sternum 6 broadly incurved apically, the median portion of this produced into a bibbed process, each lobe bearing a small pencil of short, fine setae; sternum 7 strongly, transversely bowed, the apical margin medially produced into a bibbed process, the 2 lobes rather slender, narrowly rounded apically, separated by a deep emargination, the outer margins fringed with very short, inconspicuous setae; apical process of sternum 8 originating at center of broad basal part, very slender toward base, gradually expanded toward tip which is prolonged into an acute projection; penis valves robust, strongly compressed, the tips abruptly flexed ventrally, completely bare; gonocoxites forming a broad basal shield, the outer angle of which is slightly produced, gonostyli entirely inevident.
DISTRIBUTION—Colorado and North Dakota, east to Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan, June to August.
FLOWER RECORDS—Robertson (1922 & 1929) records this on three species of Verbena, V. hastata, V. stricta and V. urticaefolia.
Extracted from: Shinn, A.F. 1967. A Revision of the Genus Calliopsis and the biology and Ecology of C. andreniformis (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). U. Kans. Sci. Bull. 46: 753-936.
Timberlake considered this one of the species of Calliopsis s.s. and I concur,
but it has characters which link it as an intermediate between Calliopsis
s.s. and Perissander.
It is closest to C. peninsularis, which will doubtless be proven a Calliopsis
s.s. when the male becomes known, but is readily distinguished by the mesotibial
spur being bare and 0.75 times or more the length of the middle basitarsus
(less than 0.60 in peninsularis).
FEMALE. Length, 5.0 mm; forewing length, 3.3 mm; hindwing length,
2.40 mm; clypeal length, 0.34 mm; scutal length, 0.85 mm.
Head. White areas: (1) paraocular area, except for lowermost corner,
below a sinuous line originating at about middle of outer subantennal suture
and extending to a point on orbit about 0.4 eye length below summit of eye;
(2) clypeus with a broad, inverted T, the base bordering the supraclypeal area,
the crossbar bordering the narrow, testaceous apical margin to the extent of
the total width of clypeal emargination (reduced in some specimens to a narrowed,
vertical part of the T); ( 4) supraclypeal area to about level of middle
of antenna! socket, dorsal margin evenly convex; (5) subantennal plate (to all
black). (8) Hair on vertex fulvous, longer than long scutal hairs, on frons
and clypeus fulvous. (10) Punctures of vertex and along ocellocular line with
interspaces roughened (30X). Median punctures of frons deep, subconfluent,
interspaces shiny (30X). (11) Frontal line with lower portion narrowly sulcate,
becoming obsolete, ending in a slightly raised prominence at level of
upper rim of antenna! socket. (13) Orbital convergence ratio as 1.05:0.94,1.13.
(14) Galea finely pebbled, hidden with mandibles closed. (15) Head width
to head length as 1.73 :1.22,1.42. (17) Eye length, mio, and flagellar length as
1.00:0.94:1.02. (18) lnterocellar, ocellocular, antennocular, and interantennal
as 0.31 :0.29:0.27 :0.22. (19) Ocellolabral greater than clypeal width, 1.05 :0.94,
1.13. (20) Clypeocellar to outer subantennal sutural as 0.71 :0.51,1.40. (21) Basal labial palpomere 0.8 times length of others combined. (22) Flagellar
length about 2.2 times length of scape, 1.02 :0.46.
Mesosoma. (23) Light areas yellowish; medial interruption of pronotal
stripe about 3 mow. (24) Scutal and scutellar hair fulvous apicad, light brown
basad, darker than hairs of vertex. Hair of metanotum fulvous. (25) Scutal
disc with punctures finer and deeper than on vertex, 1-2 pwa, interspaces shiny
(60X). (26) Dorsal enclosure of propodeum generally dull, slightly declivous,
median portion with fine, close, vermiform, interrupted ridges, interspaces
roughened, ridges becoming longitudinal and several ridge widths
apart laterad, interspaces roughened. Proposed triangle adjacent to enclosure
dull, roughened. (27) Legs with light color more yellowish than on face.
Foreleg with cream (to yellow) on dorsal apex of femur and knee of tibia.
(28) Middle leg colored like foreleg; spur entirely smooth, dark brown, length
very long, about 0.8 length middle basitarsus, 0.53 :0.60. (30) Tegula transparent,
testaceous, with small anterior patch of cream (to yellow) color. Humeral
plate testaceous. (32) Marginal cell (6-9) subequal to, and 3-4 shorter
than 9-wt, 0.70 :0.61 :0.71
Metasoma. (34) Tergal hair bands white. Band of tergum 1 narrowly (to
broadly) interrupted medially, others entire. Suberect hair of disc of tergum
4 fulvous (to brownish), of disc of tergum 5 white (to fulvous). (35) Tergum
I with punctures of median area exceedingly fine, dense, regularly
spaced, 1-1.5 pwa, interspaces shiny though minutely roughened (60X), the
tergum with a silky sheen (15X). Declivity of tergum 1 moderately shiny ( to
very shiny) though finely roughened.
