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Populus trichocarpa . &. A. G. Torr, ray ex Hook.
WESTERN BALSAM-POPLAR
Populus balsamifera subsp trichocarpa (Torr & A Gray ex Hook) Brayshaw

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Salicaceae   Populus

Populus trichocarpa, whole tree or vine - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Populus trichocarpa, whole tree or vine - general

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Populus trichocarpa, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Populus trichocarpa, bark - of a large tree
Populus trichocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Populus trichocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig

Populus trichocarpa, leaf - whole upper surface
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Populus trichocarpa, leaf - whole upper surface
Populus trichocarpa, twig - orientation of petioles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Populus trichocarpa, twig - orientation of petioles

Populus trichocarpa, leaf - margin of upper + lower surface
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Populus trichocarpa, leaf - margin of upper + lower surface

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aphididae  Cavariella aegopodii @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Chaitophorus neglectus @ NCSU_ENT (2)

Chaitophorus populicola @ AMNH_PBI (75); CSUC_TCN (2); NCSU_ENT (4)

Chaitophorus populifolii @ AMNH_PBI (22); CSUC_TCN (2)

Chaitophorus stevensis @ AMNH_PBI (10); CSUC_TCN (1)

Chaitophorus @ AMNH_PBI (4)

Myzocallis @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Pachypappa pseudobyrsa @ NCSU (3)

Pemphigus bursarius @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Pemphigus populicaulis @ AMNH_PBI (56)

Pemphigus populitransversus @ AMNH_PBI (46)

Pemphigus @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Pterocomma populeum @ CSUC_TCN (2)

Pterocomma populifoliae @ AMNH_PBI (12)

Pterocomma pseudopopuleum @ AMNH_PBI (13)

Symydobius @ AMNH_PBI (4)
Auriculariaceae  Auricularia auricula @ BPI (1)
Bertiaceae  Bertia moriformis @ BPI (2)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Macrophoma tumefaciens @ 359847B (1); 359847A (1); BPI (5)

Phyllosticta alcides @ BPI (5)

Phyllosticta osteospora @ 353857A (1)

Phyllosticta populea @ BPI (2)
Braconidae  Adialytus salicaphis @ AMNH_PBI (4)
Capnodiaceae  Capnodium salicinum @ BPI (1)
Cicadellidae  Empoasca ( @ UCR_ENT (1)

Erythridula aspera @ III (1)
Clavariaceae  Clavaria stricta @ BPI (4)
Coniophoraceae  Coniophora byssoidea @ BPI (1)
Corticiaceae  Corticium effuscatum @ BPI (1)

Corticium ochraceofulvum @ BPI (1)

Corticium ochrofarctum @ BPI (2)

Corticium pezizoideum @ BPI (5)

Corticium polygonium @ BPI (8)

Corticium vellereum @ BPI (1)
Cortinariaceae  Crepidotus calolepis @ BPI (4)

Crepidotus mollis @ BPI (1)
Coryneliaceae  Caliciopsis calicioides @ BPI (2)
Dacrymycetaceae  Calocera cornea @ BPI (5)

Dacrymyces aurantia @ BPI (1)
Dermateaceae  Chlorosplenium aeruginosum @ BPI (1)

Chlorosplenium versiforme @ BPI (1)

Cylindrosporium oculatum @ BPI (1)

Marssonina castagnei @ BPI (3)

Marssonina populi-nigrae @ 404112B (1); 404112A (1); BPI (2)

Marssonina @ BPI (2)

Patinella @ BPI (1)
Diaspididae  Diaspidiotus aesculi @ CSCA_TCN (2)
Diatrypaceae  Diatrype bullata @ BPI (1)
Erysiphaceae  Uncinula salicis @ BPI (24)
Exidiaceae  Eichleriella spinulosa @ BPI (1)

Exidia glandulosa @ BPI (2)

Exidia @ BPI (1)
Fomitopsidaceae  Daedalea unicolor @ BPI (2)
Gnomoniaceae  Linospora osteospora @ 353857B (1)

Linospora populina @ BPI (1)
Gomphaceae  Clavariadelphus junceus @ BPI (1)
Helotiaceae  Cenangium populneum @ BPI (2)

