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Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf.
CREEPING PEAR
Opuntia compressa Salisb JFMacbr; Cactus humifusus Raf; Cactus opuntia L; Opuntia opuntia L JMCoult; Cactus compressus Salisb; Devils tongue; Devils-tongue; Devils-toungue; Low prickly pear; Prickly-pear

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Cactaceae   Opuntia

Opuntia humifusa
© Copyright Jeremy Anderson 2012 · 5
Opuntia humifusa

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Opuntia humifusa
© Copyright Jeremy Anderson 2012 · 5
Opuntia humifusa
Opuntia humifusa
© Copyright Jeremy Anderson 2012 · 5
Opuntia humifusa

Opuntia humifusa
© Copyright Jeremy Anderson 2012 · 5
Opuntia humifusa
Opuntia humifusa
© Copyright Jeremy Anderson 2012 · 5
Opuntia humifusa

Opuntia humifusa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Opuntia humifusa
Opuntia humifusa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Opuntia humifusa

Opuntia humifusa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Opuntia humifusa
Opuntia humifusa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Opuntia humifusa

Opuntia humifusa, whole plant - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Opuntia humifusa, whole plant - unspecified
Opuntia humifusa
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Opuntia humifusa

Opuntia humifusa, whole plant - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Opuntia humifusa, whole plant - unspecified
Opuntia humifusa
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Opuntia humifusa

Opuntia humifusa, whole plant - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Opuntia humifusa, whole plant - unspecified
Opuntia humifusa, whole plant - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Opuntia humifusa, whole plant - unspecified

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Coreidae  Chelinidea vittiger @ MEMU_ENT (35)
Halictidae  Agapostemon virescens @ AMNH_BEE (4); CUIC_ENT (1)

Lasioglossum leucocomum @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Lasioglossum pruinosum @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Lasioglossum semicaeruleum @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Lygaeidae  Myodocha serripes @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Megachilidae  Megachile addenda @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Megachile centuncularis @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Osmia texana @ AMNH_BEE (2)

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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 4 | Cactaceae | Opuntia

4. Opuntia humifusa (Rafinesque) Rafinesque, Med. Fl. 2: 247. 1830.

Eastern pricklypear

Cactus humifusus Rafinesque, Ann. Nat. 1: 15. 1820

Shrubs , forming clumps or often prostrate, usually only 1 or 2 stem segments tall, to 0.5 m (except in Florida where they may be erect and reach to 2+ m with short trunk), flattened to obovoid, sometimes from tuberlike rootstocks. Stem segments not disarticulating, dark or bright shiny green, wrinkling when stressed, circular to broadly oblong to obovate, 5-17.5 × 4-12 cm, fleshy, usually tuberculate, glabrous; areoles 4-6 per diagonal row across midstem segment, oval to circular, 2-4 mm diam., not raised, sometimes somewhat sunken; wool tan to brown. Spines often absent or 1-2(-3) per areole, spreading, whitish to brownish, terete, straight, and usually stout, 25-60 mm; occasionally also 1 deflexed spine present. Glochids in dense crescent of adaxial edge of areole and in dense tuft overtopping crescent in age, yellow to red-brown, to 4 mm. Flowers: inner tepals pale to bright yellow throughout, 20-30 mm diam.; filaments yellow to orange; anthers pale yellow to cream; style and stigma lobes white. Fruits greenish, tardily becoming apricot to brownish red, elongate, 30-50 × 12-20 mm, fleshy, tapering at base; pulp green and sour, becoming reddish and sweet under ideal conditions; areoles 10-18. Seeds tan, 3.5-4.5 mm diam., thickish; girdle protruding to 1 mm.

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora): United States.

Following served from University of South Florida
   
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Following modified from Flora of North America
   
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Link to Flora of North America home
 
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FNA Vol. 4 Page 131 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 4 | Cactaceae | Opuntia

4b. Opuntia humifusa (Rafinesque) Rafinesque var. ammophila (Small) L. D. Benson, Cact. Succ. J. (Los Angeles). 48: 39. 1976.

