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Ulmus americana L.
AMERICAN ELM
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Ulmaceae   Ulmus

Ulmus americana, American Elm
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Ulmus americana, American Elm

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Ulmus americana, American Elm
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 7
Ulmus americana, American Elm
Ulmus americana, American Elm
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 5
Ulmus americana, American Elm

Ulmus americana, American Elm
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 5
Ulmus americana, American Elm
Ulmus americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ulmus americana

Ulmus americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ulmus americana
Ulmus americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ulmus americana

Ulmus americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ulmus americana
Ulmus americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ulmus americana

Ulmus americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ulmus americana
Ulmus americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ulmus americana

Ulmus americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ulmus americana
Ulmus americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ulmus americana

Ulmus americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ulmus americana
Ulmus americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ulmus americana

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Agaricaceae  Coprinus micaceus @ BPI (1)

Phoma cincta @ BPI (1)
Alcyoniidae  Rhytisma ulmi @ BPI (1)
Amphisphaeriaceae  Pestalotia insidens @ 406157B (1); BPI (6); 406157A (1)
Annulatascaceae  Ceratostomella ulmi @ BPI (9)
Aphelinidae  Coccophagus @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Encarsia @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Marietta mexicana @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Marietta pulchella @ UCRC_ENT (4)
Aphididae  Eriosoma americanum @ AMNH_PBI (2); NCSU_ENT (113)

Eriosoma herioti @ AMNH_PBI (9)

Eriosoma lanigerum @ NCSU_ENT (73)

Kaltenbachiella ulmifusa @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Macrosiphum ( @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Myzocallis ( @ CSUC_TCN (3)

Nearctaphis crataegifoliae @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Prociphilus ( @ NCSU (2); CSCA_TCN (1)

Tinocallis platani @ NCSU (1)

Tinocallis ulmifolii @ CSUC_TCN (4); NCSU (16); CSCA_TCN (4)
Aporpiaceae  Aporpium caryae @ BPI (1)
Auriculariaceae  Auricularia auricula @ BPI (1)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Diplodia clavispora @ BPI (1)

Diplodia melaena @ BPI (4)

Dothiorella ulmi @ 363242B (1); BPI (1); 363242A (1)

Macrophoma @ 364418B (1)

Phyllosticta confertissima @ BPI (12)

Phyllosticta erratica @ BPI (1)

Phyllosticta maculiformis @ BPI (1)

Phyllosticta melaleuca @ BPI (4)

Phyllosticta ulmicola @ BPI (1)

Sphaeropsis malorum @ BPI (2)

Sphaeropsis ulmea @ BPI (6)

Sphaeropsis ulmicola @ BPI (2)

Sphaeropsis @ BPI (1)
Capnodiaceae  Scorias spongiosa @ BPI (1)
Ceratocystidaceae  Ceratocystis ulmi @ BPI (1)
Cicadellidae  Agallia @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Empoasca erigeron @ III (3)

Empoasca fabae @ III (3)

Empoasca recurvata @ III (1)

Erasmoneura vulnerata @ III (3)

Eratoneura affinis @ III (22)

Eratoneura ardens @ III (12)

Eratoneura arta @ III (1)

Eratoneura basilaris @ III (13)

Eratoneura bigemina @ III (31); AMNH_IZC (1)

Eratoneura bispinosa @ III (14)

Eratoneura campora @ III (29)

Eratoneura carmini @ III (1)

Eratoneura clavipes @ III (2)

Eratoneura comoides @ III (1)

Eratoneura contracta @ III (14)

Eratoneura delongi @ III (5)

Eratoneura firma @ III (1)

Eratoneura gemina @ III (1); AMNH_IZC (1)

Eratoneura gemoides @ III (2)

Eratoneura haysensis @ III (1)

Eratoneura knullae @ III (3)

Eratoneura lawsoni @ III (2)

Eratoneura maga @ III (1)