Chlorociboria versiformis @ BPI (1)
Hericiaceae  Dentipellis fragilis @ BPI (1)

Hericium coralloides @ BPI (1)

Hericium ramosum @ BPI (3)
Hydnaceae  Hydnum amplissimum @ BPI (1)

Hydnum casearium @ BPI (1)

Hydnum fuscoatrum @ BPI (9)

Hydnum stenodon @ BPI (2)

Hydnum stipatum @ BPI (2)
Hymenochaetaceae  Hymenochaete tabacina @ BPI (1)

Polystictus pargamenus @ BPI (1)

Polystictus versicolor @ BPI (2)

Polystictus @ BPI (1)
Hyphodermataceae  Hyphoderma macedonicum @ BPI (1)
Lachnocladiaceae  Vararia pallescens @ BPI (1)
Lycoperdaceae  Lycoperdon pyriforme @ BPI (1)
Marasmiaceae  Marasmius @ BPI (1)
Melampsoraceae  Melampsora albertensis @ BPI (13)

Melampsora bigelowii @ BPI (1)

Melampsora medusae @ BPI (31)

Melampsora occidentalis @ 024621B (1); BPI (227); 024621A (1)

Melampsora populina @ BPI (2)

Melampsora tremulae @ BPI (2)

Melampsora @ BPI (1)
Meruliaceae  Merulius molluscus @ BPI (2)

Merulius tremellosus @ BPI (2)

Phlebia cinnabarina @ BPI (2)

Phlebia radiata @ BPI (2)
Miridae  Orthotylus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Pilophorus vicarius @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Morchellaceae  Costantinella micheneri @ BPI (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Mycosphaerella populi @ BPI (2)

Septoria musiva @ BPI (16)

Septoria populi @ BPI (6)

Septoria populicola @ BPI (7)
Nectriaceae  Nectria galligena @ BPI (1)
Nidulariaceae  Cyathus striatus @ BPI (2)
Patellariaceae  Patellaria atrata @ BPI (1)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora allescheri @ BPI (4)

Peniophora cinerea @ BPI (1)

Peniophora longispora @ BPI (1)

Peniophora martiana @ BPI (2)

Peniophora mutata @ BPI (1)

Peniophora pubera @ BPI (3)

Peniophora tomentella @ BPI (1)
Phanerochaetaceae  Phanerochaete sordida @ BPI (3)
Platygloeaceae  Helicogloea lagerheimii @ BPI (1)
Pleurotaceae  Pleurotus ostreatus @ BPI (9)

Pleurotus sapidus @ BPI (2)

Pleurotus serotinus @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Coriolopsis gallica @ BPI (1)

Fomes annosus @ BPI (1)

Fomes applanatus @ BPI (12)

Fomes conchatus @ BPI (1)

Fomes everhartii @ BPI (1)

Fomes fomentarius @ BPI (1)

Fomes igniarius @ BPI (5)

Fomes oroflavus @ BPI (1)

Fomes pinicola @ BPI (3)

Fomes roseus @ BPI (1)

Lenzites saepiaria @ BPI (1)

Panus rudis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus adustus @ BPI (11)

Polyporus albellus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus arcticus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus arcularius @ BPI (1)

Polyporus biformis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus cerifluus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus cinnabarinus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus dichrous @ BPI (3)

Polyporus dryophilus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus fragilis @ BPI (2)

Polyporus fragrans @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fumosus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus galactinus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus gilvus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus glomeratus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus hirsutus @ BPI (6)

Polyporus melanopus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus pargamenus @ BPI (6)

Polyporus picipes @ BPI (10)

Polyporus pubescens @ BPI (1)

Polyporus radiatus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus spumeus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus squamosus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus tulipiferus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (2)

Polyporus zonatus @ BPI (4)

Poria albolutescens @ BPI (1)

Poria aneirina @ BPI (5)

Poria cinerascens @ BPI (1)

Poria corticola @ BPI (8)

Poria decolorans @ BPI (1)

Poria eupora @ BPI (2)

Poria friesiana @ BPI (1)

Poria medulla-panis @ BPI (1)

Poria pulchella @ BPI (5)

Poria punctata @ BPI (1)

Poria similis @ BPI (6)

Poria subacida @ BPI (1)