Opuntia ammophila Small, J. New York Bot. Gard. 20: 29, plate 224. 1919; O. compressa (Salisbury) J. F. Macbride var. ammophila (Small) L. D. Benson

Shrubs or small trees, erect, to 2 m, often with short trunk, usually oval in cross section. Stem segments firm.

Flowering spring-summer (Feb-Aug). Sand dunes, scrub woodland flats; 0-60 m; Fla.

Opuntia humifusa var. ammophila is poorly known and needs additional ecologic, taxonomic, and molecular study. The distribution given follows L. D. Benson (1982).

Following served from var. humifusa, Delaware Wildflowers
   
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Following modified from Flora of North America
   
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FNA Vol. 4 Page 122, 131 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 4 | Cactaceae | Opuntia

4a. Opuntia humifusa (Rafinesque) Rafinesque var. humifusa

O. austrina Small; O. calcicola Wherry; O. compressa var. austrina (Small) L. D. Benson; O . humifusa var. ammophila (Small) L. D. Benson; O. humifusa var. austrina (Small) Dress; O. impedata Small ex Britton & Rose; O. rafinesquei Engelmann

Shrubs forming clumps, often prostrate, usually only 1 or 2 stem segments tall, to 0.5 m. Stem segments fleshy, flabby, or firm, cross-wrinkled under stress. 2 n = 22, 44.

Flowering spring-summer (Feb-Aug). Sandy habitats, openings on dry, sometimes wooded hillsides; 0-1000 m; Ont.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Following modified from Delaware Wildflowers
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Delaware Wildflowers  •  Scientific names

Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. var. humifusa Eastern Prickly-pear Cactus
Cactaceae — Cactus family
Native
Opuntia humifusa var. humifusa
Cape Henlopen State Park
June 2001 Opuntia humifusa var. humifusa Opuntia humifusa var. humifusa Opuntia humifusa var. humifusa Opuntia humifusa var. humifusa
Cape Henlopen State Park
June 2013

More information on this plant, from other sources.


Copyright David G. Smith

Delaware Wildflowers main page

Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
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Opuntia humifusa Raf. - Prickly Pear

Opuntia humifusa plant

Family - Cactaceae

Stems - No info. yet.

Opuntia humifusa pad

Leaves - Reduced to small conic bracts or absent. Bracts typically one subtending each areole on new growth, glabrous. Spines typically one per areole plus many glochids.

Inflorescence - No info. yet.

Flowers - No info. yet.

Opuntia humifusa flower

Flowering - May - July.

Habitat - Glades, prairies, sand and gravel washes along streams, railroads.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Other info. - This cactus is common throughout central and southern Missouri. It is one of two species of cactus that grow wild in Missouri. O. macrorhiza Engelm. is similar but much less common in the state. It occurs only in the extreme southwestern corner of the state. These two species may not be distinct from one another but most botanists continue to separate them. The flower of O. macrorhiza looks like this:

Opuntia humifusa flower

Photographs taken at the Kansas City Zoo, 7-1-99, in Daytona Beach, FL., 7-3-02, and at the Holly Ridge Conservation Area, Stoddard County, MO., 6-14-03.


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Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=OPHU ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=OPHU
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=OPHU ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=OPHU
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=OPHU ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=OPHU
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf.
devil's-tongue

Image of Opuntia humifusa

General Information
Symbol: OPHU
Group: Dicot
Family: Cactaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Shrub
Native Status : CAN   N
L48   N
Data Source and Documentation
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Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Opuntia thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, DC, Washington, USDA ARS National Arboretum. June 13, 2002. Usage Requirements .

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, DC, Washington, USDA ARS National Arboretum. June 13, 2002. Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Usage Requirements .

©Thomas G. Barnes. Barnes, T.G., and S.W. Francis. 2004. Wildflowers and ferns of Kentucky . University Press of Kentucky. Usage Requirements .

©Ted Bodner. James H. Miller and Karl V. Miller. 2005. Forest plants of the southeast and their wildlife uses. University of Georgia Press., Athens. Provided by University of Georgia Press . Scanned by Forestry Images . Usage Requirements .