Eratoneura minor @ III (1)

Eratoneura misera @ III (1)

Eratoneura patris @ III (1)

Eratoneura prolixa @ III (1)

Eratoneura restricta @ III (1)

Eratoneura richardsi @ III (2)

Eratoneura rotunda @ III (1)

Eratoneura stephensoni @ III (1)

Eratoneura stoveri @ III (2)

Eratoneura torella @ III (2)

Eratoneura triangulata @ III (1)

Eratoneura unca @ III (4)

Erythridula aenea @ III (2)

Erythridula atrimucronata @ III (1)

Erythridula bicornis @ III (1)

Erythridula brundusa @ III (2)

Erythridula clavata @ III (2)

Erythridula cruciformis @ III (1)

Erythridula diffisa @ III (3)

Erythridula fulvocephala @ III (7)

Erythridula hamata @ III (2)

Erythridula harpax @ III (1)

Erythridula kanza @ III (10)

Erythridula lawsoniana @ III (1)

Erythridula lyratae @ III (1)

Erythridula magnacalx @ III (1)

Erythridula modica @ III (1)

Erythridula noeva @ III (2)

Erythridula obliqua @ III (14)

Erythridula obvia @ III (1)

Erythridula rubens @ III (1)

Erythridula rubrataeniensis @ III (1)

Erythridula scissa @ III (1)

Erythridula stolata @ III (1)

Erythridula tenuispica @ III (1)

Erythridula ulmosa @ III (27)

Erythridula unicuspidis @ III (3)

Erythridula volucris @ III (1)

Erythroneura beameri @ III (1)

Erythroneura omaska @ III (1)

Graphocephala coccinea @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Clypeosphaeriaceae  Clypeosphaeria ulmicola @ BPI (1)
Coccidae  Parthenolecanium corni @ CSCA_TCN (1)
Coniophoraceae  Coniophora cerebella @ BPI (1)

Coniophora vaga @ BPI (1)
Corticiaceae  Corticium contiguum @ BPI (1)

Corticium cremoricolor @ BPI (2)

Corticium hydnans @ BPI (1)

Corticium lactescens @ BPI (2)

Corticium lacteum @ BPI (1)

Corticium laeve @ BPI (1)

Corticium scutellare @ BPI (1)

Corticium vellereum @ BPI (4)

Dendrothele acerina @ BPI (1)

Dendrothele griseocana @ BPI (2)

Dendrothele microspora @ BPI (6)
Corynidae  Coryne sarcoides @ BPI (1)
Derbidae  Anotia @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Otiocerus kirbyii @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Dermateaceae  Cylindrosporium ulmicola @ BPI (2)

Gloeosporium inconspicuum @ BPI (6)

Gloeosporium ulmeum @ BPI (6)

Gloeosporium ulmicolum @ BPI (3)

Phlyctema phomatella @ BPI (1)
Diaporthaceae  Diaporthe woolworthii @ BPI (2)
Diaspididae  Chionaspis americana @ UCR_ENT (4); MEMU_ENT (3); CSCA_TCN (7)

Clavaspis ulmi @ CSCA_TCN (1)

Fissuraspis ulmi @ AMNH_PBI (1); MEMU_ENT (1)
Diatrypaceae  Anthostoma gastrinum @ BPI (1)

Diatrype stigma @ BPI (1)

Diatrype tumida @ BPI (2)

Diatrypella @ BPI (1)

Eutypa acharii @ BPI (1)

Eutypa lata @ BPI (6)

Eutypa ludibunda @ BPI (3)

Eutypella cerviculata @ BPI (1)

Eutypella heterocantha @ BPI (3)

Eutypella ludibunda @ BPI (2)

Eutypella scoparia @ BPI (15)

Eutypella stellulata @ BPI (4)

Libertella ulmicola @ BPI (1)
Dothideaceae  Dothidea ulmea @ BPI (5)
Echinosteliaceae  Echinostelium elachiston @ BPI (2)