Poria xantha @ BPI (1)

Poria @ BPI (2)

Trametes hispida @ BPI (7)

Trametes mollis @ BPI (1)

Trametes peckii @ BPI (22)

Trametes salicina @ BPI (1)

Trametes serialis @ BPI (1)

Trametes suaveolens @ BPI (3)

Trametes variiformis @ BPI (1)
Reticulariaceae  Lycogala epidendrum @ BPI (2)
Russulaceae  Lactarius helvus @ BPI (1)
Schizophyllaceae  Schizophyllum commune @ BPI (1)
Sclerotiniaceae  Ciboria @ BPI (1)

Encoelia fascicularis @ BPI (1)

Septotinia populiperda @ BPI (2)
Sebacinaceae  Sebacina adusta @ BPI (3)

Sebacina eyrei @ BPI (1)
Serpulidae  Serpula pinastri @ BPI (1)
Steccherinaceae  Irpex pachyodon @ BPI (1)

Odontia arguta @ BPI (2)

Odontia fimbriata @ BPI (3)

Odontia hydnoides @ BPI (2)

Odontia stenodon @ BPI (1)

Odontia sudans @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Stereum bicolor @ BPI (1)

Stereum purpureum @ BPI (6)

Stereum rufum @ BPI (5)

Stereum rugosiusculum @ BPI (1)
Strophariaceae  Galera @ BPI (1)

Pholiota destruens @ BPI (5)

Pholiota mutabilis @ BPI (1)

Pholiota @ BPI (1)
Taphrinaceae  Taphrina aurea @ BPI (9)

Taphrina populi-salicis @ BPI (56)

Taphrina populina @ BPI (1)

Taphrina @ BPI (1)
Trichiaceae  Hemitrichia clavata @ BPI (2)

Trichia contorta @ BPI (1)

Trichia scabra @ BPI (2)
Tricholomataceae  Collybia velutipes @ BPI (1)

Helotium citrinum @ BPI (8)
Valsaceae  Cytospora chrysosperma @ BPI (24)

Cytospora nivea @ BPI (1)

Cytospora populina @ BPI (2)

Cytospora pulcherrima @ BPI (1)

Cytospora verticillata @ BPI (1)

Radulum casearium @ BPI (2)

Radulum @ BPI (1)

Valsa nivea @ BPI (5)
Venturiaceae  Fusicladium radiosum @ BPI (1)

Pollaccia elegans @ BPI (1)

Venturia inopina @ BPI (4)
Xylariaceae  Daldinia concentrica @ BPI (5)

Hypoxylon serpens @ BPI (1)

Rosellinia rimincola @ BPI (2)

Xylaria cornu-damae @ BPI (1)
_  Caldesiella calcicola @ BPI (2)

Cytosporella macrocarpa @ BPI (1)

Grandinia raduloides @ BPI (1)

Grandinia @ BPI (1)

Hirneolina kmetii @ BPI (2)

Hypochnus isabellinus @ BPI (1)

Hypochnus spongiosus @ BPI (1)

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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 7 | Salicaceae | Populus

2. Populus trichocarpa Torrey & A. Gray, Icon. Pl. 9: plate 878. 1852.

Black cottonwood, baumier de l'ouest

Populus balsamifera Linnaeus subsp. trichocarpa (Torrey & A. Gray) Brayshaw; P. trichocarpa var. ingrata (Jepson) Parish