©Ted Bodner. James H. Miller and Karl V. Miller. 2005. Forest plants of the southeast and their wildlife uses. University of Georgia Press., Athens. Provided by University of Georgia Press . Scanned by Forestry Images . Usage Requirements .

Carole Ritchie. Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory . United States, MD, Plummer's Island. Usage Requirements .

©Gary A. Monroe. United States, NV, Washoe Co., garden. July 4, 2010. Usage Requirements .

©Gary A. Monroe. United States, NV, Washoe Co., garden. July 4, 2010. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 572. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Symbol Scientific Name
OPCA5 Opuntia calcicola Wherry
OPCO12 Opuntia compressa auct. non J.F. Macbr.
OPCOA3 Opuntia compressa J.F. Macbr. var. allairei (Griffiths) D. Weniger, nom. nud.
OPCOF Opuntia compressa J.F. Macbr. var. fuscoatra (Engelm.) D. Weniger, nom. nud.
OPCOM Opuntia compressa J.F. Macbr. var. microsperma (Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow) L.D. Benson
OPCU3 Opuntia cumulicola Small
OPHUH Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. var. humifusa
OPRA2 Opuntia rafinesquei Engelm.

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Caryophyllidae
Order Caryophyllales
Family Cactaceae – Cactus family
Genus Opuntia Mill. – pricklypear
Species Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. – devil's-tongue

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
Connecticut eastern prickly pear Special Concern
Massachusetts prickly pear Endangered
New York eastern prickly pear Exploitably Vulnerable
Pennsylvania prickly-pear cactus Rare

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (OPHU)
CalPhotos (OPHU)
Flora of North America (OPHU)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (OPCA5)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (OPCOA3)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (OPCOF)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (OPCOM)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (OPCU3)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (OPHU)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (OPHUH)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (OPRA2)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (OPHU)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (OPHU)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (OPHU)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (OPHU)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (OPHU)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (OPHU)
Related Websites
FL-South American Cactus Moth (UofFL) (OPHU)
Global Invasive Species Database (OPHU)
Jamaica-Introduction to the Cactus Moth (OPHU)
MS-Early Detection and Reporting of Cactus Moth (OPHU)
TX-Tracking the Cactus Moth (OPHU)
USDA ARS-South American Cactus Moth Control (OPHU)
www.pestalert.org (OPHU)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Miller Minor Minor

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Miller

Sources

Miller, J.H., and K.V. Miller. 1999. Forest plants of the southeast and their wildlife uses . Southern Weed Science Society.

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover
High Average 25-50% of diet Regular source of cover
Low 5-10% of diet Infrequently used as cover
Minor 2-5% of diet Sparsely used as cover
Moderate Average 10-25% of diet Occasional source of cover


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Following modified from CalPhotos
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CalPhotos     Photo Database

 

Number of matches : 8
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Opuntia humifusa%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Opuntia humifusa
Opuntia humifusa
Prickly Pear Cactus
ID: 0000 0000 1102 0235 [detail]
© 2002 John White

Opuntia humifusa
Opuntia humifusa
Devil's Tongue
ID: 0000 0000 0707 0527 [detail]
© 2007 Jerry Murray

Opuntia humifusa
Opuntia humifusa
Devil's Tongue
ID: 0000 0000 0707 0528 [detail]
© 2007 Jerry Murray

Opuntia humifusa
Opuntia humifusa
Devil's Tongue
ID: 0000 0000 0707 0529 [detail]
© 2007 Jerry Murray

Opuntia humifusa
Opuntia humifusa
Devil's Tongue
ID: 0000 0000 0707 0530 [detail]
© 2007 Jerry Murray

Opuntia humifusa
Opuntia humifusa
Devil's Tongue
ID: 0000 0000 0707 0531 [detail]
© 2007 Jerry Murray

Opuntia humifusa
Opuntia humifusa
Devil's-tongue
ID: 0000 0000 0412 2695 [detail]
© 2012 Gary A. Monroe

Opuntia humifusa
Opuntia humifusa
Devil's-tongue
ID: 0000 0000 0412 2696 [detail]
© 2012 Gary A. Monroe

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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