Echinostelium minutum @ BPI (1)
Erysiphaceae  Microsphaera alni @ BPI (1)

Microsphaera neglecta @ BPI (1)

Oidium obductum @ BPI (1)

Phyllactinia corylea @ BPI (2)

Phyllactinia guttata @ BPI (1)

Uncinula flexuosa @ BPI (1)

Uncinula macrocarpa @ BPI (1)

Uncinula macrosperma @ BPI (7)

Uncinula macrospora @ 554030A (1); 554030B (1); BPI (75)
Excipulaceae  Dinemasporium decipiens @ BPI (2)
Fomitopsidaceae  Daedalea ambigua @ BPI (1)

Daedalea confragosa @ BPI (3)

Daedalea unicolor @ BPI (10)
Ganodermataceae  Ganoderma applanatum @ BPI (2)

Ganoderma lucidum @ BPI (7)

Ganoderma sessile @ BPI (2)

Ganoderma @ BPI (1)
Gnomoniaceae  Cryptosporella hypodermia @ BPI (1)

Gnomonia ulmea @ BPI (134)

Lambro ulmea @ BPI (3)

Stegophora ulmea @ BPI (2)
Hapalopilaceae  Ceriporia purpurea @ BPI (1)
Hericiaceae  Mucronella ulmi @ BPI (2)
Hydnaceae  Hydnum chrysocomum @ 876126B (1)

Hydnum combinans @ BPI (1)

Hydnum fragilissimum @ BPI (1)

Hydnum himantia @ BPI (1)

Hydnum pulcherrimum @ BPI (1)

Hydnum stenodon @ BPI (1)

Hydnum strigosum @ BPI (1)
Hymenochaetaceae  Hymenochaete rubiginosa @ BPI (2)

Hymenochaete tabacina @ BPI (3)

Polystictus conchifer @ BPI (1)
Hypocreaceae  Hypocrea contorta @ BPI (1)

Hypocrea schweinitzii @ BPI (1)
Hysteriaceae  Gloniopsis gerardiana @ BPI (1)

Glonium stellatum @ BPI (2)

Hysterium prostii @ BPI (1)

Hysterographium mori @ BPI (1)

Hysteropatella elliptica @ BPI (1)

Hysteropatella prostii @ BPI (4)
Lachnocladiaceae  Vararia effuscata @ BPI (1)

Vararia pallescens @ BPI (1)
Leptosphaeriaceae  Coniothyrium fuckelii @ BPI (3)

Coniothyrium wisconsinense @ BPI (1)
Liceaceae  Licea inconspicua @ BPI (1)
Lophiostomataceae  Lophiosphaera querceti @ BPI (1)
Marasmiaceae  Armillaria mellea @ BPI (1)

Marasmius @ BPI (1)
Massariaceae  Massaria ulmi @ BPI (1)
Melanommataceae  Aposphaeria fibricola @ BPI (1)
Meruliaceae  Merulius tremellosus @ BPI (1)

Merulius ulmi @ BPI (1)

Phlebia radiata @ BPI (2)

Phlebia strigosozonata @ BPI (3)
Miridae  Blepharidopterus diaphanus @ AMNH_PBI (8)

Blepharidopterus provancheri @ AMNH_PBI (5)

Ceratocapsus blatchleyi @ AMNH_PBI (24)

Ceratocapsus modestus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Ceratocapsus pumilus @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Deraeocoris nebulosus @ AMNH_PBI (2); MEMU_ENT (4)

Diphleps unica @ NCSU (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp1 sp_005 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp11 sp_001 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp12 sp_002 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Gn_orthotylinigp34 sp_001 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Hyaliodes vitripennis @ MEMU_ENT (20)

Lopidea media @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Lopidea salicis @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Neolygus invitus @ NCSU_ENT (5)

Orthotylus flavosparsus @ AMNH_PBI (4)