MALE. Length, 4.0 mm (type 4 mm); forewing length, 2.9 mm (type 2.8
mm); hindwing length, 2.2 mm; clypeal length, 0.32 mm; scutal length, 1.33
Head. White areas: (1) paraocular area below a line originating at dorsolateral
rim of antenna! socket and extending diagonally upward, passing
berow the facial fovea, to a point on orbit about 0.4 eye length below summit
of eye; (2) clypeus, except for apical pale testaceous margin; (4) supraclypeal
area, pentagonal shape, to level of upper rim of antenna! socket; (5) subantennal
plate. (7) Scape broadly yellow ( to yellowish white) in front, the
mesoapical portion brown; pedicel hrown with a lateral yellow spot; dorsal
surface of flagellum dusky, darker basad, with brown extending part way
round flagellomeres 1, 2, and 3; ventral surface of flagellum tan, flagellomere
1 with a lateral yellow spot. (8) As in female. (10) Punctures of vertex and
along ocellocular line with interspaces shiny but faintly roughened (60X).
Median punctures of frons shallow, contiguous, dull. (11) Frontal line with
lower portion carinate. (13) Orbital convergence ratio as 0.92:0.68,1.36. (14)
Galea as in female. (15) Head width to head length as 1.39:1.12,1.24. (16)
As in female. (17) Eye length, mio, and flagellar length as 0.83:0.68:1.41.(18) Interocellar, ocellocular, antennocular, and interantennal as 0.26:0:26:
0.15:0.19. (19) Ocellolabral greater than clypeal width, 0:92:0.82,1.13. (20)
Clypeocellar to outer subantennal sutural as 0.60:0.43,1.42. (21) Basal labial
palpomere 0.7 times length of others combined. (22) Flagellar length about
4.0 times length of scape, 1.41 :0.36.
Mesosoma. (23) Light areas yellow; medial interruption of pronotal
stripe about 2 mow. (24) Senta! and scutellar hairs whitish. Scutellar hair
pads pale grayish-brown ( to tan), their combined width slightly less than
width of median portion of scutellum. Metanotal hair pads same color,
broadly oval, failing to meet medially by less than mow, covering metanotum
except for a median triangular area with base at anterior border of metanotum.
Hair of metanotum white. (25) Senta! disc with punctures finer,
deeper than on vertex, 2 or more pwa, interspaces shiny (60X). (26) Dorsal
enclosure of propodeum with fine ridges originating anteriorly at the median
line, each curving laterally along the width of the enclosure, giving the impression
of tightly stretched, wrinkled skin. Remainder of propodeal triangle
shiny. (27) Legs with light color bright yellow. Foreleg entirely yellow. (28)
Middle leg with basal half of coxa dark, remainder of leg yellow with distitarsus
pale testaceous. Lengths of tibia, basitarsus, and apicotarsus as 0.80:
0.85:1.00. (29) Hind leg colored like middle leg except distitarsus brown.
Mediotarsomeres triangular in shape. (30) As in female. (32) Marginal cell
lengths similar to female, 0.66 :0.58 :0.65.
Metasoma. (33, 34) As in female. (35) As in female except punctures 2
TYPE MATERIAL. Holotype male from Picacho Pass ( 5 mi. S.E. of Picacho)
[summit is at 1800 ft. altitude], Pinal Co., Arizona, Aug. 7, 1940 (P.H. Timberlake),
on Euphorbia, is in the Timberlake collection at the University of
California, Riverside, California. The above description of the male is based
primarily on a topotypical specimen collected by C. D. Michener in company
with Prof. Timberlake at the time of collection of the holotype.
D1sTRIBUTION, Known only from southern Arizona but to be expected
from southwestern New Mexico and northern Sonora, southeastern California,
and Baja California.
Specimens have been studied from the following localities: ARIZONA: Apache (5 mi. S.E.; 14
mi. S.W.), Cochise Co., Aug, 7-11, on Euphorbia, (13 mi. S.W.), Aug. 19-26, on Euphorbia,
(5 mi. S.W.), Aug. 17, on Bacchar-is glutinosa; Douglas, Aug. 26 (3 mi. N.; 17 miles E.), Cochise
Co., Aug. 8, on Euphorbia; Picacho Pass (5 mi. S.E, of Picacho), Pinal Co., Aug. 7, on Euphor•
bia; Portal (2 mi. N.E.), Cochise Co., Sept. 14; Roll, Yuma Co., July 11-Aug. 11, Oct. 20, on
Euphorbia and Alfalfa; Tempe, Aug. 1.
GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION. Specimens from Roll in southwestern Arizona
differ from those in middle southern and southeastern Arizona by having
denser, shorter, more plumose hair on the face, thorax, and abdominal hairbands. Females from Apache and Douglas have greatly reduced areas of
cream color on the head. Other minor differences in certain head and thoracic
dimensions occur, but without males I must consider these within the
range of variation of the species
D1scuss10N. Most of the flower records are from Euphorbia, a biological
datum bolstering the morphological data which indicate a relationship with
B10NoM1cs AND FLOWER RECORDS. Nothing is known of the bionomics of
squamifera, but it has been taken on each one of the favorite plant families
for the genus: Compositae, Baccharis glutinosa; Euphorbiaceae, Euphorbia;
and Leguminosae, Alfalfa, Medicago saliva.