Plants to 75 m, 26 dm diam.; moderately heterophyllous. Bark grayish brown, deeply furrowed. Branchlets reddish brown, becoming gray by third year, round, 1.5-3(-7) mm diam., coarse, usually densely hairy. Winter buds red, sparsely hairy or glabrous, resinous (resin red, abundant, very fragrant); terminal buds 8-15(-20) mm; flowering buds clustered distally on branchlets, 18-20 mm. Leaves : petiole cylindrical or distally slightly flattened in plane of blade (often markedly swollen distally), 1-5(-9.5) cm, 1/2 blade length, (glabrous or sparsely pubescent); blade usually triangular-ovate or narrowly ovate to cordate, (3-) 5-9(-15) × (1-)2.5-6(-10) cm, w/l = 1/2-2/3, base rounded to cordate, basilaminar glands 0-2, round, margins not translucent, not ciliate, apex obtuse to acute, abaxial surface white to grayish white or greenish white with red resin stains, sparsely pubescent, adaxial dark green, glabrous; preformed blade margins very finely, evenly crenate-serrate throughout, teeth (20-)35-40 (-50) on each side, sinuses 0.1-0.4 mm deep; neoformed blade margins finely, evenly crenate-serrate throughout, teeth (25-)40-60 on each side, sinuses 0.2-0.6 mm deep. Catkins densely (10-)25-50(-90)-flowered, (4.5-) 7-10(-17 in fruit) cm; floral bract apex deeply cut, not ciliate. Pedicels 0.5-2.5(-3 in fruit) mm. Flowers: discs broadly cup-shaped, not obviously oblique, entire, 4-6 mm diam.; stamens 30-50(-60); anthers truncate; ovary 3- or 4-carpelled, spherical, (hairy); stigmas 2-4, platelike, expanded, spreading. Capsules spherical, (6-) 7-9 mm, densely hairy to glabrate, 3- or 4-valved. Seeds (6-)10-15(-19) per placenta. 2 n = 38.

Flowering early spring. Floodplains, lake margins, mesic areas, taluses and other slopes to subalpine tree line; 0-2600(-3000) m; Alta., B.C.; Alaska, Calif., Idaho, Mont., Nev., Oreg., Utah, Wash., Wyo.; Mexico (Baja California).

Populus trichocarpa has been mistakenly reported from North Dakota based on specimens of P . × jackii ( P. balsamifera × P. deltoides ). It hybridizes with P. balsamifera to form P. ×hastata Dode along the northern Rocky Mountain axis (Alaska, Alberta, British Columbia, and Idaho). Hybrids have capsules with 2-4 glabrous or sparsely hairy valves. The extent of hybridization has led to treatment of P. trichocarpa as a subspecies of P. balsamifera (T. C. Brayshaw 1965; L. A. Viereck and J. M. Foote 1970); these two balsam poplars are more closely related to Asian members of sect. Tacamahaca than they are to each other (J. E. Eckenwalder 1996). Mountain ranges of the Intermountain Region (California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Utah) have trees intermediate between P. trichocarpa and P. angustifolia . These hybrids have narrower leaves with shorter petioles and sparsely hairy capsules with 2-3 valves.

In addition to hybridizing with other North American species of sect. Tacamahaca, Populus trichocarpa also hybridizes with both native species of sect. Aigeiros. Populus × generosa A. Henry (synonym P. × interamericana van Broekhuizen), a hybrid between P. trichocarpa and P. deltoides , is rare in the far western area of the range for P. deltoides subsp. monilifera , where it overlaps with the more drought-tolerant inland P. trichocarpa (Idaho, Montana, Washington, and Wyoming) (J. E. Eckenwalder 1984). This hybrid has also been grown artificially, and such hybrids between coastal P. trichocarpa and P. deltoides subsp. deltoides are becoming increasingly important plantation trees in the Pacific Northwest from northern Oregon to British Columbia, as well as in Europe. They are perhaps the fastest growing of all poplars in volume, with the rapid height growth of P. trichocarpa added to the steady diameter growth of P. deltoides (R. F. Stettler et al. 1988).

Populus × parryi Sargent, a hybrid between P. trichocarpa and P. fremontii , is commonly found in a wide variety of mesic habitats throughout the region of sympatry between its parents in California and Nevada (and beyond the range of P. trichocarpa in Mohave County, Arizona; J. E. Eckenwalder 1992). It can be found particularly in canyons where its parents are elevationally separated but overlap as permanent streams spill out into lower elevations (Eckenwalder 1984, 1984b). A morphologically and ecologically distinctive race of P. trichocarpa in coastal southern California with heart-shaped leaves may have arisen through this kind of hybridization (Eckenwalder 1984c). This race includes the type of P. trichocarpa from Ventura County.

Populus maximowiczii A. Henry is an Asian balsam poplar that is sometimes cultivated as an ornamental, but usually as a plantation tree or parent of plantation hybrids. It is distinguished from P. trichocarpa and P. balsamifera by its elliptic leaves with rugose adaxial surfaces.

Updated: 2024-06-20 13:29:02 gmt
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