Orthotylus viridinervis @ AMNH_PBI (8); AMNH_IZC (9)

Paraproba capitata @ AMNH_PBI (6)

Reuteria irrorata @ AMNH_PBI (1); NCSU_ENT (3)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Mycosphaerella ulmi @ BPI (3)

Phloeospora ulmi @ BPI (15)
Nectriaceae  Fusarium @ BPI (1)

Nectria canadensis @ BPI (1)

Nectria cinnabarina @ BPI (11)

Nectria coryli @ BPI (1)

Nectria episphaeria @ BPI (1)

Nectria galligena @ BPI (1)

Nectria sanguinea @ BPI (1)

Tubercularia nigricans @ BPI (1)

Tubercularia vulgaris @ BPI (1)
Nidulariaceae  Crucibulum laeve @ BPI (1)

Cyathus striatus @ BPI (1)
Orbiliaceae  Orbilia piloboloides @ BPI (6)

Orbilia xanthostigma @ BPI (1)
Papilionidae  Graphium ulmi @ BPI (18)
Patellariaceae  Lecanidion atratum @ BPI (3)

Patellaria atrata @ BPI (4)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora affinis @ BPI (1)

Peniophora albula @ BPI (2)

Peniophora allescheri @ BPI (1)

Peniophora cinerea @ BPI (3)

Peniophora cinerescens @ BPI (1)

Peniophora flavidoalba @ BPI (1)

Peniophora heterocystidia @ BPI (2)

Peniophora nivea @ BPI (1)

Peniophora polonensis @ BPI (1)

Peniophora praeterita @ BPI (1)

Peniophora sambuci @ BPI (1)
Phanerochaetaceae  Lopharia cinerascens @ BPI (2)
Phleogenaceae  Phleogena faginea @ BPI (1)
Phyllachoraceae  Phyllachora ulmi @ BPI (5)
Phymatidae  Macrocephalus costariquensis @ AMNH_PBI (7)

Macrocephalus dorannae @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Macrocephalus notatus @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Physaraceae  Protophysarum phloiogenum @ BPI (1)
Plectosphaerellaceae  Verticillium albo-atrum @ BPI (1)

Verticillium lateritium @ BPI (1)

Verticillium @ BPI (5)
Pleosporaceae  Pyrenophora zabriskieana @ BPI (2)
Pleurotaceae  Pleurotus ostreatus @ BPI (2)

Pleurotus sapidus @ BPI (2)

Pleurotus serotinus @ BPI (2)

Pleurotus ulmarius @ BPI (10)
Pluteaceae  Volvaria bombycina @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Fomes applanatus @ BPI (8)

Fomes conchatus @ BPI (1)

Fomes connatus @ BPI (5)

Fomes fomentarius @ BPI (2)

Fomes fraxineus @ BPI (5)

Fomes igniarius @ BPI (20)

Fomes inflexibilis @ BPI (1)

Fomes marmoratus @ BPI (2)

Fomes nigricans @ BPI (1)

Lentinus lecomtei @ BPI (1)

Lenzites betulina @ BPI (13)

Lenzites trabea @ BPI (1)

Panus rudis @ BPI (2)

Polyporus adustus @ BPI (9)

Polyporus biennis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus biformis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus brumalis @ BPI (7)

Polyporus caesius @ BPI (5)

Polyporus cinnabarinus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus conchifer @ BPI (76)

Polyporus dichrous @ BPI (4)

Polyporus fragrans @ BPI (1)

Polyporus frondosus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fumosus @ BPI (23)

Polyporus galactinus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus giganteus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus gilvus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus hirsutus @ BPI (8)

Polyporus holmiensis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus lacteus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus pargamenus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus pubescens @ BPI (3)

Polyporus resinosus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus rigidus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus semipileatus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus spumeus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus squamosus @ BPI (30)

Polyporus sulphureus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus tephroleucus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus tulipiferus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus varius @ BPI (1)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (5)

