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Magnolia grandiflora L.
SOUTHERN MAGNOLIA
Bullbay

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Magnoliaceae   Magnolia

Magnolia grandiflora, Southern magnolia, flower
© John Pickering, 2004-2023 · 9
Magnolia grandiflora, Southern magnolia, flower

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Magnolia grandiflora
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Magnolia grandiflora
Magnolia grandiflora
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Magnolia grandiflora

Magnolia grandiflora
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Magnolia grandiflora
Magnolia grandiflora
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Magnolia grandiflora

Magnolia grandiflora
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Magnolia grandiflora
Magnolia grandiflora
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Magnolia grandiflora

Magnolia grandiflora
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Magnolia grandiflora
Magnolia grandiflora, Southern magnolia, flower
© John Pickering, 2004-2023 · 5
Magnolia grandiflora, Southern magnolia, flower

Magnolia grandiflora cv Charles Dickens
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 4
Magnolia grandiflora cv Charles Dickens
Magnolia grandiflora cv Charles Dickens
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 4
Magnolia grandiflora cv Charles Dickens

Magnolia grandiflora, fruit - as borne on the plant
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia grandiflora, fruit - as borne on the plant
Magnolia grandiflora, fruit - lateral or general close-up
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia grandiflora, fruit - lateral or general close-up

Magnolia grandiflora, fruit - as borne on the plant
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia grandiflora, fruit - as borne on the plant
Magnolia grandiflora, fruit - lateral or general close-up
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia grandiflora, fruit - lateral or general close-up

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Amphisphaeriaceae  Pestalotia guepinii @ 406020B (1); BPI (1); 406020A (1)

Pestalotia @ BPI (1)
Arthoniaceae  Cryptothecia rubrocincta @ GAL (1)
Asterinidae  Asterina granulosa @ BPI (3)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Diplodia magnoliae @ BPI (2)

Diplodia ravenelii @ BPI (1)

Microdiplodia solitaria @ BPI (1)

Phyllosticta cookei @ BPI (1)

Phyllosticta magnoliae @ BPI (5)

Phyllosticta @ BPI (1)

Sphaeropsis malorum @ BPI (1)
Chrysothricaceae  Chrysothrix xanthina @ GAL (1)
Clavicipitaceae  Aschersonia cubensis @ BPI (1)
Coccidae  Toumeyella liriodendri @ CSCA_TCN (2)
Coccinellidae  Harmonia axyridis @ I_LB (1)
Coreidae  Leptoglossus fulvicornis @ NCSU (9)
Dallinidae  Leptothyrella langloisii @ BPI (1)
Davidiellaceae  Cladosporium delectum @ BPI (1)

Cladosporium epiphyllum @ BPI (1)

Cladosporium fasciculatum @ BPI (1)

Cladosporium @ BPI (1)
Dermateaceae  Gloeosporium cingulatum @ BPI (3)

Gloeosporium haynaldianum @ BPI (1)
Diaspididae  Acutaspis perseae @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Morganella cueroensis @ CSCA_TCN (2)

Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Diatrypaceae  Eutypella tiflisiensis @ BPI (2)
Elsinoaceae  Elsinoe magnoliae @ BPI (25)

Sphaceloma magnoliae @ BPI (4)
Glomerellaceae  Glomerella cingulata @ BPI (37)
Graphidaceae  Fissurina cypressi @ GAL (1)
Lasiosphaeriaceae  Lasiosphaeria pezizula @ BPI (1)
Lecanodiaspididae  Lecanodiaspis @ MEMU_ENT (5)
Leptosphaeriaceae  Coniothyrium olivaceum @ BPI (1)
Lobariaceae  Lobaria ravenelii @ GAL (1)
Margarodidae  Icerya purchasi @ CSCA_TCN (1)
Massariaceae  Massaria magnoliae @ BPI (1)
Meliolaceae  Meliola magnoliae @ 694793B (1); BPI (25); 694793A (1)
Miridae  Gn_orthotylinigp14 sp_001 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp28 sp_002 @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Gn_orthotylinigp29 sp_001 @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Gn_orthotylinigp4 sp_013 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp5 sp_003 @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Gn_orthotylinigp5 sp_007 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp7 sp_001 @ AMNH_PBI (5)

Hyaliodes vitripennis @ NCSU (3)

Lygus lineolaris @ MEMU_ENT (2)

Myrtlemiris tesselatus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Myrtlemiris yalgoo @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Orthotylus sp_ms_drepanomorphus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Orthotylus sp_ms_erythroptera @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Cercospora magnoliae @ BPI (1)

Heterosporium magnoliae @ BPI (26)

Septoria magnoliae @ BPI (3)

Septoria niphostoma @ BPI (3)
Nectriaceae  Nectria ochroleuca @ BPI (1)
Orbiliaceae  Orbilia curvatispora @ BPI (1)

Orbilia xanthostigma @ BPI (1)
Pannariaceae  Parmeliella triptophylla @ GAL (1)
Parmeliaceae  Myelochroa aurulenta @ GAL (1)

Parmotrema reticulatum @ GAL (1)

Punctelia rudecta @ GAL (2)
Parodiopsidaceae  Dimerium piceum @ BPI (2)
Patellariaceae  Tryblidiella rufula @ BPI (3)
Pertusariaceae  Pertusaria velata @ GAL (1)
Physciaceae  Anaptychia palmulata @ GAL (1)

Heterodermia albicans @ GAL (2)

Physcia atrostriata @ GAL (1)

Physcia sorediosa @ GAL (1)

Pyxine subcinerea @ GAL (1)
Piesmatidae  Mcateella schuhi @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Pleomassariaceae  Helminthosporium fumosum @ BPI (1)