Poria ambigua @ BPI (1)

Poria spissa @ BPI (5)

Poria tenerrima @ BPI (1)

Poria tenuis @ BPI (1)

Poria undata @ BPI (1)

Poria versipora @ BPI (1)

Poria viticola @ BPI (1)

Poria @ BPI (1)

Trametes hispida @ BPI (2)

Trametes sepium @ BPI (1)

Trametes versicolor @ BPI (1)
Polystomellaceae  Dothidella ulmea @ BPI (5)

Dothidella ulmi @ BPI (27)
Psathyrellaceae  Ozonium auricomum @ BPI (1)

Ozonium omnivorum @ BPI (1)
Psyllidae  Psylla alni @ CSCA_TCN (7)

Psylla carpinicola @ UDCC_TCN (1)
Reduviidae  Rasahus @ AMNH_PBI (10)
Reticulariaceae  Lycogala flavofuscum @ BPI (1)

Lycogala @ BPI (1)
Sarcosomataceae  Conoplea sphaerica @ BPI (1)
Schizophyllaceae  Schizophyllum commune @ BPI (4)
Sclerotiniaceae  Botrytis cinerea @ BPI (1)

Botrytis cinereoglauca @ BPI (1)
Septobasidiaceae  Septobasidium curtisii @ BPI (1)

Septobasidium pseudopedicellatum @ BPI (2)
Steccherinaceae  Irpex farinaceus @ BPI (3)

Irpex lacteus @ BPI (1)

Junghuhnia nitida @ BPI (2)

Odontia fimbriata @ BPI (2)

Steccherinum ochraceum @ BPI (1)

Steccherinum septentrionale @ BPI (6)
Stereaceae  Aleurodiscus oakesii @ BPI (1)

Stereum albobadium @ BPI (1)

Stereum bicolor @ BPI (1)

Stereum cinerascens @ BPI (10)

Stereum complicatum @ BPI (1)

Stereum fasciatum @ BPI (4)

Stereum fuscum @ BPI (1)

Stereum gausapatum @ BPI (1)

Stereum murrayi @ BPI (1)

Stereum ostrea @ BPI (1)

Stereum purpureum @ BPI (7)

Stereum versiforme @ BPI (1)
Stictidaceae  Schizoxylon compositum @ BPI (1)

Schizoxylon microsporum @ BPI (2)
Taphrinaceae  Taphrina selmi @ BPI (1)

Taphrina ulmi @ BPI (11)
Teichosporaceae  Teichospora helenae @ BPI (4)
Tingidae  Corythucha ulmi @ UDCC_TCN (4); NCSU (23)
Trichiaceae  Hemitrichia karstenii @ BPI (1)
Tricholomataceae  Collybia velutipes @ BPI (6)
Turritellidae  Vermicularia @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora ambiens @ BPI (2)

Cytospora carbonacea @ BPI (1)

Cytospora carphosperma @ BPI (2)

Cytospora @ BPI (5); 364418A (1)

Valsa ambiens @ BPI (15)

Valsa scoparia @ BPI (2)
Venturiaceae  Piggotia astroidea @ BPI (2)
Xylariaceae  Daldinia concentrica @ BPI (3)

Hypoxylon caries @ BPI (4)

Hypoxylon crocopeplum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon glomeratum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon investiens @ BPI (2)

Hypoxylon rubiginosum @ BPI (4)

Hypoxylon sclerophaeum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon serpens @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon tinctor @ BPI (1)

Nummularia repanda @ BPI (3)

Rosellinia melaleuca @ BPI (1)

Xylaria cubensis @ BPI (1)

Xylaria polymorpha @ BPI (4)
_  Aplosporella ulmea @ BPI (1)

Botryodiplodia ulmicola @ 370890A (1); 370890B (1)

Cephalosporium @ BPI (4)

Ceratophorum ulmicola @ BPI (6)