Pleomassaria maxima @ BPI (1)
Pleosporaceae  Alternaria tenuis @ BPI (1)

Macrosporium trichellum @ BPI (2)

Macrosporium @ BPI (1)
Pleurotaceae  Pleurotus ostreatus @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Fomes marmoratus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus adustus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus biformis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus distortus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus gilvus @ BPI (1)
Ramalinaceae  Bacidia schweinitzii @ GAL (2)
Reduviidae  Apiomerus crassipes @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Rhopalidae  Niesthrea louisianica @ NCSU (1)
Sarcoscyphaceae  Phillipsia chardoniana @ BPI (1)
Sclerotiniaceae  Botrytis @ BPI (1)
Scotechiniaceae  Scortechinia acanthostroma @ BPI (2)
Septobasidiaceae  Septobasidium sinuosum @ BPI (1)
Steccherinaceae  Steccherinum westii @ BPI (1)
Stereocaulaceae  Lepraria lobificans @ GAL (1)
Strigulaceae  Strigula smaragdula @ GAL (5)

Strigula @ GAL (1)
Teloschistaceae  Caloplaca epiphora @ GAL (1)
Thelotremataceae  Myriotrema @ GAL (1)

Ocellularia praestans @ GAL (1)
Tricholomataceae  Collybia conigenoides @ BPI (1)
Tubeufiaceae  Acanthostigma berenice @ BPI (1)

Helicoma @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora leucostoma @ BPI (1)
Venturiaceae  Trichodothis comata @ BPI (12)
Xylariaceae  Hypoxylon glomeratum @ BPI (2)

Hypoxylon hypomiltum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon rubiginosum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon tinctor @ BPI (2)

Rosellinia corticium @ BPI (1)

Xylaria ianthino-velutina @ BPI (4)

Xylaria magnoliae @ BPI (1)
_  Acrocylindrium @ BPI (1)

Calyculosphaeria tristis @ BPI (1)

Camarosporium magnoliae @ BPI (2)

Carldrakeaninae nov @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Exophoma magnoliae @ BPI (1)

Gn_ms_naranjakotta sp_ms_watheroo @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Grandinia ocellata @ BPI (1)

Isariopsis magnoliae @ BPI (2)

Pellicularia @ BPI (1)

Protostegia magnoliae @ BPI (7)

Sterigmatocystis castanea @ BPI (2)

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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Magnoliaceae | Magnolia

7. Magnolia grandiflora Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 1082. 1759.

Southern magnolia, bull-bay, laurier tulipier

Magnolia ferruginea Z.Collins ex Rafinesque; M. foetida (Linnaeus) Sargent; M. lacunosa Rafinesque; M. virginiana Linnaeus var. foetida Linnaeus

Trees , evergreen, single-trunked, to 37 m. Bark gray, rough, thick, furrowed in thick plates. Pith diaphragmed. Twigs and foliar buds densely red- or white-hairy. Leaves distinctly alternate, not in terminal whorl-like clusters; stipules 2, free, 4.5-13 × 1.5-3.5 cm, abaxially densely brown-silky, sometimes deeply notched. Leaf blade narrowly to broadly elliptic or oblanceolate, (7.5-)13-20(-26) × (4.5-)6-10(-12.5) cm, thick-leathery, base narrowly cuneate, apex abruptly tapered and acute to short-acuminate, rarely obtuse; surfaces abaxially glabrous to densely red-brown felted, adaxially bright green, lustrous, glabrous. Flowers strongly lemony fragrant, 15-30(-45) cm across; spathaceous bracts 2, leathery, outer bract abaxially brown to grayish pilose, deeply notched, smaller, inner bract adaxially densely brown to grayish pilose, shallowly notched, larger; tepals creamy white; stamens (179-)213-383(-405), 16-29 mm; filaments purple; pistils (45-)55-81(-89). Follicetums cylindric to somewhat obovoid, 7-10 × 3.5-5 cm; follicles beaked, sparsely to densely silky-villous. Seeds lenticular to narrowly ellipsoid, (9-)12-14 mm, adaxially slightly grooved, aril red. 2 n =114.

Flowering spring. Wooded dunes, hammocks, river bottoms, mesic woods, and ravine slopes; coastal plain; 0-120m; Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., La., Miss., N.C., S.C., Tex.

Magnolia grandiflora (a hexaploid) is highly variable, especially the leaves, which range from glabrous to densely red-brown felted on the abaxial surface. It is the only magnolia species in the flora with free stipules, and the inner spathaceous bract is unique among Magnolia taxa in the flora. Curled filiform trichomes occur on the abaxial leaf surface. In the wild, hybrids with M. virginiana (a diploid) have been reported but not confirmed by the present author. The compatibility of these taxa is well known from the Freeman hybrid, a highly sterile tetraploid growing at the U.S. National Arboretum in Washington, D.C. In crosses using the hexaploid M. grandiflora , this parent is dominant and nearly masks the other parent.

Magnolia grandiflora is an escape, and it naturalizes in the tidewater area of Virginia and locally elsewhere beyond its natural range in the southeastern United States. It ranks among the noblest of North American broadleaved trees and is cultivated widely in the United States and in many other countries. A large number of cultivars have been introduced to horticulture.

Southern magnolia ( Magnolia grandiflora ) is the state tree of both Louisiana and Mississippi.

The largest known tree of Magnolia grandiflora, 37.2m in height with a trunk diameter of 1.97m, is recorded from Smith County, Mississippi (American Forestry Association 1994).

The Choctaw and Koasati tribes used the bark of Magnolia grandiflora as dermatological and kidney aids (D.A. Moerman 1986).

Updated: 2024-06-16 12:56:03 gmt
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