Coniothecium crustaceum @ BPI (1)

Creonectria purpurea @ BPI (6)

Cytosporella ulmi @ BPI (1)

Cytosporina ludibunda @ 388200A (1); 388200B (1)

Cytosporina stellulata @ BPI (1)

Fumago vagans @ BPI (1)

Grandinia brinkmannii @ BPI (3)

Grandinia burtii @ BPI (1)

Grandinia farinacea @ BPI (1)

Grandinia granulosa @ BPI (2)

Habrostictis rubra @ BPI (1)

Hyaloceras insidens @ BPI (1)

Karschia lignyota @ BPI (1)

Monochaetia insidens @ BPI (1)

Myxosporella ulmicola @ 396687A (1); 396687B (1)

Myxosporium @ BPI (1)

Phlyctaena ulmi @ BPI (1)

Pyropolyporus conchatus @ BPI (1)

Septogloeum profusum @ BPI (7)

Septogloeum ulmeum @ BPI (2)

Septogloeum ulmi @ BPI (2)

Thyronectria chrysogramma @ BPI (2)

Trichothecium roseum @ BPI (2)

Ustulina vulgaris @ BPI (8)

Valsaria exasperans @ BPI (1)

unknown unknown @ AMNH_PBI (5)

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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Ulmaceae | Ulmus

1. Ulmus americana Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 226. 1753.

American elm, orme d'Amérique

Ulmus americana var. aspera Chapman; U . americana var. floridana (Chapman) Little; U . floridana Chapman

Trees , 21-35 m; crowns spreading, commonly vase-shaped. Bark light brown to gray, deeply fissured or split into plates. Wood soft. Branches pendulous, old-growth branches smooth, not winged; twigs brown, pubescent to glabrous. Buds brown, apex acute, glabrous; scales reddish brown, pubescent. Leaves: petiole ca. 5 mm, glabrous to pubescent. Leaf blade oval to oblong-obovate, 7-14 × 3-7 cm, base oblique, margins doubly serrate, apex acute to acuminate; surfaces abaxially glabrous to slightly pubescent, tufts in axils of veins, adaxially glabrous to scabrous. Inflorescences fascicles, less than 2.5 cm, flowers and fruits drooping on elongate pedicels; pedicel 1-2 cm. Flowers: calyx shallowly lobed, slightly asymmetric, lobes 7-9, margins ciliate; stamens 7-9; anthers red; stigmas white-ciliate, deeply divided. Samaras yellow-cream when mature, sometimes tinged with reddish purple (s range of species), ovate, ca. 1 cm, narrowly winged, margins ciliate, cilia yellow to white, to 1 mm. Seeds thickened, not inflated. 2 n = 56.

Flowering winter-early spring. Alluvial woods, swamp forests, deciduous woodlands, fencerows, pastures, old fields, waste areas; planted as street trees; 0-1400 m; Man., N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.

Ulmus americana is reported as widely escaped in Idaho, which is not part of the natural range of this taxon. It is occasionally cultivated outside its native distribution, and it has escaped sporadically from cultivation. It is also reported as naturalized in Arizona, but I have seen no specimens.

Ulmus americana is the state tree for Massachusetts and for North Dakota.

The American elm is susceptible to numerous diseases, including Dutch elm disease. Ulmus americana has been a street and shade tree of choice because of its fast growth and pleasant shape and size. The species still exists in substantial numbers both as shade trees and in nature.

Numerous infraspecific taxa have been recognized in Ulmus americana (A. J. Rehder 1949; P. S. Green 1964).

Native American tribes frequently used parts of Ulmus americana for a variety of medicinal purposes, including treatment of coughs and colds, sore eyes, dysentary, diarrhea, broken bones, gonorrhea, and pulmonary hemorrhage, as a gynecological aid, as a bath for appendicitis, and as a wash for gunwounds (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Updated: 2024-05-30 04:42:53 gmt
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